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Nutrition Biochemistry Assignment Sample 2

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Nutrition Biochemistry Assignment Sample 2


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1.1 Symptoms, Causes, and Definition of hypertension

Hypertension is a silent killer as it is very rarely diagnosed and therefore treatment can be progressed to reduce the mortality rate caused by hypertension (Prihartono et al. 2020). It is the reason for maximum premature death worldwide (Mills et al. 2020). People with hypertension actually don’t know that something harms their body functioning related to blood flow, heart functioning blood flow in brain cells, etc which cause death also. This is because the symptoms of hypertension are not observed actually in the initial stage of hypertension; it actually develops inside the body unknowingly. It can show reasonable symptoms when it has gone to its extreme. Therefore, it is very important to inform people about this disease and advise them to maintain their lifestyle properly to reduce the risk of developing hypertension with them (Sardu et al. 2020).

Hypertension can be defined as the higher level of blood pressure of humans than the normal level. Normal level of blood pressure is measured as 120/80 mm of Hg (“WHO-ISH Hypertension Guidelines Committee, 1999”). It can be measured by a sphygmomanometer which measures systolic and diastolic heart rate.

1.2 Prevalence of the condition

Prevalence and incidences would help to evaluate the statistical information or measured conditions due to the concerned reason and how it creates impact on human health. Hypertension is known as a silent killer as the symptoms are not diagnosed well due to not changing significant body functioning. 47% of the adults did not recognize the growth of hypertension within them. About 42% of the adults are treated for hypertension as it can be possible to diagnose. According to NHS (Headquarter: Scotland, UK), 1 out of 3 adults are recognized to develop hypertension within themselves whose blood pressure exceeds the WHO recommended range for safe blood pressure. Approximately 31% men and 26% women have high blood pressure in people living in England. Around half of the people in the UK are not diagnosed that they are developing hypertension inside themselves. There are more than 5 million people living in England who are not diagnosed with developing hypertension (BPUK (“Blood Pressure UK”) news). Another aspect considered by the NHS in March 2017 in its publication as per the “Global Burden of Disease Study, 2015” states that high blood pressure or hypertension has been considered as the third highest risk factor for diseases in the United Kingdom after tobacco and dietary issues.


1.3 Causes and physiological mechanism of hypertension

Physiological mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension are described as cardiac output and peripheral resistance, renin angiotensin system, autonomic nervous system, endothelial dysfunction, vasoactive substances, hypercoagulability, insulin sensitivity, genetics factors, intrauterine influences, and diastolic dysfunction. The patients with hypertensive activities are observed to resist pulmonary functions and epithelial dysfunctions. Soft muscular cells movement is assumed to be connected to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, which might also underlie the vasodilating impact of beta blockers (Vaibavi et al. 2021). Persistent smooth muscle compression is hypothesized to cause massive reforms, such as stiffening of the afferent arterioles, arterial walls, which may be transmitted by angiotensin, resulting in such a permanent increase in systemic vascular resistance. The “renin-angiotensin” mechanism is possibly one of the most significant of the endocrinology aspects that influence hypertension management (Beevers et al. 2001). Renin is released either by kidney's renal active cells in reaction to retinal underperfusion or even a decrease in salt consumption. It also comes out in reaction to increased sympathetic activation. Endothelial dysfunction has already been attributed to human pulmonary hypertension (Zhang et al. 2018).

Thresholds of hypertension would help to understand the diagnosis of patients as well as the predicted normal value for the blood pressure. The thresholds would suggest identifying the average hypertension of the patients highlighting some approach models which would help to determine the experimental value of systolic and diastolic rate. The regression based approach would help to determine the clinic blood pressure thresholds for stage 1 hypertension (Vongpatanasin et al. 2017). Data from both the regression and consequence approaches suggest a home blood pressure threshold of 130/80 mm Hg for the diagnosis of hypertension in the United Kingdom audience comprises ethnic diversity as per the National Health Service (NSH) recommendations. 

Blood pressure increases and surpasses normal blood pressure level for a person with hypertension (120/80 mm of Hg) (Lee et al. 2018). If your blood pressure is more than 130/90 mm Hg, you have high blood pressure, often known as hypertension.

Water preservation, an uptick in widespread peripheral resistance, results in endothelial dysfunction, shifts in the mechanism and framework of maximum tensile artery walls, shifts in sympathetic activation, and involuntary muscle neurological instrumentation of the pulmonary circulation are all linked to increased salt consumption and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (Niriayo et al. 2019).

“Blood Pressure UK” foundation runs an awareness program, named “Know Your Numbers” at the national level in 2018 to reduce the risk of hypertension and raise awareness throughout the adult communities to adapt a sophisticated lifestyle and healthy blood pressure. The target audience in this campaign was adult communities in the United Kingdom. The main objective of this campaign was to reduce the rate of undiagnosed hypertension in people and to increase the health awareness to prevent hypertension. Due to this awareness program, people including adults are encouraged to know their blood pressure so that it can be treated earlier.

According to the Public Health England’ updates about tackling blood pressure published in January, 2018, 1 out of 4 adults in England are affected by this health issue and it is the second largest reason for premature death and disability throughout the nation. According to their analysis 9000 heart attacks and 14,000 strokes can be prevented in the next three years.

Different hypertension monitoring and heart disease foundations present in the “Blood Pressure System Leadership Board” including Public Health England, British Heart Foundation, The Stroke Association, NICE, NHS, Blood Pressure UK, etc have taken suitable steps in lowering blood pressure of people living in the United Kingdom. They work collaboratively in four domains related to Prevention, Detection, Cross-cutting, and Management to enhance awareness throughout the people and to engage other organizations (including the before mentioned target organizations) within the next three years.


There seems to be significant proof that lowering blood pressure or hypertension can lessen the danger to one's well being. According to a large systematic study, every 10mmHg drop in hypertension led to the corresponding decreases in the groups analyzed.


Substantial headway has indeed been achieved in lowering the prevalence of hypertension in the community. Throughout 2003 to 2014, overall mean systolic pressure in the adult community aged 16 and above dropped from “129/74 mmHg to 125/72 mmHg”. On the other hand,  Men's BP reduced little more than 2.5 mmHg, while women's blood pressure declined 4.5 mmHg. Between 2011 and 2014, meanwhile, there was minimal fluctuation in the citizenry's systolic pressure levels.

How hypertension affects in children:

According to a study of surveying related to measuring hypertension in children within 0-18 years, it has been observed that 20% of the children has hypertension and which is also a huge health concern for any nation. Children have hypertension different from the adults or aged person but causes become fatal sometimes.

Hypertension stages in children:

Pre-hypertension: 90th – 95th percentile (Song et al. 2019).

Stage1: 95th to 99th

Stage2: greater than 99th.

Hypertension does affect in children and this is because of some mentality that it does not affect children too much and not happened actually. But, this is not the fact. Some researchers show that sometimes children and adolescents get affected too much by hypertension and cause death also. The main reason behind this is undiagnosed of the disease in children. It does not actually diagnosed at the primary stages and sometimes stage 1 too because they do not show any symptoms actually.  

White coat hypertension: It is a type of hypertension which is common in children. Children’s hypertension changes a quite in the doctor’s chamber than that of outside of the chamber. This happens because of some reason regarding anxious and fear. It has been estimated by research that almost 30 to 40 percent children have white coat hypertension (Cohen et al. 2019). Children’s blood pressure rises to a significant amount due to anxiousness and this is the main reason behind white coat hypertension. Blood vessels may get affected due to this and sometimes it would develop with time in young age. Therefore, this would create a serious affect in children. Hypertension changes with time and this change is associated with some reasons of excitements, fear, anxiousness, etc but these do not affect the children’s blood pressure until it reaches to an extreme or regular level. When we sleep our blood pressure remains naturally lower and get rises during excitement. To diagnose the white coat hypertension, children’s hypertensions are measured in different places including school and home and then measured in doctor’s chamber. Then it has been diagnosed after observing the rises and changes.

While children with hypertension are unlikely to experience severe cardiac problems or stroke, there are always dangers. Hypertension alters the morphology of the circulation arteries as well as the heart. Because childhood high blood pressure has traditionally been underexplored, there's not a variety of information regarding what such changes entail. However, scientists do understand that in adulthood, hypertension raises the risk of cardiovascular, bloodstream, and renal issues.

Task 2.0 Guidelines and activities for hypertension management

2.1 Dietary modifications

Persistently elevated BP is caused by a mix of hereditary and ecological variables, as well as their interplay. This chapter would include some basic topics related to the diet changes and how it can impact to improve the biochemical and physiological changes in lowering blood pressure. A large amount of data from human studies, epidemiological research, conceptual, and randomized clinical trials have shown specific dietary trends and particular dietary items have a significant impact in the formation of hypertensive actions (Bazzano et al. 2015). Lifestyle modification can decrease blood pressure, avoid hypertension, and therefore minimize the likelihood of high blood pressure-related problems (Unger et al. 2020). For several years, manipulating macronutrient composition such as proteins, lipids, and carbs has been a foundation of losing weight and cholesterol-lowering techniques. There is a lot of indication that certain macronutrients can help you lower the patients' hypertension. Following the published journal of the “OmniHeart Randomized Trial” by Molitor et al. 2014, research on heart disorder, which demonstrated a reduction including both up and down rhythmic responses when protein was substituted for carbohydrate substituted dietary intake or consumptions, excessively large randomized regulated tests of specific nutrients supplements have been authored, which fully endorse the inverse correlation among protein intake and hypertension? In het parallel-group randomized clinical experiment upon that impacts of protein intake on BP, “60 gram of protein daily basis” (“30% of albumin protein, 30% constitutes dairy protein, 20% includes as soya protein, and 20% peanut protein”) lowered “systolic BP by 4.9 mm of Hg” and “diastolic BP by 2.7 mm of Hg” especially in comparison with 60 gram of proteins in a day, among 99 patients who are suffering from obesity and developmental hypertension. Overall fat consumption comprises different trans-fats that might include polyunsaturated fat with omega-3, polyunsaturated fat with omega-6, and also having monounsaturated fats.

The NHS suggested guidelines named “EatWell Guide” for the people of the UK to lower blood pressure by reducing salt consumption to a target of less than 6 gram of salt daily basis (NHS recommendations, 2018). The safe range of dietary salt content for the dishes is 0.2 oz or nearly 6 gram of salt daily. Eating a low fat diet, taking fiber filled foods and vegetables, avoiding cholesterol dishes, etc would help to improve the dietary chart for the people having high blood pressure.

2.2 Importance of exercise

The exercises must be recommended by doctors because sometimes excessive exercises like running or physical activity may raise the blood pressure of those who have been suffering from hypertension (Fisher and Curfman, 2018). The exercises should help to rectify the blood flow through cardiovascular tissues and arterioles. The flow of blood as well as the functions of the heart and cardiovascular system has been improved by the exercises and yoga. A daily exercise for 30 to 45 minutes would help to improve the heart functions and hypertension related disorders.

Societal impact

The issues which have been creating impact on the individuals across the United Kingdom on the pattern of diet and exercise are discussed in this section. According to the hypertension preventive guidelines recommended by the NHS, an individual's entire wellness including well-being are dependent on proper diet, physical exercise, and weight management and proper diet. These factors, when combined, could help lower an individual's chance of acquiring major health effects such as increased hypertension, heart problems, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, attack, and malignancy. A balanced diet, consistent physical exercise, and establishing as well as weight maintenance are indeed essential for controlling medical problems as well as preventing them from worsening throughout time. However, the majority of people in the United Kingdom doesn’t really consume a healthful meal and therefore seem to be not physically healthy at the amounts required to sustain good health. Individuals throughout the United Kingdom consume fruits approximately 1.1 occasions each day as well as vegetables approximately 1.7 times each day; teenagers ingest even less. 1 People in the United States do not consume enough fruits and vegetables on something like a daily basis, regardless of orientation. 2 This would be exacerbated by the found that the rest of individuals (81.8%) and teenagers (82.8%) need not obtain the necessary amount of exercise. Overweight has skyrocketed in the United Kingdom as a result among these activities. Obesity affects around one in one in every three individual (34.0%) as well as one in every six children and teens (16.2%). Sedentary lifestyles diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and prediabetes are among some of the biggest killers. In contrast to serious health concerns, overweight as well as obesity greatly raise pharmaceutical expenditures and place a massive strain upon the United Kingdom' healthcare medical establishment.

2.3 Other recommendations

Task 2 would help to highlight the diet and exercise for the essential hypertension management. This task would help to advise some recommendations regarding daily diet, controlled consumptions of salt dietary, exercises, etc to cope with the situation and reduce the risk of cardiovascular dysfunctions. Some significant changes in lifestyle would help to reduce the risk of hypertension in people.

The NHS recommended five processes to lower down the blood pressure and therefore lowering the risk of hypertension among the people. The five steps are

  1. Limitation of alcohol intake: Alcohol can increase the level of blood pressure if it has been taken excessively on a daily basis. Limitation of alcohol intake would help to lower down the blood pressure of people including men and women both. Not more than 14 units in a week would be safe for health.
  2. Losing weight: Overweight can increase the risk of heart dysfunctions and lead to heart failure. Therefore, daily exercise and others to reduce the body weight would help to survive the hypertension otherwise it may be fatal sometimes.
  3. Daily exercises: Daily exercises would help to lower down the systolic blood pressure level and provide a healthy lifestyle to enjoy. Weekly recommended exercises for 150 minutes should be done including cycling, swimming, walking, etc to prevent the risk of hypertension.
  4. Cutting off daily intake of caffeine: Taking more than 4 cups of coffee in a day may increase the normal blood pressure level of humans. Therefore, it should be maintained properly to reduce the risk of increased blood pressure.
  5. Stop smoking: Smoking can assist to increase the blood pressure level simultaneously with the reduced heart functions. It should be stopped to reduce the risks.

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