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Explain how central traits, primacy effect and recency effect are important in the formation of attitudes by completing the gap fill exercise below with the correct terms (A.C. 1.1):
A __central_____ trait is an attribute in someone’s personality that is considered particularly meaningful and important in ___attitude______ formation. An example of a __central______ trait is whether someone is considered warm or cold. _ASCH_____ (1946) conducted a study to explore this; he presented participants with a description of a person who was intelligent, skilful, industrious, determined, practical and cautious – these are all known as ____central______ traits. Half the students had the word warm added to the list and the other half had the word _cold____ added to the list; these are examples of ____self-centrality____ traits. Students later described the person with the word ___warm__ in their list much more positively. This is because __self_-traits have a powerful impact on the conclusions we reach about others.
In simplest terms, the _____primary___ effect refers to the tendency to recall information at the ___top___ of a list better than information at the middle or end. The ___recency_____ effect refers to where people more easily recall items at the ___end__ of a list because they have been seen most recently and are therefore the information is still in ___short___-term memory. When you look at the ___primary______ and ______recency___ effect on a graph we see a ‘U’ shape known as the ___serial position curve_. This shows us that first and last ________notion____ are important in the formation of attitudes.
Provide a definition of stereotyping (A.C. 1.2).Answer-
Stereotyping is considered as a wide held, essentialist and simplified belief regarding a particular group. The groups are usually noted to be stereotyped according to language, socioeconomic status, age, nationality, ethnicity, race, gender identity, sex and various others. These are major impressions in context to broader culture and institutions of the society (Cassiani-Miranda et al., 2020).
Explain the possible social and cognitive functions of stereotyping by completing the table below (A.C. 1.2).
Create a diagram of the ABC model of attitude formation and label it with the following terms and include a brief example (A.C. 1.3).
Create a blog/online article about a film/book/real life case study that demonstrates stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. Within your blog/online article you should:
Stereotyping prejudice and discrimination
The "Green book" Movie : critical discourse analysis have the objective of analysing the discrimination and stereotypes which happen with the major character of this, Don Shirley. The theory utilised in the given research is the theory of critical disclosure analysis performed by the Van Dijk. In the given the research, various utterance or expressions along with various actions are identified by the researcher which is referred to the discriminatory and stereotype behaviour of white people towards the American black people. The given study utilizes a qualitative research method because of the production of descriptive information during the process of qualitative research which are usually in form of words that are spoken and written. The outcome exhibit the inclusion of three kind of stereotype and discrimination in the given case. The first one is the discrimination of individual as exhibited by the unfair and an appropriate treatment of the major figure that is the black individual, Don Shirley by the white ones. The second one is the discrimination of institution which occurred in the institution of police where there is a police imprisonment of Don Shirley for a crime which is not actually committed by him. He was arrested because of the only accuse of being black. And the third one indicates the discrimination of structure which happened as a kind of policy performed by the majority of races that creates a negative influence on the minor race (Esses et al., 2021).
While going through the research it is identified that a simple difference in between discrimination and prejudice is that the prejudice is associated with attitude by the discrimination is associated with the action. Various kind of discrimination consists of failure in providing appropriate accessibility or accommodation, vocal slurs, media portrayal, admission for hiring policies, hatred crimes and preferential payments (Mallett et al., 2019).
While the prejudice consists of having negative or inappropriate attitude towards the one who took birth in United states. However the ones who hold the given prejudiced form of attitude is not considered to know all individual who took birth in US, this starts disliking them because of the status of being a foreigner (Mallett et al., 2019).
For instance, a person may I have a prejudice viewpoint to a particular gender or race. Mobile did discrimination is considered as an activity or behaviour, which is generally negative to any e group of individual or an individual particularly based on their class, race, sex etc. (Tombolato et al., 2018)
There is a persistence regarding the prejudice and stereotypes which are applied for almost every kind of people. Further they are supposed to be subjected to the confirmation bias, where any kind of supporting prove provides the individual larger confidence to their belief system. For instance in case of thinking that the older individuals are not good driver, each time of witness sing any accident with the older driver, it word in hands the confidence level of the given stereotype. Afterwards even it is heard that the statistics exhibit larger accidents caused by the younger ones rather than the older ones, the fulfilment regarding the given stereotype would be very complex to overcome (Tombolato et al., 2018).
however the meaningful education can help in in eliminating the extent of stereotyping discrimination and prejudice. The learning method is definitely a very good measure for the ongoing, fundamental goal of reducing prejudice because it indicates a reduction of barriers which restricts the path of growing mind set, open - mindedness, self cohesion and self - awareness. This helps in creation of new and better opportunities of working with distant people irrespective of prejudiced attitude, ultimately leading to a reduction of discrimination and stereotyping (Hoyt et al., 2018).
Outline and critically evaluate two theories of prejudice such as, Authoritarian personality theory, Relative deprivation theory, Scapegoat theory or Social identity theory (A.C. 2.2).
Prejudice is considered as a notion which is already conceived regarding any group of individuals. A large number of theories are created in this respect, out of which the two major theories of prejudice is namely the scapegoat theory and authoritarian personality theory is outline as well as critically evaluated as below (Hoyt et al., 2018) -
i. The scapegoat theory - the theory of scapegoat explains prejudice as a method regarding people for blaming other individuals for their own issues. The given theory can be supported from a fact that during difficult or tough times, the prejudice is found to be at its peak. Any individual who is distant from the other are specifically the best suited skateboards because of the feel of separation from one another (Finnell et al., 2018).
For instance, a co - worker of Jasmine commenting regarding the method of staying at home for the women who are not permitted to work in office because of the presence of men. He states that Jasmine along with various other female colleagues are actually taking away the job opportunities from men who actually deserves the job position. Further in some other case the co - worker of jasmine is not found to be promoted once. And during this tough time rather than introspecting himself and his own activities for warranting the decision of no promotion, the person starts blaming women and states that they are the ones who takes the job position away from him. Because of not being woman, he finds it easier method to blame others for which the major cause is completely different (Finnell et al., 2018).
Associated with the theory of scapegoat there comes with theory of conflict which states that for holding on any particular position, status and power, the classes who are well privileged starts justifying their behaviour in order to keep the other classes down on a regular basis. The same kind of behaviour is exhibited in the above - mentioned example in which the co - worker of jasmine starts feeling that he would lose the job position in office only because of the promotion of women. By doing this he is only justifying requirement of prejudice and discriminating behaviour (Amodio et al., 2021).
ii. Authoritarian personality theory – The theory of authoritarian personality is considered as a hypothetical type of personality which is characterized by the extreme level of obedience as well as unquestionable respect for the authority and this submission in this context regarding any external individual towards themselves, that is noted to be supposedly capable of realising by operating the subordinate ones. The RWA scale was initially identified by Bob Altemeyer for quantifying measuring and identifying the traits regarding authoritarian personality. The political type of personality was identified by the RWA scale which indicates appearance of three Major tendencies of psychology as well as characteristic of attitude in all clusters regarding the personality of authoritarian, which are the submission towards the legal authorities, aggression to group of minority who are targeted by the authorities for being sanctioned under the violence of politics and the adherence for the values associated with culture and political belief system that are endorsed through the authorities (Amodio et al., 2021).
For example the Jasmine in the aforementioned example is not the only individual who is facing prejudice. In reality one of the most disappointing event of 20th century includes the holocaust that was fuelled through the hatred and prejudice. The person, Theodor Adorno who actually flute the Nazi Germany arrives with a theory that can create prejudice among people. The person starts blaming the personality of authoritarian which is actually a type of personality consisting of rigid means of thinking, obeying the authority along with viewing things in the frame of black and white era that have the belief system associated with the hierarchical societal structure. In short the personality of authoritarian belief that some individual are only considered better in comparison to others (lucidi et al., 2020).
By viewing the prejudice as a trait of personality, the Theodor Adorno promoted the concept of prejudice as a pathological idea and suggest that the given personality is supposed to be more of a prejudice.
Our earlier experience suggests that in case of having co - workers with authoritarian personality, the Jasmine is supposed to be more prone towards the prejudice in comparison to the situation when the co - workers had a different kind of personality (lucidi et al., 2020).
Ensure that you provide a detailed reference list using the Harvard method (reference list not included in word count).
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