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Job Stress-related In Chefs Profession Assignment Sample

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Job Stress-related In Chefs Profession Assignment Sample


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A chef is a trained cook who plans and prepares food using various cooking techniques. They are culinary experts who are also experienced in developing new recipes and organised staff. According to Ariza-Montes et el. (2018), in certain situations in the luxurious hospitality industry, occupational stress is experienced by chefs. This topic has been further discussed while understanding the reasons behind it. The relevance of the case has been further discussed in the chapter.

1.2 Research Background

As per the view of Cui et el. (2021), occupational stress has adversely affected the overall performance of chefs within the luxury hospitality industry. The hospitality industry is the fastest growing industry globally compared to the other sector. Occupational stress among chefs, one of the leading human resources of the industry, can make the performance worse and dissatisfy the customers, and lower service quality. Moreover, it may damage individual development, affect social life, and harm physical health. Research has been done on occupational stress faced by the chefs in the luxurious hotel industry. While analysing the topic, it has been revealed that physical violence and abuse are the main reason for stress. They faced the crowd and a noisy environment, which affected their physical and psychological conditions by the luxurious industry’s work pressure. The chefs need to follow strict norms of hospitality, and the senior chefs show aggression in their creative work, which became one of the reasons for creating pressure within junior chefs. In order to reduce stress levels, the industry must increase employees that relieve work pressure. Hospitality Industry faced challenges due to occupational stress that decreased 65% of the applicant per role compared to last year. The hospitality sector struggled to find new talented employees, and they faced an issue in reappointing new employees and reskilling their workforce. Three thousand five hundred fifty-five jobs were listed in the hospitality sector in 2020, where 1068 jobs were filled. Only 30% of the overall job roles for the chef are served in the UK. In this pandemic situation of COVID-19, it has been seen that employees are getting low levels of job security in many of the hotels in the UK, so they are choosing other industries.

According to Nair et el. (2021), occupational stress may adversely decrease their confidence level. It has been suggested that the UK hotels must recruit 11,000 chefs by 2022. The number of chefs shortage in many hotels in the UK is an issue, leading to the increasing rate of chef turnover. Fewer chefs students stay in UK hotels, and few senior chefs work in the sector. The aggressive behavior, changing nature, and the pressurised environment leave the chefs’ profession. At the same time, it has been seen that on service of food, one-third of people believed that progress is slow in hospitality sectors which brings risk in career life. The hospitality sector provides less salary with a high workload pressure, and stress at the workplace results from leaving these hospitality sectors. As per Leung et el. (2022), the hospitality Industry must adopt strategies in recruiting process to attract employees to mitigate issues of job burn-out while fulfilling the requirements of work-life balance.

1.4 Research aim

The research aims to understand why there is increasing job stress among chefs in the luxury hospitality industry. Chefs are under the most tension due to the apparent speed and precision to complete their tasks, which may further impact their overall work-life balance. Therefore, the study also aims to comprehend how the hospitality industry may provide a secure environment to the chefs while focusing on their mental health requirements and creating a healthy work-life balance.

1.5 Research objectives

It is essential to create a list of research objectives to evaluate the research process and the topic, which is further.

  • To understand the reason behind extreme job stress among chefs in the luxury hospitality industry
  • To comprehend the strategies implementing which the stress level can be managed among the chefs
  • To find out the challenges a chef has to face while dealing with day-to-day activities and fulfilling customer’s demands
  • To exhibit the impact of extreme stress levels among chefs of luxury hotels in maintaining the work-life balance and managing performance requirements

1.6. Research questions

  1. What is the reason behind extreme job stress among chefs in the luxury hospitality industry?
  2. Which strategies can be implemented to reduce stress levels among chefs and improve the brand reputation of the hospitality sector?
  3. What challenges do chefs deal with day-to-day activities in fulfilling customer demands?
  4. How does the stress level impact their work-life balance and overall performance in the hospitality sector?

 1.7. Research Rationale

According to Razzak et el. ( 2021), the hospitality Industry has faced significant issues, including high demands and leaving workers and supply chain problems that may reduce economic development. Many Hospitals sectors after the Corona restriction face problems in finding the chefs and staff for their hotels. Hospitality Industry faces issues with hiring and retaining staff that can affect their business in low productivity. Many hospitality sectors hire workers from outside the UK to fill the employee gaps, which help to run the business. In a busy and noisy environment, it is difficult for the chefs to maintain the new techniques to present food to the public that dissatisfied the customers compared to other hospitality sectors. The stress of competition may hamper the work performance of the Chefs and lower service quality. As per the view of Kotera et al. (2021),  in a post-pandemic situation, it is challenging for the hospitality industry employee to come in contact socially, which affects many luxurious hotels lowers their economic productivity as these luxury hotels require many employees numbered to operate. Still, many chefs are changing their industrial sectors due to stressful environments. According to Giousmpasoglou et al. (2022), it is essential to provide good service and time to the guest that demands a higher rate of staff maintenance. Job demands and resources are evidence of occupational stress in the hospitality industry. Job resources that include a physical, social, and organisational side to achieve the business goal result in work pressure and load to chefs in many hospitality sectors. Job demand and job resources may result in job role conflict. As per Cerasa et al. (2020), the  Chefs in the hospitality industry are responsible for managing people, planning menus and budgets, and fulfilling business goals. The pressure of many duties may affect work performance and occur job conflicts that may result in emotional exhaustion. The work environment in the hospitality industry has poor time management, including a lack of control in the work schedule and no time for breaks to finish the tasks. As per Peters et el. (2019), low status and low-skilled jobs in the hospitality industry may affect the dissatisfaction among the employee, which became one of the critical factors for stress development. The employee chooses to other organisations due to their physical and mental exhaustion in the hospitality sector

1.7. Significance of the research

Hospitality Industry is the dynamic and third largest sector of employment in the UK. The working environment in this industry is stressful due to high job demands and job resources that result in many people are choosing other sectors. According to Lippert et el.(2021), any new workers demand a better work-life balance that reduces stress in the hospitality sector. Stress in hospitality may cause a mental and physical state of a person. The industry needs to needs on the pressures of the work. It reduces the workload for business growth. From the post on social media, including Instagram and Facebook, the feedback about the service quality in hospitality creates pressures in the workplace. The industry should recognise the employee’s stress and reduce it by providing mental health training, offering skill training, and promoting better work-life balance. As per Owusu and Nkyi (2021) view, the industry helps the employee in every possible way and satisfies them by giving rewards and bonuses for their excellent work. If the industry wants the people to stay, they need changes in the management process and maintain an effective schedule for work. As per  Machado et el. (2021), the sector must recognise and encourage the chefs’ creative work to focus on staff flexibility.

1.8 Summary

Chapter 1 provides a brief description on the topic of “ Occupational stress in Chef’s profession in the luxury hospitality industry”. While getting into the research, a brief introduction has been given along with the research background. In this background, it has been discussed that many chefs leave their job due to stressful working environments that lower the industry’s productivity. Moreover, in chapter 1, the aims and objectives of a research question have been framed. The research rationale has discussed different issues faced by the industry due to the shortage of chefs. The significance of the research has shown some strategies to reduce the work pressure.

Chapter 2. Literature review

2.1 Introduction

The primary topic of this research paper is job stress in the hospitality industry. People need to know some basic information about job-related stress. It is a working environment-related mental and physical problem. Employees face these types of issues in their working place. Therefore, it is a prevalent and harmful mental, emotional and physical response that people face in their workplace. It affects the health of the employees and also on the work. But, always stress is not a bad thing also. It is a kind of challenge as well. It also helps people to learn something new boost themselves for work. But, the negative stress and the impact are prevalent factors nowadays. The harmful types of job stress can also destroy people’s work lives and careers. So that, people should be cautious about this matter. Due to this job stress, sometimes people face physical illness, such as headaches, sleep destruction, short temper, under or overeating, anxiety, and mild chronic disease. Sometimes, accidents also occur due to job stress (AISSA and SASSI, 2019). As well as if a person is working in somewhere they have to face these types of situation or stress. Due to this stress, low work productivity and less accuracy may occur for an employee or employer.

2.2 Overview of the luxury hospitality industry

Luxury hotels are the hotels that provide the luxurious experience of accommodation for the guests. The hotels which are generally 4 or 5 stars are considered luxury hotels. The luxury experiences are thus associated with the premium pricing of the services and the products. Therefore, it can be stated that this adds value for the people while upgrading their services and quality in exchange for its pricing. The luxury hotel is valued at USD 174.9 billion in 2020 (Mordor intelligence, 2020). Moreover, hospitality is stated as the act of kindness which refers to welcoming the guests and looking into fulfilling their basic needs in a hotel. This is regarded as a broad group of businesses that provides a varied number of services to the guests and the consumers as per their pricing. The industry is broken down into varied areas such as food and beverage, accommodation and tourism and travel in a coherent manner. Some of the target audiences in the case of luxury industries are tour groups, business travellers, small groups of people with conferences and also individual tourists. The chefs in these hotels go through a varied number of problems which run from effective communication, customisation of food and others.

2.3 Theories and models of work-life balance and job stress 

Expectancy theory

Expectancy theory relates to the state of motivation of an employee that is earned from the margins of outcome gained in regards to the service delivered to an organisation. Based on the viewpoint of Lloyd and Mertens (2018), providing effective rewards to the employees in respect of the services is an important concern for enhancing their engagement and satisfaction towards their service. However, in the case of every hospitality organisation, every employee is only provided with fixed monetary salaries against their services. However, it is observed that servicemen like waiters and bell boys gain substantial benefits from the tips provided by the clients for their services. This measure also creates a sense of expectancy by the chefs as they are not rewarded in any form as they tend to gain minimal exposure before the clients. Henceforth, a sense of interest in service is lost by the chefs working with highly prestigious hotels as the administration fails to meet their expectation of earning rewards against their quality services. 

Motivation–hygiene theory

Motivation hygiene theory relates to the state of motivation to retain fine employees concerning the state of recognition and appreciation delivered to them for their services. According to the statement of Wang et al., (2019), motivation theory tends to reflect a balance between the state of motivation of an employee concerning the responsibilities and the scope of opportunity of growth in their workplace. Luxury hospitality organisations tend to present their services in an integrated manner underneath their brand image rather than providing effective recognition to the employees such as their chefs or the servicemen. Apart from that, the clustered nature of the industry does not provide the adequate opportunity for promotion to the chefs without any relatively high experience. It is also observed that the hotel managers only tend to provide recognition to the chefs when asked by the respective clients to press them for their efforts. Hence, the sense of achievement and recognition among the professional chefs of the luxury organisations are seen to be diminished, which tends to increase their job dissatisfaction regarding the services. 

Job characteristics model

The present model highlights that the nature of the task is a major virtue that describes the motivation of the employees in a work environment. As stated by Carpenter et al., (2018), if the work seems to be monotonous the state of motivation energy of the employees for executing the task is gradually observed to be limited. In such circumstances, the employees failed to deliver the adequate state of concentration and enthusiasm that is required for completing the task. In the case of luxury hospitality organisations, the chefs are expected to prepare every delicacy with equal amounts of accuracy in terms of its taste and presentability. However, as each chef in the aforementioned organisation tends to deliver the same nature of service without any radical changes or experimental opportunity in the preparation of food items the level of stress duly increases due to the monotonous nature of the job.

2.4 Some motivational factors that a chef may face while working in a hospitality industry

When a person enters a professional world, people have to face job stress. In this case, to remove or omit these factors, people need to motivate them to survive in the professional field. The word motivation is multi-dimensional. As per CAIN et al. (2018), it helps people spread positive vibes where they suffer from any problem. For reducing the job-related stress factor, some good motivation for overcoming stress is genuinely needed. In the hospitality industry, the issue primarily arises due to long time working hours and lack of leave facilities. In general, the basic strategy for motivating employees for working in a particular organisation like a hospitality industry HRM (Human Resource Management) should play a vital role.


The HRM department should take this responsibility to motivate their employees for work.


In this case, the communication process is essential. For example, if a chef of a luxury hotel suffers from job stress, they should inform the HRM department. If the communication between the chef and HRM department is not good, then the employee cannot express anything to them. As a result of that, the stress problem will increase (CHENG-FENG, 2020).


The HRM department should provide relevant and proper training to the employee joining this organisation. If a chef joins a hotel and cannot get adequate training according to their job profile, they cannot provide the proper services for the organisational consuming customers. Later, that will create job stress for not performing well.


The primary demand of every person is to get a good salary according to their work (CHUNG et al. 2021). If the salary structure is not good, that creates job stress for the employee.

Working environment-

For doing anything, a proper environment is much needed. An appropriate working environment is essential for an employee to work anywhere.

Along with that, there are so many motivational factors that can motivate an employee like a chef working under a luxury hotel, and parallelly he is suffering from job stress (FERNÁNDEZ-SALINERO et al. 2020). Some motivational factors are described below.

Firstly appreciation is a very prim thing to motivate anyone anywhere. In this case, if the chief chef or the organisation is not properly appreciating the chef for their work, employees cannot motivate themselves for further work. If this appreciation process is not continued, it may create job stress for employees, in this case, for the chef. According to HSI-TIEN CHEN and WANG (2019), an organisation should always disclose everything to their employees how much the employee should know for working under that organisation. If a chef does not know its policies, they can create any mess. Always communication plays a vital role in any case. In this case, employees and management team should maintain a healthy relationship in working premises. Though the management team is a pillar of any organisation, the employees and the management team should communicate properly to run their business successfully (ISFIANADEWI and NOORDYANI, 2020). Along with that a proper job security, future opportunities also can make an employee satisfied. With the help of all of these factors, if an employee can motivate them, people will increase their interest in work.

2.5 Factors influencing the stress level among the chefs in the luxury hotels 600

Hospitality is regarded as one of the most stressful industries as it often includes irregular and long hours of job, this can aid in developing stress for both the employees and the employers. Moreover, this can mainly be seen in the pursuit of part-time workers of students in the hospitality industry which is one of the major sources of pressure for the employees. Messy and chaotic stations lead to major stress in the case of chefs (Filipkowski et al., 2019). Managing the stress, in this case, becomes difficult due to the outer environment. Additionally, it is also seen that in most cases kitchens are not untidy and unorganised which also leads to major stresses. Improper efficiency and training in the case of junior chefs leads to their experimentation and thus can be regarded as lowering the result. Therefore, proper training and support from the main chef and seniors can aid in organising the work properly while reducing the stress level effectively. On the other hand, Holden and Sunindijo (2018) highlighted that long working hours are also the main reason that relates to the increasing stress level among the employees. As long as the hospitality industry is considered, chefs are seen to work for more than 10 hours long subjected to the presence of customers. These long working hours and no benefits against the added services are a major reason that leads to the increasing stress level among the employees.

Leadership is also an important subject that helps in managing the levels of stress in an organisational environment. As mentioned by Calinaud et al., (2021), hospitality organisations tend to follow an autocratic style of management where the managers acquire a very dominant position. This measure tends to reduce the efficiency and participative behaviour among the employees gradually increasing their stress and preventing them from delivering enhanced performance. Some of the managers in the luxury hotels are also seen to be highly oriented towards the customers and least care about the wellness of their employees. In such a scenario, showing a disrespectful attitude towards the chefs regarding any complaints from the customers is also seen as a very natural phenomenon occurring currently. This also results as a factor which is responsible for the depreciating positive among the employees mainly the chefs as well as leads towards the fluent increase of stress margins. As contradicted by Prasad et al., (2020), lack of technology is also a subjective matter that leads towards the increasing stress level of the employees. In some cases, due to the heavy cost of implementation, the luxury hotels prevent the implementation of upgraded machinery and kitchen equipment. The lack of automated machines like high-power convection grillers and smoke emitters tend to increase the time in preparing the dishes which is further counted as a flaw in employees' efficiency. Hence, dissatisfaction among the chefs stands to be prominent that also increases their levels of stress in the work environment.

2.6 Effects of higher job stress over the chefs in luxury hospitality organisations

Stress is considered a high negative circumstance that prevents an individual from sustaining a healthy living. According to the views of Chandola et al., (2019), stress is the major cause of health-related concerns like increasing blood pressure and lack of concentration in the workplace. As per the scenario, of luxury hospitality organisations quality of service is the major point of concern that also contributes to reflecting the brand image of the organisation. Hence, in such circumstances, chefs with higher levels of stress and lower standards of concentration are often prone to conduct mistakes related to their service. On the other hand, Ajayi et al., (2018) argued that increasing levels of stress are an immediate cause for increasing levels of body pain which gradually lowers the productivity of the employees. It is observed that the majority of the chefs tend to serve their hotels for a very long duration of time. Luxury hotels are also observed in some of the niche segments of clients that purely highlight a premium taste in the case of foods. Hence, pressure on a single category of chefs that specialises in some of the niche categories of food items is also considered to be high. Hence, increasing stress, as well as the depreciation of work-life balance among the employees duly, affects their margins of productivity duly. Additionally, improper hours of sleep, as well as irregularity in food habits, are also seen as some of the major problems faced by the chefs. Due to the successive imbalance of lifestyle, state of exhaustion and increasing anger issues are very common for the chefs that are working with luxury hospitality organisations. 

In the case of mental imbalance or negative effects of stress on the mentality of the employees, depression, intensive anxiety and irritation are also some of the measures that are noticed majorly. As per the opinion of Dinçer et al., (2018), depression is a major cause behind major issues like trouble in decision-making and also provides a sense relating to the loss of energy. In the case of chefs of luxury organisations, stress is mainly observed from the managers that tend to extract more productivity from their employees. This tends to reduce the state of motivation among the employees as well as promote the state of hopelessness among the chefs which is again a sign of depression. Moreover, due to an increasing state of stress, the nature of irritation regarding the services tends to increase gradually which also causes an increase in the state of anger and conflict in the work environment. Hence, luxury hospitality organisations tend to lose their quality of service which relatively defames their brand image due to depriving levels of mental health and increased stress among the chefs. On the contrary, Toscano and Zappalà (2020), stated that stress also causes anxiety that also isolates an individual as it negatively impacts the mental ability of the person in terms of forming social connections. As per the chefs in the luxury hotels, they are also exposed to the scope of communicating with the customers and presenting their food accordingly. Hence, due to increasing stress levels and decreasing ability of communication they are usually seen to file for executing a fluent conversation. This results in a lack of customer satisfaction from the end of the hospitality organisations which is duly raised due to the effect of stress and lack of management protocols for employee empowerment.

2.7 Impact of emotional intelligence and personality traits in handling the job stress by the chefs 

Emotional intelligence is a personality behaviour that helps an individual to enhance the state of self-awareness concerning their capabilities and abilities to manage the responsibilities. According to the views of DeIuliis and Saylor (2021), self-awareness in the professional environment helps to influence the work culture according to the positive skills of the employees which also contribute to gaining effective recognition for the performance. Concerning the ships of the luxury hospitality organisation, emotional intelligence helps to enhance the decision-making factor of the individuals that enables them to influence their managers to a great extent. This measure also highlights the point of creating better opportunities for growth in terms of monetary incentives for their added performance delivered to the organisation. As argued by Buil et al., (2019), a personal trait is also a subjective behaviour of an individual that helps them to deploy their leadership and motivational aspects for sequential management of responsibilities. Implementation of an effective leadership style by a chef in a reputed hotel or restaurant gradually enables them to execute their operations and responsibilities promptly. This measure not only helps them to enhance their quality of service but also contributes to increasing the professional image as an employee.

Emotional intelligence also empowers an employee to enhance their skills of communication for the formation of an integrated work environment. As noted by Shafie et al., (2018), communication is an important aspect for a professional that helps them to enhance their social cognitive behaviour and improve their presentability. In the present scenario, the application of emotional intellectuality by the chefs is gradually observed as a measure of communicating with their colleagues and reducing their stress level to a great extent. On the other hand, Tai and Kareem (2018) argue that emotional intelligence helps an individual to understand the intensity of a situation and react accordingly. This measure highlights the scenario of enhancing the organising capabilities of an employee that aids to improve their productivity as well. In the case of luxury hospitality brands, chefs are highly pressured with numerous activities related to food production and management. In such a situation evaluating the scope for investing the time based on the intensity of work is a relevant measure that can help to reduce their stress. Additionally, the use of emotional intelligence also helps in formulating optimised job distribution processes and thus favours the aspects of delivering effective relaxation to the other chefs.

2.8 Managing the work-life balance of a chef in the hotel industry

Job stress is a part of professional life for a working person nowadays. Suppose anybody wants to overcome this factor, people have to maintain a proper work-life balance. As an employee of the hospitality industry or as a chef, the person should keep some following factors to get rid of job stress. The chef has to respect the organisation. The person should think that if the person serves foods correctly, the organisation receives success, which helps them succeed independently. As per JASI?SKI et al. (2021), the chef should also respect cooking ingredients and kitchen types of equipment. As a chef, the person has to bring cooking ingredients from different people such as fishermen, cheesemakers, grocery shoppers, and some distributors. The chef has to maintain a good relationship with all of should respect them. Though a chef is cooking in a luxury hotel, people regularly use expensive equipment in the kitchen. The chef has to respect and take care of those pieces of equipment on their own. Lastly, the chef should appreciate the customers, only for them chef comes to the hotel makes some good food and decorate that nicely.

Along with that, some good practices can maintain a good and healthy work-life behaviour. Such as, the manager of the hotel should conduct some discursion frequently with their employees. Sometimes that should be arranged by interpersonal communication. Though the hospitality industry has to be active 24 hours a day for their customers, mentors should make a proper schedule for their employees during the weekend and holiday season (JONG-YI et al. 2018). However, they can take a rest after finishing their work. The pressure of working for a long time often helps employees learn more about their work. But employees should keep in their mind that they have to take a proper break after they finish their work after a long time if any employees are not confident or have no idea about the work they have to talk help from their senior. Most importantly, the employee should set a goal for success in their lives (KWAN-WOO and YOON-HO, 2020). The work-life behaviour and work-life balance depend on the age of employees sometimes and rely on their marital status.

With the help of personal and professional life, the work-life balance is made. In professional life, the job and career play a vital role and depending on that, the work-life balance is work.

In this case, some stress factors of a chef are, though the chef is working in front of hot and cold regularly sometimes it is a cause of their work-related stress, to overcome that situation the chef needs to take a break from their work. Chef needs to go outside the kitchen to bring fresh air to reduce their stress level (LEON and T?N?SESCU, 2018). The chef always should be calm, and quite otherwise, they cannot control or survive in this hospitality industry. Nextly as a chef, the person should be clean and organised—everything they have to do in an organised way. Chef has to maintain the quality of foods, which is the most critical factor. If they keep the excellent quality of food, the work-life of a chef will balance properly. Efficiency is always required. If a chef does their work efficiently, they can save time and get the job done without any meaningless effort.

On the other hand, sometimes the work-life balance also depends on these factors. Flexible work options can reduce the chances of job stress also (MIN, 2021). Apart from family care, sometimes dual career assistance also helps balance the work-life for an employee.

2.9 Some prime reasons that a chef may face while working in a hospitality industry

According to research, globally, approx. 44% of women and 36% of men want to quit their job due to this job stress because sometimes people cannot tolerate it. As a result of that, some family-related and economic problems arise. Approx. 60% of the absence of employees in working days per year is a vital cause of job stress as well as it is a principal reason for health, family, and economic problem (PEI-LING TSUI, 2021). This job stress comes in some different ways. Sometimes heavy workloads and long working hours may cause job stress.

Sometimes, employers’ unnecessary and unrealistic demands also create job stress. Organisational changes also cause these types of stress. Due to this factor, employees, management structure, the working area can change, making stress. And the most important factor is communication. If the interpersonal communication between employee and employer is not good, that can create a situation where the employee faces stress.

As anhospitality industry employee, mainly in the cookingdepartment, the chef has to face some problems.


In the hospitality industry, every chef tries to decorate the food by their style from where the competition start. Very chef decorates their food and always tries to give a unique touch on that it increases the level of competition among the chefs.

Customers’ expectations-

Nowadays, social media helps people to think uniquely. Customers see so many food-related posts on social media, and they also expect that their foods also will decorate like that. But for this type of decoration, the chef needsd extended time (WANG and SEIFERT, 2021). It is very much time taking. Still, chefs always try to fulfil the expectation of their customers to get good feedback from them.

Staff recruitment-

Try has so many departments in the hospitality industry, so the organisation frequently appoints staff. Although it helps the organisation, it increases the level of competition among the organisation’s other employees.


Nowadays, ‘Going Green’ is a significant challenge in the hospitality industry. Tourists aretrying to know whether environmental ingredients make the possible elements in their hotel or not.


Nowadays customers’ are visiting so many hotels in different countries, so they know what kind of advanced technology is used in the hotel. So if the hotel is not using any latest technology, customers’ can understand that. So it makes the competition more challenging than before.

Particularly chefs, they regularly face some challenges due to their workplace in a central kitchen.

Blockage and some bad smell in the kitchen sink-

Chefs are frequently facing this kind of issue in the kitchen. Drain get a block with some food residue and some other ingredients. It creates a bad smell all over the kitchen. It destroys the environment of the kitchen.

Stuffy air passing system-

Though a chef always works in a kitchen, the stuffy ventilation system makes the person sick anytime.

Grassy surface-

In a hotel kitchen, there is a regularly cooking process run. The cabinet and the kitchen wall get oily and grassy by the cooking oil and gas. It makes the cooking area dirty (YOUSAF et al. 2020).

Storage problems-

It is a widespread problem in kitchen areas. There, an insufficient storage problem is widespread.

Damage cabinet-

Their cabinet is primarily used for storing foods, spices, or utensils in a kitchen. Due to damage, the chef cannot tell us that cabinets create a problem for the chef to keep the kitchen-related things.

Insufficient light-

Another common problem is the lack of lighting in the kitchen area. Light is anessential factor while a chef is cooking. The chef needs to see the food correctly. If their light is not sufficient, chefs have to face some problems.

2.10 Strategies for reducing the work-life balance and work stress for the chefs

Working in a professional kitchen needs huge stress to be dealt with. Chefs have admitted that they have busy work schedules and have to deal with a lot of things which puts them in huge strain and thus needs to have the ability to handle the same accordingly. Some of the possible reduction of stresses are as follows:

The right equipment - In every sector of the job right equipment can aid in better workings. As per the words of Bonenberg et al., (2019), knives to cookware, ovens and fridges, kitchen utensils and other appliances need to be efficient and safe which can aid in perfect results from time to time. This can aid in lowering the stress level of the chefs as perfection in work influences the person to work more and better coherently and equivalently. 

Keeping everything clean and tidy - Organising the kitchen aids in better management of things in the hotel while developing a comfortable environment as per the same. Moreover, it is an important aspect as much as cleaning the mise en place. As stated by Robinson (2021), wearing clean clothes and aprons while using dish towels helps in maintaining cleanliness and is one of the most effective ways of reducing stress within the kitchen. Clean bins and the areas aid in organising the mind differently thus leading to lessening the stress level of the chefs. Right sealing of the containers and labelling the work in an organised manner along with throwing away the food in the proper place aids in keeping the space cleaner. 

Comfortable surroundings - Working in a large kitchen is a dream of every chef along with the usage of the latest appliances and equipment. However, most of the chefs end up working in huge crowded areas which are poorly ventilated and are hot and uncomfortable. Therefore, the concerned atmosphere leads to increased stress levels in most cases. Specific design if the kitchen aids in minimising the stress level of the chefs while working in the same environment leads to better results of the food. This can also influence the chefs to work better as they do not have to worry about the sharp corners, protruding hoods and naked flames. 

Asking for help and having fun with colleagues - In a crowded environment, the chefs need to know the way of asking for help and the perfect time for the same. This can relieve tension and can bring in effective healing in the case of a professional kitchen. Moreover, it can also be seen that collaborating with colleagues and doing things together can aid in developing professional kitchens and a better work environment coherently. Effective teamwork can aid in deep-seated love for food while cooking and can also get applause from the guests for the food. 

Knowing the stressors - the chefs need to analyse their stresses while finding their speed of services and the hardest that they can cope with. This can be the first step of stress management for every person. Moreover, messy and chaotic stations can also lead to stress and in this case, the chefs need to clean their space which can help take the situation under control. This can also help them to focus on keeping everything in practice. Furthermore, taking in deep breathing techniques can also help in calming the concerned situation along with its physical response. 

2.11 Summary

Based on the above literary content of the study it is prominent that stress among the employees especially the chefs in highly decorated hospitality organisations is very high. This is solely experienced due to the lack of effective management style and leadership that is maintained in the hospitality organisation. It is observed that every organisation at such a high scale tends to maintain a customer-centric approach while failing to empower and appreciate its staff. These categories of organisations tend to be mainly approached for the foodservice and in such cases, the responsibilities over the employees stand to be at a top-notch. In multiple scenarios, empowering the employees mainly the chefs is also neglected even though these employees are seen to work beyond their expected margins. This tends to enhance their state of stress and prevents them from maintaining effective job satisfaction from the environment. The lack of communication and motivation provided by the managers along with the reducing work-life balance are some of the issues faced due to improper organisational management. This measure can be gradually improved by enhancing the nature of the work environment for the employees keeping in mind their social life balance. 


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