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Operational Project Management 2 Assignment Sample

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Operational Project Management 2 Assignment Sample


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1. Line of Argument

In this report, Holyrood and Crossrail construction industries have been included to maintain the project management processes. Different issues have been found in these industries. Due to this reason, several difficulties have been faced. This report delved deep into operational project management of Southend Airport about an extension of a new terminal. Comparing issues identified in projects of Holyrood as well as Crossrail, feasible recommendations for this Southend project were discerned. The project delivery process has been elaborated here and based on all issues appropriate recommendations have been discussed. 

The reflection on the supply chain management and the procurement are been also covered in the section the recommendation part of this report. 

2. Abbreviations

PM: Project Management

BIM: Building Information Modelling

3. Introduction

Crossrail and Holyrood construction companies are the biggest infrastructures, which are located in Europe. The Crossrail project delivers the Elizabeth line. This project has included subsurface plans, public space, new stations, ground stations and many other things. With the help of this facility, all citizens will be helpful by taking this service. On other hand, the first minister Mr McConnell has implemented this Holyrood project to review the policy decision, consultation aspects, cost management issues, and other relevant issues maintained by this company. Both construction industries are planning a good project; however, some issues have been found in this report. 

In this report, it found that Crossrail Construction Company has implemented their concepts to build rail stations and new trains for public transport. Apart from this, it can also be said that all employees are designers who have helped all higher authorities. Contextually, the Holyrood construction industry is also implementing its decision to establish Scottish Parliament. For further discussion, different issues of Crossrail, cause of the issue, recommendations, reflective discussion, recommendations for a new delivery, potential risk for a new project; based on these issues, appropriate recommendations are going to explain in this report. Additionally, some reflective assumptions are also going to elaborate to improve the rail construction project. 

4. BIM Project Execution Planning Procedure 

Identifying the BIM goals and uses: 

These particular project goals focus on specific and measurable goals for improving success depending on the facility's planning, design, construction, and operations. As per Viscuso et al. (2020), the goals are related to the performance by including the systems for reducing the project time duration and calculating the project cost. Moreover, those effects are maintaining the construction quality with the help of the development process by including energy-efficient for designing the overall rapid iteration. It can be collaborating with the energy modelling and creating higher quality depending on the elaboration of the details by 3D coordination of systems. According to Zhang et al. (2018), the appropriate development process has been accurate by maintaining the records to improve performance quality. Thus, the performance practices are analyzed by the performance modelling and commissioning. It can be suggested that potential goals have been enchasing the efficiency among the project team for deciding the overall implication of the BIM project. Moreover, it can be collaborating with the factors of the comprehensive list and essential factors for identifying specific goals. It will be focused on the incentive for implementing advanced BIM-related projects. 

The uses of BIM have been organized by the project phase for development with identification by numerous interviews for increasing the experts for analyzing the implementation. Charef and Emmitt (2021) mentioned that BIM uses focused on the ability of "The BIM Execution Project website". Moreover, the process descriptions have been developed by providing the overall outcomes for increasing the growth based on project team members. The BIM has been used as additional information for calculating a value based on the selection process. 

Designing BIM Project Execution Process:

The project BIM execution process has been focused on comprehensive parts by analyzing the document and providing help among their team members. The factors identifying and executing have been performing an effective role in the BIM project. As cited by Pruskova and Kaiser (2019), it can be collaborating with the construction management process to increase effectiveness while working on the site. On the other hand, it can be focused on the parts for building the BEPs for keeping the right track with the help of essential details. The project of "Building Information Modeling" has been formulating the foundation with the help of digital transformation in the sectors of architecture, engineering, and construction. According to Biancardo et al. (2020), the leader in BIM has realized the appropriate paths for analyzing their overall business based outcomes for building up the new project in the world. 

Developed information exchanges in BIM: 

The appropriate process for developing the information exchange n the BIM project is to define based on the team's needs for understanding the general information. As per the view of Arayici et al. (2018), it can be focused on the relevant task for analyzing the "Information Exchange" based on the worksheet based designed. Thus, it can be collaborating with the factors of the "Information Exchange Worksheet" to complete the stages in the project after designing and mapping the BIM process. Moreover, the "Information Exchange Requirement" has been attached with the characteristics for fulfilling their relevant requirements by transferring information. As observed by Ramaji et al. (2020), those relevant characteristics have been describing the outcome knowledge by including source, contents, recipients, size, timeliness, security, and the trigger. 

Define advanced infrastructure for BIM implementations: 

The advanced infrastructure performs as an implicating based on the "Building Information Modeling" to analyze their intelligent 3D model-based approach. According to Pidgeon and Dawood (2021), it can be collaborating with the engineering and construction professionals' backgrounds for developing their infrastructure. The overall construction site has been focused on the relevant tools with efficient planning, design, and building of highways along with bridges. BIM has been used as an implementation plan to allow collaboration and plan correction for mitigating the problems along with silos within a period. On the other hand, the BIM project has been receiving attention for fulfilling the need based on the various standards. As cited by Ismail et al. (2019), it can be focused on BIM processing a useful method for developing to transforming the digital information model. It can provide opportunities for building the overall project with the help of improving the design of construction for operating their portfolio of facilities. 


5. Holy rood Analysis

What went wrong in Holyrood Project

The Holyrood project has faced multiple issues or drawbacks which affect the project deliverables and objectives. It can be stated that the major issue in this project is the cost management which in turn adversely affected the continuation and success of the project. 

It has to be mentioned here that cost incensement for the project has been identified after 1998.  In addition, the delay of the project to deliverables and its outcomes has been also identified. Further, supply information issues were also identified which affect the project to deliver its outcomes. In addition, a quality management issue is also identified in the Holyrood project. 

Reasons behind the Issue or cause of the issue of Holyrood

Design team issue

Team management is an essential part of constructing a new project. Apart from this, it is seen that all employees and construction engineers are trying to manage their ongoing projects. According to Chen, (2019), valuable experience, products, team members manage project design and many other things by taking the help of project management. In this Holyrood project, poor team management has been found which creates barriers to completing the building constructions. 

Fees issue

Many employees are working on this construction project. However, project managers or construction authorities do not pay fees for their labour or employees timely. However, they are also included in this project, who also wants to get suitable fees to improve the project. 

Cost consultant issue

Many clients, consultants, and other experts are included in this Holyrood project; due to this reason, they are trying to estimate the project cost. Based on Gillick, and Ivett, (2019) statement, primary and secondary care is needed to maintain public value. For this reason, cost management is overflowing and architectural design is missing in this project. This is a critical issue for the Holyrood project; as a result, this project can be incomplete to implement in future.  

Substantial issue of governance 

For this project, Scotland Act 1998 has been implemented to maintain all issues regarding this process. Here, a substantial issue of governance has been found which is making unsettlement while making this project. A miss-communication has been noticed between the construction projects member and the government bodies. Apart from this, it can be said the government contribution, legal acts, and other beneficial facilities are effectively creating profitability. Nonetheless, this facility is not seen here.  

Recommendations are taken by Holyrood

Now this section is going to discuss solutions that have been taken by the Holyrood project to achieve its objectives. It has been identified that one of the principal solutions taken by the Holyrood project is they are prioritised quality whenever the issue began between quality and cost of the project. Further, this project has been focused on an effective timetable and significant procurement method as essential recommendations. It has been identified that the project has been decided to choose an effective and efficient designer from the start to the end of the project to ensure its profit and growth. According to García de Soto et al. (2019), the designer played a significant role in a construction project, which ensures project success by focusing on each stage. Therefore, by focusing on the above discussion, it can be stated that choosing a designer is one of the significant recommendations. Further, the project has been handed over by an international architect to fulfil its objective effectively. The compatibility in the practices and culture are been also discussed in the recommendation part of this project. 

In addition, this project has been decided to follow effective construction management to ensure the growth of the Holyrood project and it helps the company to mitigate its risks. It has been identified that a significant procurement route is essential for the project to improve its growth and objective fulfilment. In the past, the Holyrood project has been decided to follow an effective construction procurement method. Kabirifar and Mojtahedi, (2019) reported that effective procurement allows a project to ensure sits resource management and influenced its growth and objective fulfilment. Therefore, by focusing on the above information it can be stated that effective procurement is essential for a construction project to meet its objectives and ensure its growth. In addition, the project manager of the Holyrood project has been focused on the legal aspect while taking the recommendation to continue the project. It has been identified that Scotland Act 1998 should be followed while implementing the project to meet the project's aim and objectives. It needs to be mentioned here that an effective legal aspect is essential for a project to ensure its success and growth. Architects, consultants and other contractors should be included in the project progress, which ensures its profit and success. It has to be mentioned here that skilled people or effective team management is one of the crucial aspects of a project's success and growth. It has been identified that skilled people and effective team management allow a project to achieves its objectives and ensure its growth. 

6. Crossrail analysis

Time delay

In this Crossrail project management, team members, and other managers are delayed to complete this task. Due to this reason, UK railway authorities are facing problems. Transportation facility becomes difficult and complex, where signalling systems, new terminals and other functions are not included. Delaying time is critically decrease the quality of the project; half-built station, no completion date, poor productivity and other issues are creating a challenging environment for this rail construction industry. For this reason, project managers have to change their performance. 

An incomplete project

The Crossrail project includes different tasks, such as ground station, subsurface station and many other things. The major task is incomplete in this project, which decreases the quality of products and delivering time is attracting other people and clients. This poor activity does not attract stakeholders, clients, and customers. Here, Davies et al. (2019) stated that innovation, delivering model, knowledge management and other beneficial functions are effectively helping to complete the project. However, this activity is not found in the Crossrail project. 

Delay of testing

The Crossrail project is focusing on testing systems, so that all trains can run smoothly. Apart from this, it is identified poor testing activity is effectively decreasing testing programs that are reducing the level of construction reputation. Signalling program installation, civil delays and many other poor functionalities are directly included with the testing. Due to delaying the testing operation, trains are not utilised for transportation; as a result, a congested and hectic environment has occurred.  

Engage with simple stuff

According to Kleinberg, and Mullainathan, (2019), simple stuff or functions are creating obstacles for the construction industry. In this operation, major monitoring systems, high-stake policy systems, equity, interpretability and other technical management operations have increased the quality of the project. These systems are needed to include in this rail construction project to complete this operation. Manageable and complicated systems or techniques are needed to make decisions. Additionally, it helps to make new plans for completing this task.

Causes of identified issues and possible recommendation taken by Crossrail project

In this context, a fundamental cause behind delay of this megaproject is exceeding budget. O'Malley (2019) opined that development of Scottish Parliament building came with an estimation of £40 million during approval, whereas only its opening being delayed has accelerated expenditure to £400 million. Hence, these cost overruns have similarly aggravated delays in Crossrail project. 

In addition, ensuring safety of complex signalling systems is perceived to be another primary cause behind delay in this important project in UK. Inadequate personnel to discuss issues of train testing and associated problems being cropped up have concerned Crossrail project success to an extent. After being late for a year, this project is facing an unplanned project timeline, which has declined staff morale. Further research reveals that an unrealistic timeline has contributed to delay, while Crossrail project has neither altered its approaches nor integrated a detailed delivery plan to monitor progress (Theguardian.com, 2019). Involved stakeholders’ approach was the same even in wake of problems that emerged as early as 2015. Besides, Kassa (2020) argued that project schedule delays alongside strategic misinterpretations often lead to probable project delays in construction industry, which is another cause of driving project delay. A similar case is observed in Crossrail, as transport department in London is noticed to have an understanding gap between meeting project deadlines and delivery risks. Thus, Crossrail project has witnessed a number of factors accelerating delays and cost overruns simultaneously. 

Project delays in Europe’s largest infrastructure are perceived to integrate other causes as well. For instance, communication gaps are observed to contribute to construction project delays, which can be further exaggerated by underlying factors, such as competency management, risk management, and various others (Yap et al. 2021). A resemblance is noticed in delays in Crossrail project in London. Report exhibits that communication faults between three signalling systems and new Bombardier trains driven by software bugs resulted in a delay in project completion (Railway-technology.com, 2019). It reflects inadequate competency management, which is largely contributing to this project delay. 

On the other hand, team organisation is noticed to be a fundamental issue in a building construction project of Holyrood. A possible cause behind substandard team organisation can be inadequate competencies of project managers as well as team members, which can be further accelerated with communication issues. According to Darko et al. (2019), substantial team organisation not only assists in addressing effective risk management but also helps in alleviating sustainable construction challenges, which in turn, results in substantial project delivery and success. Hence, feasible recommendations are to be adopted to reduce identified issues and causes behind them both in Holy rood and Crossrail projects.

7. Demonstration of cross rail and holy rood project

Initial deadline of new millennium, the new parliament of Scotland was over budged, which need to be changed, which need an independent inquiry for the new project at holyrood project. However, the project has been faced multiple issues which affect its continuation and growth. Holyrood construction industry is not maintained the quality of project management. Cost issues, fees issues, team design issues, substantial issues and other challenges are effectively included in this industry. Beside these, team management and cost incensement issues are identified in this project, which affect its continuation and growth. Due to this reason, major gaps have occurred; as a result, team management issues, poor productivity, legal issues, and fees issues are created. Based on theses, project manager of the holyrood has been taken some recommendations to continue the project and ensures its growth and fulfilment of the objectives. It has been identified that one of the principle solution taken by the holyrood project is they are prioritised quality whenever the issue began between quality and cost of the project.  Further, this peoject has been focused on effective timetable and significant procurement method as essential recommendations. It has been identified that the project has been decide dto choose effective and efficient designer from the start to end of the project to ensure its profit and growth.

Holyrood, as well as Crossrail projects in United Kingdom, have witnessed serious project issues and challenges. Project delays not only contribute to time and cost overruns but also widen possibility of arbitration, termination of contracts, and others. According to Sepasgozar et al. (2019), causes of project delays across construction projects can be of varied reasons, such as substandard communication and team organisation, impractical deliverables, changes in project scope, and more. In this context of Crossrail project, which is one of the biggest underground excavation projects in Europe, it is already a year behind with a cost overrun of £30 million (Building.co.uk, 2019).In this Crossrail project management, team members and other managers are delayed to complete this task. Due to this reason, UK railway authorities are facing problems. Transportation facility becomes difficult and complex, where signalling systems, new terminals and other functions are not included. Delaying time is critically decrease the quality of the project; half-built station, no completion date, poor productivity and other issues are creating a challenging environment for this rail construction industry. For this reason, project managers have to change their performance. Further, it has been identified that cost delay is one of crucial issue for the project.  On the other hand, team organisation is noticed to be a fundamental issue in a building construction project of Holyrood. A possible cause behind substandard team organisation can be inadequate competencies of project managers as well as team members, which can be further accelerated with communication issues. According to Darko et al. (2019), substantial team organisation not only assists in addressing effective risk management but also helps in alleviating sustainable construction challenges, which in turn, results in substantial project delivery and success. Hence, feasible recommendations are to be adopted to reduce identified issues and causes behind them both in Holyrood and Crossrail projects.

8. Southend Airport

Southend Airport is recognised as one of international airport, which is situated in southend on the sea in Essex, England. This is one of award winning airport which is provide multiple services that fulfil demand of customers. Now this section is going to present position of Southend Airport on the google map. 


In terms of advantages, this airport is focused on COVID-safety and security, which ensure safe journey for the customers. Here, it can be stated that safety aspect and security measurement is one of crucial advantages for this airport. In addition, up to the minute flight available is one of crucial advantages from the Southend Airport. In addition, this airport provides special assistance to their customers, which ensures their safety and security. It has been identified that availability of flights improves safety and security of the services. 

9. Recommendations for South end Airport

In this section, appropriate and effective recommendations are going to be elaborated, so that Holyrood and Crossrail construction companies can improve their issues to complete their tasks. Those solutions are mentioned in the following. 

Solution for team management 

According to Lacerenza et al. (2018), team development intervention is needed to manage the team members. Apart from this, it can be said that leadership strategies should be implemented in this case. With the help of this facility, all employees, and labours can improve their performance and change their attitude or behaviour achieving success in the Crossrail project. Team building, advanced training sessions, interventions, technical knowledge and other things are effective for the team members. In this way, they can learn more skills and grasp knowledge for completing this project. In this case, attitude-based competencies, knowledge-oriented competencies and skill-based competencies are needed to increase the potentiality of all team members. This process should be implemented in these construction industries to maintain their team management issues. Mostly, Crossrail should follow this strategy to maintain their team.


Recommendation for disruptive consumer services and congestion management

It has been seen that the airport authorities faced issues regarding the consumer's report on the long queues at the passport and security control. In order to avoid such constrain the management team of the airport needs to prioritize the restructuring of their planning or designing for security check-in. On the other hand, the team can focus on incorporating the performance measurement tools for the accordance of motivating their employees in regard to providing quality services. The lack of visibility or transparency in this process may be created more complexity for the airport authorities in order to provide the best services to their consumers. 

Apart from that, it has been also seen that after the lockdown period the disruption in the infrastructure also created issues along with the lack of skilled staff. In order to mitigate issues, the authority can focus on providing adequate training to their employees. training‘s provision not only helps the workers to understand their job but also helps to cover the gaps in their skills that in turn foster productivity. On the other hand, the authorities also can undertake the giving of feedback or rewards to their employees for the purpose of retaining their interest in their job. 

Recommendation to mitigate delay issue 

Delaying the delivery of this project is the most crucial issue in this project that decreases productivity and increases barriers to business development. In this case, all Crossrail project managers and team members do not focus on the deadline and do not complete this task to normalise the situation. In this case, Alaloul et al. (2020) has stated that automation, digitalisation, Industry 4.0, and other technical systems are helping to develop business management and evolve the quality of production. This solution should be implemented in the Crossrail project, so that project managers and other members can improve their delay issues. All task management qualities can be managed with the help of digital technologies. Simultaneously, all process management is possible; as a result, the delay issue can be eliminated.  

Solutions for substantial issue

According to Dhanani et al. (2022), legal professionals are bly managed the strategic arguments, analyse the embedded systems, and many other legal functions are managed by the legal acts. Apart from this, it is said that the Holyrood building construction industry has faced legal issues that increase the construction issue in the future. Regarding this legal aspect, it can say that the Holyrood industry has faced major obstacles due to not maintaining the legal aspects. Here, Common law, Scotland Act 1998, Civil law systems and many other acts are needed to include in this industry, so that they can change the substantial issue to improve the parliament building constructions. 

Solutions for data security 

In the modern era, data breaches are the major issues that are faced by the various sectors. The presence of such issues in the operational areas not only impacted the consumer’s base by creating trust issues but also impacted the market reputation as well. In order to mitigate such constrain the authorities of the south end airport can focus on developing an effective data security plan by engaging all the associates on the boards. Awareness is also required for the mitigation of such constrain thereby the airport authorities should give a conscious effort on enhancing the worker's awareness regarding the data breaches. In this context, the management body can also focus on prioritizing the regular basis training or training at weekend. The encryption of all devices should be stored also by the authority as security is the key focus of the airport.

 The testing of the devices through conducting a security audit is also required for the mitigation of such constrain as well. Additionally, the information disposal mechanisms also can prioritize by the authority in that context through modification of the redundant data.   

Cost management

Cost management is the basic and essential part to manage business management. Cost maintenance should be developed for Holyrood construction project. Apart from this, it can say that all proper budget plans, stock market, marketing factors and other relevant aspects are needed to manage business development. Fees management, product cost management and other issues have found in this project. Based on this fact, Baggett et al. (2020) mentioned that a cost-effective strategy should include changing the budget plans to increase the quality management of Holyrood. In this way, this construction company can improve the cost management plans. By focusing on above discussion it can be stated that Project Management (PM) issues are identified in context for both projects.

Recommendations for new project delivery

The current project of a new terminal at Southend Airport comes with a budget of £400 million, which is on its RIBA stage 3, spatial coordination. Kurwi et al. (2021) illustrated that a collaborative plan of work can be shaped in rail projects by integrating RIBA plan of work. Application of this framework allows providing feasible recommendations for next four stages incorporating technical design (stage 4), manufacturing and construction (stage 5), handover (stage 6), and use (stage 7) [Refer to appendix].

Strengthening technical design to alleviate possibility of project delay

Crossrail project’s delay has resulted from safety testing delays of trains, while this project has witnessed a lack of people to discuss these safety issues in the biggest infrastructure project in the UK. Likewise, team organisation has been a key issue in construction of Scottish Parliament at Holyrood. Considering these issues in these two projects, incorporating a skilled architectural and engineering technical design team is recommended in a £400 million worth project at Southend Airport. In stage 4 of RIBA, a skilled engineering team is to be integrated, which can complete all design information of an infrastructure project by stipulated time to deliver manufacturing (Alani et al. 2020). In addition, clarity of responsibilities of subcontractors and design team is to be fortified in this stage to alleviate possibility of project delay. A further emphasis exhibits that involvement of facility management and other domains is also encouraged ensuring project success.

Effective collaboration and delivery plan to ensure construction success

Stage 5 of RIBA work of plan is concerns manufacturing and construction, as after completing design in stage 4, only site queries are to be addressed in this stage. Adequate collaboration is also expected, which can raise solutions in response to identified issues derived from site inspections for project quality. According to Holden (2019), stages 4, 5, and 6 of RIBA plan of work reinforce project teams to shape success of an infrastructure project, while in stage 5, project team must have all information to be submitted to contractor for actual construction. 

In this context, Molenaar and Franz (2018) argued that ensuring project delivery within tight deadlines is one of the most concerning challenges for project teams, and hence, effective communication can be a saviour in this matter. Hence, use of a feasible delivery plan is highly recommended for this project at Southend Airport to track progress, which will be able stakeholders to meet project deadlines. In wake of Crossrail project delay driven by impractical approaches and no use of delivery plans, this recommendation emerges to be beneficial for current project in Southend Airport. 

Delivering use strategy during project handover

Stage 6 of RIBA plan of work concerns handover, which apart from initiating aftercare of this project, incorporates a review of project performance. In this regard, a client to track or review building can commission post occupancy evaluation services during last stage of this plan of work (Holden, 2019). Considering a lack of monitoring of project progression that has led to a delay in completion of UK’s leading rail project, Crossrail, this recommendation aligning RIBA stage 6 can be effective. Hence, project team of Southend Airport construction is recommended to deliver a use strategy, which can be retorted with training clients concerning how to use building systems. In addition, a project performance session can be involved for the project team to share experiences for benefit of future infrastructure projects. 

These feasible recommendations are discerned in this section in light of remembering identified issues witnessed in both Holyrood and Crossrail projects. Furthermore, these recommendations are in line with RIBA plan of work, which has accelerated their practicality for a proposed project at Southend Airport. 

Potential risks of new project

Southend Airport has faced numerous challenges resulting in its closure in January last year. However, an extension of a new terminal is intended to upgrade its runaway as well as enhance one-day accommodation having 20 million a year. Wang and Wang (2021) reported that Southend Airport is connected to a rail-transit mode of inter-city railway, which allows surrounding passengers’ convenience with quick arrivals and leaving from this airport. This is where importance of this new terminal project comes forth. Nevertheless, construction of this project drives a handful of potential risks, which are briefed down. 

  • Extension of this new terminal at Southend project is driven by a purpose to enhance facilities in wake of increasing passenger capacity to an estimated 3,000,000 per annum from 750,000. However, this infrastructure project is to be conducted in a live environment with a continuance of operations (Kier.co.uk, 2022). Hence, adequate safety measures are required throughout this construction.
  • Construction of an extension of terminal can be challenging due to its surrounding having residential areas (Independent.co.uk, 2019). In this context, this particular project may require additional and sufficient site queries, commissioning of building, and others in accordance with stage 5 of RIBA concerning actual construction. It is intended to fortify sustainability as well as lesser disturbances to residents in vicinity of Southend Airport in UK. 
  • Effective collaboration and coordination are needed throughout infrastructural development of a new terminal in Southend Airport, as additional operations, such as runway maintenance projects also take place simultaneously. Therefore, similar incidents, such as lack of communication and understanding gaps witnessed in construction project of Scottish Parliamnet at Holyrood can result in serious risks and hindrances in Southend Airport project. 

In a surge of issues noticed in construction projects of Hollyrood and Crossrail, these potential risks are discerned in Southend Airport project. Considering this range of issues and risks, next section of the report sheds light on a handful of feasible recommendations for this project at Southend Airport. 

Recommendations to mitigate the risks 

To mitigate all risks, some suitable recommendations are needed to change the operational management issues for delivering projects. 

Solutions for poor safety measures

According to Grill et al. (2019), leadership management must be developed to provide safety procedures for all employees. While the project is delivering, project manager and other authorities have to take occupational safety, precautions and other safety functions are needed to include. In this way, all employees can be safe by providing safety precautions while making this project. 

Recommendation for lack of residential area

A building can be constructed in a wide place and it has to be a suitable environment to live in. However, site queries, disturbance of environment, residential areas and other issues are effectively reducing the quality of project delivery. Sustainability management is the most important factor to change business development. For this reason, the project manager has to explore the construction areas, where they can make new buildings by inquiring information based on the area. A perfect area can improve business development by controlling all disturbances. Based on this fact, Liu et al. (2018) stated that economic transformation, land policy and other legal aspects are needed to manage the delivery of the project. 

Recommendation for lack of communication and understanding gaps

Communication is necessary for project management to make new plans for future development. Here, a proper communication process can increase the understanding ability for making new designs for delivering projects.  It is important to change the communication and understanding gaps; apart from this, Bertuol et al. (2018) stated that proper understanding of decision-making processes can increase the ability of understanding processes. 

Key assumptions to proceed with the suitable recommended way

From the above recommendation, it is clear that all solutions are helping to deliver the project. In this case, all employees and project managers have to follow all solutions. However, it can be said that communication and understanding gaps are needed to develop changing the quality of management. A project can be enhanced with the help of the communication process and decision-making process. 

Proper communication management is important to change the project delivering aspects.  Good communication is important for improving project performance. Management of effective communication is necessary for delivering this project successfully and for this reason, it is the perfectly acceptable recommended way to deliver this project without any delay after mitigating all risks. According to Nadeem et al. (2018), information communication technology (ICT) can be implemented in the communication system, so that a construction company can change the business structure for future development. It can be said that this communication process is advanced and easy to use. 

10. Design delay

Crossrail railway construction industry is not maintaining their system management, issue of utilisation of the simple system, testing issues and other relevant issues have occurred in this project. As a result, the construction project is delayed; testing procedures become poorer, complications increased for old system implementation. I have mentioned some recommendations based on delay issues. With the help of this recommendation, delay issues, the poor impact of a simple system, testing issues and other relevant construction issues are possible to mitigate. I understand that technical implementation, where Industry 4.0, digitalisation, intelligence and other systems can effectively be helping to change the railway construction development. 

11. Procurement method on Southend Airport

Design and build method have been used for the procurement of the Southend Airport in which a main contractor has been appointed for designing and constructing the airport. Contractor has been the main person who is responsible for designing, planning, and construction of the works. The tenderers are being provided the requirement of the employers in this regard for the development and construction of the airports (Smith et al. 2021). From the above discussion, I have realised that all critical risks and causes of issues are effectively increased the quality of project delivery. A construction project, such as Crossrail, Holyrood construction industries are trying to change the structure of their projects to increase profitability. I notice those poor building areas, residential issues, communication issues, understanding gaps and other issues are included in the project delivery. I analysed all recommendations properly to understand the significance of project delivery. BIRA stages are also analysed here to know the constriction procedures and other relevant things for better development. 

In this case, I have discussed one of the recommendations, which are communication and understanding gaps. In this type i.e, in the design and build method, the contractor is solely responsible for the designing, planning, and providing tenders of the work by which payments can be obtained from the tenderers. I realise that the communication process is increased the knowledge and skills to change the quality of the decision-making process. With the help of this process, employees and managers are communicating with each other. Regarding this fact, ICT technology must be implemented in this communication process to change the project planning to achieve success for future development. Based on this solution, I discuss some assumptions that are making a clear concept of the communication process, making adequate understanding of project pains for delivering the project.  

12. Stakeholder and supply chain

Proper technical implementation is used in this process to evolve the understanding ability of all employees and clients. This communication process is necessary to enhance the decision-making process, which increases productivity by negotiating with other companies. However, it can also say that service quality, performance indicator, payment method, logistic factors and other processes are needed to include in the project delivering process to change the construction structure. Based on this fact, some assumptions are taken that are discussed in the following. 

Key assumptions for accepting effective communication for achieving project results. 

  • Communication helps to resolve problems and mitigate potential risks in this project 
  • Communication helps project managers to communicate with other stakeholders of this project and this helps in managing coordination and clarity, which leads to project success. 
  • Effective communication is helpful to engage project stakeholders and this leads to improving project performance 
  • Communication helps to build trust among all stakeholders and build an effective team that can enhance project performance 
  • Different communication devices, such as voice calls, video calls, email communication, and other processes are included in this method to connect with all employees and managers to create new plans for a better project delivery process. By focusing on this statement, Demestichas, and Daskalakis, (2020) stated that ICT technology is helping to circulate the solutions and manage the economy. 


It can be concluded that Holyrood and Crossrail construction industries are effectively progressing their tasks. However, major gaps and negligence can be found. Delay issues, substance issues, team issues and other challenges have been found in this report. On other hand, a new project delivery has been included that must be managed to provide the product time to the clients. In this case, poor residential issues, communication issues and safety issues are included in the project delivery process. 

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