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Research and explain different theories and models that relate to management and leadership. (Here; name the theorist and explain their individual theories and include your sources of reference). Identify and explain models as well F504/2218: 1.1
There are lot of theories and modes which is able to articulate the management and leadership systems effectively. Some of them are:
Contingency Theory of Leadership: As per this theory, leadership is not a generic skill that can be applied in any situation. Considering that a leader should carefully consider all of the possible circumstances and then determine the best course of action while taking those issues into consideration (Gumus et al., 2018). “Effective leadership is all about achieving the optimum combination between requirements, conditions and actions,” organizational researchers White and Hodgson argue in this context. The most successful leaders are able to recognise and cater to the needs of their colleagues, regardless of the circumstances.
Great man theories of Leadership: It has traditionally been considered that leaders are “born,” rather than being “developed,” according to this view of leadership (Mango, 2018). This theory holds that a leader’s charisma, commitment, knowledge, communication abilities, and social compatibility are all innate characteristics of a person who is born to become a leader. If one believes this view, retaining the opportunity to lead is either something one have or don’t have. Being aware that the majority of contemporary intellectuals and even a few prominent political leaders disagree with this depressing viewpoint should give people hoping to improve their leadership skills some peace of mind (Gumus et al., 2018). Insightful as this perspective on leadership is, it emphasises traits of great leaders that have stayed mostly constant across time.
Behavioural theory of Leadership: The Behavioural Theory shifts the focus from the characteristics or attributes of a leader to their actions and behaviours. Like the Great Man Theory and the trait theory of leadership this theory claims that effective leadership is the result of a wide range of taught or acquired talents. It indicates that anyone can become a better leader with practise (Mango, 2018). This is an excellent leadership principle.
Scientific management Theory: It was invented by Frederick Taylor, who was one of the first to do scientific research into labour performance. According Taylor, the scientific method should be used to fulfil tasks at work, not the leader’s whim or that of individual team members. Individuals must be made to work hard to create the most productive workplace possible, according to his philosophy (Mango, 2018). It was his idea to simplify roles and duties in order to increase productivity. He recommended that leaders assign team members to tasks that best fit their skills, provide them with substantial training, and closely monitor their performance to ensure that they are fulfilling their duties.
Bureaucratic Management Theory: In Weber’s theory of bureaucratic management, there are two crucial components as well: hierarchy and delegation. An organization’s hierarchy is the first step to creating a structure. Second, a clear set of rational-legal decision-making standards governs the organisation and its members’ activities (Gumus et al., 2018). The success of an organisation is dependent on the success of each and every component.
An organisational hierarchy is an approach that relies on the relative responsibility of each level in comparison to the divisions above and underneath in the organisational structure. Vice president of marketing reports directly to the company’s CEO, is on line with vice president of sales, and has authority over the person in charge of social media. Those at the bottom of the organisational ladder report to those at the top, who in turn report to the organization’s top official.
Use the above information and explain how these theories can be applied to different situations in a health/social care setting. Analyse how values and cultures of an organization can influence the application of management and leadership models already identified in your answer to question 1 (F/504/2218: 1.2, 1.3)
The phrases “leadership” and “management” are generally used interchangeably in the health and social care profession. The purpose of this section is to give readers an overview of the concept of leadership in the health and social care industry by drawing on concepts from both management and leadership.
Managers in health and social care businesses are in charge of a wide range of procedures and activities, including creating goals, designing organisational structures, managing people, motivating employees, making decisions, and resolving conflict (Neisig, 2022). Their actions have a huge impact on their company and themselves. In certain cases, managers develop a routine for their responsibilities and have some achievement with their favored leadership style or motivating approach. However, their effectiveness will be limited if they continue to apply the same “one-size-fits-all” approach (Gumus et al., 2018). Contingency factors play a role in determining whether a management strategy is a success or not. The “optimum” method is influenced by a variety of factors, including the specifics of the circumstance and the individuals involved. Managers should have a flexible approach to deal with ever-evolving circumstances.
Professionals in the health-care and social-service sectors are more susceptible to work-related accidents and diseases. It is possible to use social and behavioural science ideas in the development of remedies to minimize workplace injuries and incidents, as well as giving a tool to explore the multidimensional aspects that can hinder or promote worker health and safety (Neisig, 2022).
An effective management system is critical in any health and social services company. Managers and leaders of various healthcare organisations use a variety of management theories in order to efficiently manage their employees and distribute the responsibilities (Forner et al., 2020). Scientific and bureaucratic management theory can be put to good use in the health-care industry in this manner.
Leadership and management are not inherently related roles, yet their interactions have a tremendous impact on one another. Most of a person’s leadership qualities, which are in turn shaped by their cultural background, determine how an organization’s management styles are developed (Forner et al., 2020). Motivating others, directing them, and connecting with them are all impacted by these differences. Managing and leading others in the workplace requires a great deal of skill in this area (Gumus et al., 2018). The role of a leader is to motivate others to work cooperatively toward a common goal. Depending on the culture, the motivational elements that drive behaviour can be different. According to research, there are two sorts of motivational tendencies.
The phrases “leadership” and “management” are often used interchangeably. Efficient management necessitates good leadership, and this must be acknowledged. Extraordinary leadership behaviour is a vital part of the management process since it focuses on establishing an environment where each person may grow and prosper. The ability to encourage and persuade a group of individuals to achieve a common objective is defined as a leadership quality (Forner et al., 2020). An advancement to management inside a company, for example, can have this kind of formal influence on an individual. The ability to work together effectively is one of the commonalities between these two notions. Those in management and leadership positions must be aware of how their teams operate and what techniques will assist them succeed. Another similarity between leaders and managers is that they both have positions of power and influence (Ocloo et al., 2021). Their subordinates look up to them and may model their own behaviour after the acts and expectations of their manager or leader.
The ability to excite and inspire others is a key leadership quality. Management is a term used to describe the practise of directing an organization’s activities. As opposed to this, leadership calls on followers to have faith in their leader (Ocloo et al., 2021). Management, on the other hand, necessitates the manager’s control over his or her subordinates. There are two types of leadership: those who can persuade others and those who can command respect. Leadership involves long-term planning, whereas management is more focused on the here and now. Leadership establishes standards and norms, whereas management implements rules and regulations.
Managers must develop a keen understanding of their own strengths and weaknesses. Otherwise, it is impossible for the manager to rise beyond their own predispositions to find out what is really going on and what is the genuine problem (Castillo and Hallinger, 2018). As stated by the Society for Human Resource Management, establishing a trusting relationship with your co-workers is a matter of expressing empathy. As a result, it’s a leadership ability that most managers find difficult to comprehend: Fewer than 40% of the workforce can successfully demonstrate empathy according to SHRM.
Management and leadership both demand the ability to plan, make decisions, solve problems, engage with others, collaborate, and manage their own time. Good leaders are usually good managers. Managers must ensure that all areas of the company are in harmony in addition to really managing it (Castillo and Hallinger, 2018). Failing to integrate the team can cause a wide range of issues, including the inability to accomplish your goals. Management abilities are required at all levels of a firm, from the CEO to the first-level managers, and they are needed for all roles.
In an ever-changing environment, leaders must be able to successfully communicate, encourage their employees, manage and delegate responsibilities, respond to feedback, and find solutions. They must also be able to effectively communicate. Leaders must inspire their employees to go above and beyond for their organisations; simply paying a fair compensation is rarely enough of an incentive (although it is important too). When leaders try to do too much on their own, they’ll run into difficulties (BICKES and YILMAZ, 2020). Delegating labour can be seen as a sign of weakness by these leaders, but it can also be seen as a sign of strength, depending on the context.
A leader’s ability to successfully delegate responsibility is one of the many advantages of having good management skills on their side. Managers that are adept at assessing the strengths and weaknesses of their employees are better able to assign duties to those individuals (BICKES and YILMAZ, 2020). However, the advantages of leadership go further than productivity; strong leadership can improve employee morale and increase employee loyalty to the company. Loyal employees may be more likely to work harder in order and remain with the organization when times are tough.
According to one leadership restriction, equipping the people with the skills and support they need is not a productive activity. Even while managers must spend time guiding and educating their people to accomplish their jobs efficiently, they do not produce goods or services while acting as leaders (Krepia et al., 2018). The notion that leaders and subordinates don’t always see eye to eye is one of the many perks and disadvantages of being a leader. When you’re in charge of a team, you’ll have to deal with people who don’t always see eye-to-eye on everything.
Healthcare leaders wear several hats, from healthcare practitioner to care team mediator, care plan developer, and care team educator. With so many facets to this business, there is no such thing as a typical day. In order to be successful in the field of care management, a care manager must be as adaptive as the individuals for whom they are ultimately accountable.
Policy making has a substantive impact on the operative prospects of both the management and leadership. Within the context of health and social care, leaders are accounted for development of new and effective policies while the managers are tasked with implementation and carrying out the decided policy within the workplace. The key and most substantive reason for both the leaders and management to resort to new policy development is the need for change adaptation. Since, the healthcare industry is constantly in wake of possible changes, integration of new transition and supporting policies becomes apparent for the healthcare organizations (Krepia et al., 2018). Inability or failure to carry out these policies may lead to workplace conflicts and challenges where intervention from management becomes crucial and leads to the need for further policies. Thus, the key impact of new policy development has varied implications on both the leaders and managers alike, for instance, policies regarding the AI integration may account leaders to integrate change within the workplace as well as persuade human resource to cope with such changing dynamics. Conflict resolution, problem solving and motivations for change are the key factors that leaders have to face in this context. As for managers, training and development, recruitment and improvising the new changes within the workplace becomes apparent. Through these aspects the policy developments induces significant impact on both the leaders and managers.
Numerous conditions and degrees of health care call for complex health systems that are always adapting. To be able to deal with current and future crises that we do not yet know how to deal with. However, the most apparent trends that are currently affecting the industry and leading to new policy development is the emergence of digitalisation and automation within the sector. Integration of AI and its associated operatives are widely used by healthcare organisations to understand pandemic trends, use for data management and improve operational efficacies using CRM software (Ocloo et al., 2021). In this regard, both leaders and management become liable to introduce new polices of AI integration, change management and comprehensive trainings to keep up with the changing dynamics and to maintain competency within the industry.
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