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Question 1: Critiques of GDP growth measures development The critiques of GDP growth would help to measure the significant impact of GDP on the economic output of the country. The different aspects of GDP would help to analyse the economic stability of the country. This evaluation would help to implement strategic measures and effective economic policies which would help in further growth and development of the country (Assa, 2019). The critiques of GDP majorly depend on the available economic data and do not consider the aspect of the underground economy. The critiques of GDP include four segments which are the inclusion of market transactions, disruptive income distribution, inflation effect, progress index etc. These limitations would contribute to maximising the aggregate demand in comparison with aggregate supply (Kilian, 2019). This aspect t would create an imbalance between the demand and supply aspects. The rise in the level of demand would trigger a price hike in the rate of commodities which would affect the economic growth of the country in various ways. Among the above-mentioned critiques of GDP growth, the most convincing critique is the inflation effect. As a result of GDP growth, the inflation effect could act as an effective barrier in the pathway of development. The result of this effect would create an increase in the level of demand which would decrease the overall output. This would cause a negative impact as it is necessary to maintain equilibrium in the level of demand and supply which would help in the further development and growth in a stable manner (Verma, 2017). This critique has the tendency to trigger the various aspects of hyperinflation which might increase the structure of imbalance in the economic stability of the country. The other disadvantage of inflation is that it establishes a non-linear structure. The rise in the level of inflation could be harmful for the overall economic potential of the country. The negative impact of inflation is that it could create situations like unemployment, low production, low productivity rate, an imbalance between aggregate demand and supply, a decrease in production capacity etc. These integrated aspects could be harmful to the growth and development of the economic structure of the country in an effective manner (Assa, 2019). This could be described as a convincing critique as it would decrease the aspect of wages. As a result of this economic instability, the market forces would fall which would create detrimental effects on the economic structure. Question 2: Methodological Nationalism and its impact The concept of methodological nationalism deals with eradicating the impact of social form and political form from the modern world. This concept could be described as the form of assumption which is used by intellectuals. The notion of methodological nationalism revolves around assuming that society is free from political and societal restrictions (Vasilev, 2019). The aspect of transnational migration is directly linked with the assumptions of this concept. The limitation of this theory is that the study revolves around the nation-state. The aspect of migration is based on the unnatural and disruption of the nation-state. According to the assumption of this theory, the process of the aspect of migration is totally based on the regulatory based assumption of this theory. The aspect of restrictions that are imposed on the process of migration is inevitable which the part of the regulatory bodies is. The notion of methodological nationalism talks about social phenomena that are not at all self-evident. This process could be described as the intellectual process which is a part of social procedures. This methodology would help to analyse the critical factors and complex relationships in the global society (Imiscoe.org, 2022). The study of this theory focuses on evaluating the different aspects of the experiences witnessed by transnational migration. On the other hand, the aspect of dependency theory deals with implementing the different approaches for further economic development. The notion of dependency theory evaluates and highlights the diverse factors of putative constraints. The evaluation of the putative constraints would help to mitigate the underlying causes of the underdevelopment of the country (Patel, 2017). According to the views of the dependency theory, the root cause of cheap raw materials and ineffective labour supply is underdevelopment. As a result of underdevelopment, the trade cycle of the country suffers from high volatility. This situational impact might create instability in economic growth and development. The implementation of methodological nationalism would be problematic for the development as per dependency theory. The limitation of methodological theory is that it ignores the impact of societal policies. Since the aspect of methodological nationalism is entirely based on some analytical assumptions so it would be problematic and ineffective for considering development according to the dependency theory (Vasilev, 2019). The aspect of dependency theory states the different aspects of inequality that would help in the process of development. The notion of dependency theory relies on breaking the political norms for implementing development in the economic structure. On the other hand, the methodological nationalism theory relies on political assumptions and social assumptions by ignoring the perks of development in the economic structure. Question 6: Sustainable Development Goals The concept of sustainable development goals would help to promote different aspects which would help to develop the financial structure of the country. The sustainable development goals include economic growth, level of productivity and technological innovation. The primary purpose of the establishment of these integrated goals is to increase the level of job opportunities for the youth (Barbier and Burgess, 2017). The introduction of such gestures of increasing job opportunities would help to eradicate negative aspects like forced labour. The implementation of sustainable goals would help to mitigate the unethical practices and corrupted practices of the country such as human trafficking, forced labour, slavery etc. The establishment of sustainable goals is very essential for the growth and development of a healthy economic structure which would help to increase the overall productivity of the country. The aspect of sustainable developmental goals acts as a radical break from the traditional paradigm as it requires some transformations in order to get implemented within the structure (Keesstra et al. 2018). On the other hand, the traditional development paradigm focuses on the development of cross-cultural activities, social constructivism etc. Whereas, sustainable developmental programs would require some radical transformations in order to establish a strong structure that would help the economy to grow. The establishment of traditional developmental goals requires mitigation of gender inequality, healthy demographic structure, sustainable industries, sustainable food, sustainable communities, digital advancement etc. The integrated efforts of the strategic actions would help to reduce poverty which would help further development of the economic process of the country. The primary objective of sustainable development goals is to secure the position of the future generation which would help to pursue the developmental process of the economy in an effective manner. The implementation of sustainable sources of energy would help to reduce the carbon footprint of the industries which would help to mitigate various environmental issues. The implementation of sustainable energy would also help to reduce the impact of the greenhouse effect which would help to resolve the various environmental hazards (Dalevska et al. 2019). The primary aim of the sustainable development goals is to establish unity in the business structure and the societal structure. On the other hand, there were various limitations on the traditional developmental paradigm. The traditional developmental paradigm was not so effective in comparison with sustainable developmental goals. So it would be effective to implement the sustainable development goals as a radical break for further growth and development. Question 7: Explanation of Coloniality The notion of coloniality deals with various aspects of practices and legacies. The concept of coloniality deals with understanding the narrative relation between the various colonial aspects. This concept could be determined as the epistemological frame which is not separable from the prospects of coloniality. The other name for coloniality is modernity which deals with distributing the dimensions of powers (Balaton-Chrimes and Stead, 2017). The presence of coloniality could be found in the caste structure of the society which would create barriers in the pathway of societal development. The aspect of colonial power creates disruptions in the societal structure. The presence of coloniality could create discriminatory disclosure which might affect the sentiments of various people. The presence of coloniality imposes values and perceptions on the basis of gender as well which symbolizes the aspect of inferiority within the society. The concept of coloniality further states that women in European countries are inferior compared to men in European countries. The legacy of inferiority was introduced with the implementation of coloniality which is creating barriers across the world. The aspect of coloniality is not at all relevant to the aspect of development discourse. The aspect of development discourse deals with analysing and identifying the issues and complexities of a model and developing it further (Montón-Subías and Hernando, 2018). The aspect of coloniality is irrelevant to the aspect of development discourse since coloniality deals with imposing control within the territory whereas development discourse deals with spreading knowledge and developing the territory. The prospects of coloniality to some extent are relevant to development discourse as it establishes and introduces change within the societal structure in alignment with control. The aspect of development discourse states that implementing diverse concepts and theories would help in the betterment of the societal structure in various ways. The structure of development discourse was implemented with the help of participatory democracy. This course was introduced to encourage the involvement of marginalized groups. The relevant structure of such movements would help in the development of society in an effective manner. The application of coloniality has helped in the development of some parts of European countries (Stockholmresilience.org, 2022). The impact of coloniality became more effective with the integrated efforts of development discourse. This amalgamated movement has helped to develop the colonised societies in a sustainable way. Question 8: Colonial Eurocentrism The aspect of colonial eurocentrism deals with establishing modernization in the cultural aspect. The factors of this concept deal with establishing western civilization based on the cultural aspects of the people. The effective factors of colonial eurocentrism establish different areas which involve individualism, decision making, beliefs, patriarchy etc. The aspect of development could be organised with the help of colonial eurocentrism as culture plays a vital role in shaping the thinking process of the individuals. The aspect of culture determines different people in a different manner (Imiscoe.org, 2022). The implementation of colonial eurocentrism would help to establish development from where Europe and America collect and gather various number of knowledgeable content in a large manner. The development in the cultural aspect would help to improve the overall society in an effective manner. Eurocentrism has contributed immensely to coloniality by establishing dev elopement in the cultural process. The implementation of eurocentrism has helped to mitigate social classification. The aspect of development is still formulated and organised by colonial eurocentrism with the help of global domination. The prospects of this aspect have helped to establish supremacy in the entire process of gathering knowledge. The aspect of eurocentrism often tries to establish negative aspects of the society by creating disruptions in the belief system of the people in different ways. This would further help to create societal and cultural barriers which might affect the growth of the country in various ways (Montón-Subías and Hernando, 2018). The implementation of eurocentrism often tries to establish the fact of stereotypical thinking which could hinder the pathway towards development in Western civilization. The aspect of cultural phenomenon would help to shape and design the belief system which would help Europe and America to gather knowledge from it. The developmental aspect of the cultural society plays a significant role in interpreting histories. The negative impact of colonial eurocentrism have\s affected societal development in numerous ways (Stockholmresilience.org, 2022). This has created obstructions in the societal cultural while gathering knowledge from the conceptual factors of eurocentrism. On the other hand, the aspect of colonial eurocentrism has helped to develop the academic disciplines which state that Europe and America were able to gather knowledge. The prospects of colonial eurocentrism have helped to improve the academic-related disciplines for the purpose of stream development. This was beneficial for America and Europe to gather knowledge and establish further development. Reference List Journals Assa, J., 2019. Gross Domestic Power: A History of GDP as Numerical Rhetoric. Annali della Fondazione Luigi Einaudi, 53, pp.81-96. Balaton-Chrimes, S. and Stead, V., 2017. Recognition, power and coloniality. Postcolonial Studies, 20(1), pp.1-17. Barbier, E.B. and Burgess, J.C., 2017. The Sustainable Development Goals and the systems approach to sustainability. Economics, 11(1). Dalevska, N., Khobta, V., Kwilinski, A. and Kravchenko, S., 2019. A model for estimating social and economic indicators of sustainable development. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 6(4), p.1839. Keesstra, S., Mol, G., De Leeuw, J., Okx, J., Molenaar, C., De Cleen, M. and Visser, S., 2018. Soil-related sustainable development goals: Four concepts to make land degradation neutrality and restoration work. Land, 7(4), p.133. Kilian, L., 2019. Measuring global real economic activity: Do recent critiques hold up to scrutiny?. Economics Letters, 178, pp.106-110. Montón-Subías, S. and Hernando, A., 2018. Modern colonialism, eurocentrism and historical archaeology: some engendered thoughts. European journal of archaeology, 21(3), pp.455-471. Patel, S., 2017. Colonial modernity and methodological nationalism: The structuring of sociological traditions of India. Sociological Bulletin, 66(2), pp.125-144. Vasilev, G., 2019. Methodological nationalism and the politics of history?writing: how imaginary scholarship perpetuates the nation. Nations and Nationalism, 25(2), pp.499-522. Verma, R., 2017. Gross National Happiness: meaning, measure and degrowth in a living development alternative. Journal of Political Ecology, 24(1), pp.476-490. Websites Imiscoe.org, (2022), Methodological Nationalism, Available at:https://www.imiscoe.org/news-and-blog/phd-blog/1164-the-nation-state-is-a-dogma-methodological-nationalism-and-assumption-free-social-science [Accessed on 4/4/22] Stockholmresilience.org, (2022), Effects of GDP growth, Available at: https://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/research-news/2019-09-13-the-abcs-of-the-sdgs.html [Accessed on 4/4/22]
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