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HPP or “high-pressure processing” is the process of cold pasteurization techniques used for sealing the products in the final packaging. In this process, the products are subjected to high pressure such as 300-600 MPa/43500-87000 psi. The use of this process is beneficial in neutralizing food-borne pathogens such as E.coli without the inclusion of any chemicals or preservatives. This process has been regarded as beneficial because it helps in treating the food and beverage products without altering their nutritional capabilities. Pineapple Juices are commercially made by pressing the pineapples in machines and then the juice is packed in plastic bottles. There are various types of harmful bacteria that are present in Pineapple juice that including E. coli, Salmonella which upon consumption can affect the human body. The commercially Produced Pineapple juices are processed through secondary processing known as High-Pressure Processing (Pasteurization) (HPP). This research will be carried out in order to understand the effectiveness of HPP in maintaining the national content of pineapple juices.
The research question that would be answered through this research is as follows:
Importance of the topic
Processed food items including beverages and fruit juices have become the normal consumables now when people do not have the time to make juices for themselves. On the other hand, various experiments are being done with food items to make the food items sustainable for a longer period and safer for consumption (Wu et al. 2021). It has been found that there are multiple benefits of the HPP process, and it helps in maintaining the nutritional quality of juices. Considering the health benefits of fruit juices in human health, it is important to maintain the nutritional quality of packaged juices. Heat treatment and other processes such as the inclusion of chemicals impart a negative effect and destroy the nutritional content of juices. It has found that the use of the HPP process in other juices has helped in maintaining their quality and has maintained their organoleptic effect (Nayak, et al. 2017). This process also helps in maintaining the freshness of the juices. The maintenance of nutritional content also imparts in maintaining the natural taste of the products.
Despite the benefits provided by this process, there are several myths regarding the use of the HPP process in the production of packaged fruit juices. The importance and the benefits of the HPP process have illustrated in an explicit way in the selected literature. The existing data have illustrated the benefits of this process on other juices such as apple juice and pomegranate juice. However, a dearth of data has noticed regarding pineapple juices and the benefits the HPP process can impart in maintaining the nutritional content of pineapple juices. In this context, the analysis of the application of this process to pineapple juice is of utmost importance through this research.
Properties of pineapple juice
Pineapple juice is a popular beverage and has many health benefits. Pineapple juice consists of a range of vitamins as well as minerals that can be beneficial in boosting the immunity of the body. This juice is a great source of vitamin A and beta-carotene and imparts its benefits in reducing premature aging. This juice is rich in manganese, copper, thiamine, and vitamin B6 and plays an important role in improving bone health, wound healing, and tissue synthesis. The presence of iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin k, phosphorous, vitamin B, and choline in trace amounts increases the nutritional content and benefits of this juice (Kershet al. 2022). Pineapple juice is rich in vitamin C and antioxidants thereby activating a healthy immune system response and reducing the risk of vision loss. An enzyme called bromelain can be found in these juices and it helps in triggering the ability of the body for reducing swelling and fighting against the pain. It is also beneficial in reducing the level of swelling as well as treating surgical wounds. In the analysis of the benefits of the nutrition that is found helpful for strengthening bones and teeth, in addition, helps to prevent symptoms of cancer. In addition, the presence of Bromelain triggers the ability to fight pain and reduce swelling. Some other benefits are “reduce inflammation, improve digestion, and boost immunity” (Kersh et al. 2022). In this regard, pineapple juice can be listed as one of the most effective fruit rather than using others fruit as those has contained different nutritional value. As a supportive statement, it can be shown that, pineapple juice has contained different enzyme such as bromelin, which is help to trigger ability to fight pain as well as help to minimize swelling.
Application of the HPP in the commercial processing of Pineapple juices is made for the purpose of removing the microbial present within the juice and increasing its shelf life of the juice. There are myths about processing the juice by heating the juice, however, the Juice is not heated, instead, pressure is applied to the juice and the increase in the pressure increases the temperature which is a type of adiabatic rise in temperature (Adisurya and Sari, 2022). The processing of the Pineapple juice through this process removes almost 99.9% microbial present in the juice, therefore making it safer to consume by the customers.
The process of HPP includes some steps in it. The Juice is extracted from Pineapple by juice press of other machines and the Juice is bottled before processing through HPP. Then the bottles filled with Pineapple Juice are put in a chamber that is filled with water. The water is filled into the chamber for generating water pressure up to 85,000 PSI on the bottles filled with Pineapple juice (Putniket al. 2021). The pressure is maintained for some minutes and then the water is removed from the chamber to depressurize the bottles. The bottles are collected from the other parts of the chambers and the juice inside the bottles is meant to be containing almost no microbial. Moreover, the shelf life of the pineapple juice, which is about 5 days, is increased up to 45 days which is increase the chance of selling the pineapple juices through various channels.
The nutritional content of pineapple juice and the impact of high-pressure processing on pineapple juice
“Pineapple juice” is packed with vitamins and minerals and a single serving of the juice is capable of providing a concentrated amount of nutrients. One single serving of pineapple juice contains
Table 1: Nutritional content of pineapple juice
On the basis of the table given above it can be said that pineapple juice is packed with multiple nutritional contents and therefore it provides various health benefits. Store-bought pineapple juice is processed with the help of various processes in order to retain the nutritional benefits of the juice. Pineapple juice has the property of showing unstable cloud, solid precipitation, which does not, attracts customers, and for this reason, manufacturers use various methods to improve the quality and staying power of store-bought juices (Lobo and Paull, 2017). Traditional pasteurization techniques had been used in order to increase the longevity of these juices and under this technique, the pineapple juice would be pasteurized for an interval of 2 mins at 65oC. This technique has been done in order to preserve the quantity and nutritional benefit of vitamin C in the juice as well as for retaining its taste and color. HPP is an effective process for preservation of juice like pineapple juice as ultra-high pressure is not able to preserve juice with their natural flavor and nutritional values (Fda.gov, 2021). On the other side, HPP is known as a mild technology of pasteurization which helps to maintain flavor and safety of juice. Use of HPP impacts on enzyme of the juice mainly caused “lysosomes disruption” and besides this done “denaturation, aggregation, and fragmentation of sarcoplasmic proteins” which means it decreased enzyme activity (Pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2021).
It has been found that HPP imparts various benefits to pineapple juice and can be used as an effective alternative to traditional techniques. The use of this method can be beneficial in controlling the growth of microbes in the juice and also to retain the properties of the juice in an effective way (Alhajet al., 2019). That improvement not only helpful for pineapple juice rather this used for various juices such as “mango, orange and apple” and all of those food have “high moisture content”. In the industrialization process “HPP Cold Press Bottles” is used as which is a popular bottling methods for fruit juice and vegetables which have high moisture contents.
Commercial food and beverage production include the processing of the food items for increasing the benefits and sustainability of the food items. HPP is such a process, which is commercially applied to Pineapple juice for its various benefits (Podolaket al.2020). The commercial benefits of the application of the HPP on Pineapple juice were initially not known. However. its first application was made during the years 1990-91 and upon incurring the benefits of applying it to Pineapple juice the amount of application of the HPP in the processing of the juice increased over time (Chandra et al. 2021). The above figure shows the increase of HPP applications commercially over time and the percentage of HPP applications throughout the world.
In this process, the pressure is either applied directly or indirectly by the pistons on the system. Through the application of the HPP process not only the microbes present in the juice are removed but also the shelf life of the juice is substantially increased which is of great commercial benefit for Pineapple Juice. However, it is found that up to a certain percentage of the nutrition value of the drink is reduced through the process yet that is far less when compared with the commercial benefits incurred by the application of the HPP on Pineapple juice (Mieszczakowskaet al. 2021). Therefore, the application of the HPP commercially is gradually increasing and even the FDA-prescribed law states it is mandatory for producing fruit juices through the HPP procedure (Jestr.org, 2021).
The researchers conducted on the application of these juices for the nutritional benefits of other juices have shown that this process has helped in the improvement of nutritional quality. Petrus et al. (2020) illustrate that the application of HPP on apple juice showed that the pressure applied above 400 MPa has helped in achieving a greater log than 5-log and a reduction in the pathogens has been observed regardless of the dwell time. It is observed thatL. momocytogenesare more sensitive to the HPP process at a pressure of 350 MPa, and dwell time equals to or beyond 110s. Moreover, similar resistance can be observed in E. coli as well as S. enterica. This research showed that the number of log reductions in the central point has ranged between 2.2 to 3.7. Thus it has been observed through this research that the pressure of approx 600 MPa can prove to be beneficial while proceeding with the HPP process. This would help in reducing the pathogenic content thereby maintaining the nutritional content of the juices.
The research conducted by Pérez-Lamela et al. (2021) illustrates that the application of the HPP process in apple juice has helped in maintaining the nutritional content of juices. It shows that the treatment of 400 MPa and higher for more than 20 minutes has contributed to the retention of ascorbic acid at a higher level. This has also increased the retention of total phenols, antioxidant capacity and total flavonoids. On comparing the HPP treatment with the application of 600 MPa for 20 minutes rather than heat treatment has helped in better retention of nutrients and slightly reduced the antioxidant capacity. The application of increased pressure has helped in better retention of ascorbic acid. Moreover, higher retention has observed in mango juices with a similar process. The presence of ascorbic acid is found in pineapple juices. Thus on the basis of data and observations observed from the research focusing on the application of the HPP process to other juices, it can be said that the use of this process in pineapple juice can also help in maintaining its nutritional content and would provide improved benefits.
Problems with High-Pressure Processing during the processing of Pineapple juice
There are some problems encountered in applying HPP to Pineapple Juice. The first problem is the reduction in the nutritional value of the juice. Another issue occurs with the colour of the juice differing from the original appearance of the juice after the processing of the Juice through HPP (Vignaliet al. 2022). However, these issues are far less likely to be prioritized than the benefits incurred through HPP. Therefore, HPP is applied to the Pineapple Juice for commercial processing of the pineapple juice.
Impacts of High-pressure processing on Pineapple Juice
The application of the HPP had many impacts on Pineapple Juice. The first impact that is evident is that the safety of the juice from microbial is ensured for a period of 21 days. No significant effect was found on the physicochemical properties of the juice (Kershet al. 2022). However, changes occurred in the cooler of the juice and the level of fructose reduced up to some extent in the Juice. The turbidity, as well as the rate of sedimentation, was affected by the application of HPP.
HPP is one such technology that uses high pressure for inhibiting the growth of certain microorganisms. The theories of food production focus on this issue from different perspectives. The Malthusian Theory proposes a negative fact that the production of food might not be able to compete with the population growth (Pawlak and Ko?odziejczak, 2020). This theory is beneficial in the explanation of exponential population and food supply growth arithmetically. According to Malthus, the growth of population follows a geometric pattern while comparison to its production of food follows an arithmetic pattern of growth. It is to be considered that the supply of natural resources is constant whereas the population is growing exponentially day-by-day. Therefore, a situation might arise in which it would become difficult for the agricultural supplies or production to meet the demand of the growing population. This would further lead to the emergence of diseases, famine, and other possible calamities. Therefore, it can be said that there is a requirement and importance of technologies for the preservation of food to the best possible extent.
The Cornucopian Theory can be mentioned in a context that demonstrates that any environmental issue that is a result of human interventions can be solved with human ingenuity itself (Hickel, 2019). The growth of microorganisms might be a result of human interventions that are leading to daily changes in the environment like pollution, global warming etc. Hence, it is necessary and possible to resolve the implications of these changes only through human interventions that counteract these. HPP might be one such counteract that would help to preserve the quality of the food.
The previous literature has not identified the impact of HPP on pineapple juice. Some research has been done on the maintenance of nutritional quality of the pineapple juice but how does it gets affected through HPP Pasteurisation process is not addressed. The present analysis excluded the discussion about the juice's shelf life or other benefits unrelated to the juices' nutrition content. Besides this, gaps in the previous literature are identified, which are related to the lack of microbial continents in the juice after the application of the HPP process in juice storage.In addition, the ethical obligations that might arise regarding the safety of consumption of HPP-treated pineapples have not been analyzed previous studies. All these are have been addressed in the study.
Conclusion and findings
The effectiveness of HPP technology in the refining of pineapple juice has been effectively demonstrated. However, it has been obtained that there are several processes involved in this technology and this integrated network of steps is complicated. The juices undergoing the process have displayed an increase in their shelf lives. The various components included in a HPP system are “pressure vessels”, “autofrettage technique”, “heat-shrink technique”, “wire wounded vessel”, “pressure generation means”, “pressure transmitting fluid”, “adiabatic compression heating” and “packaging”. It has been observed that these parts are associated with different functions and the usage of this technology mandates the presence of qualified professionals. Apple juice can be use as an alternative option in terms of carried out the same quality of research.
The commercial application of HPP has displayed positive outcomes but there are certain problems too that pose challenges in the process. The impacts of this technology on the pineapples have been both positive and negative per the data. Based on this, it can be concluded that any technology that is manifested for the betterment of humankind has both positive outcomes and drawbacks. It is concluded that the analysis of the study found that the application of HPP improves the nutritional benefits of various types of juice, including pineapple juice. The optimization of the challenges with increased beneficiaries of the juice with the application of the HPP process benefits the health of the consumers.
The primary gap of this research is based on the selection of secondary data and it would follow the qualitative method for the collection of data. The information would be collected with the help of existing secondary resources such as journals, articles, and relevant websites. This might restrict enriching the study with the help of real-time data. However, if the research would have followed primary data collection it has helped in elevating the outcomes of the study. The use of primary data would have enriched the study with the help of real and accurate information collected from food manufacturing industries. The inclusion of interviews with employees in this study would have helped in collecting accurate information and increasing the reliability of the study to a greater extent. The opinions of the employees gathered through interviewing them would have given insight into the benefit and effectiveness of HPP in food manufacturing. However, if the study would have chosen mixed methods it would have helped in presenting an authentic and enriched study. In the majority of the articles, it has been observed that the focus is imparted on explaining the deterioration process and HPP in general.
This slide may represent a few introduction parts about the provided research topic. In addition to that, the effectiveness of HPP in extracting pineapple juice may be discussed. Moreover, this procedure may enable them to improve the nutritional content of foods and increase the satiety value of every individual. Additionally, this procedure will be very helpful in minimizing the spoilage of microorganisms and harmful substances in food materials. A clear background of the study has been developed in the selected section, which helps to complete the study.
High-Pressure Processing may be one kind of thermal technique in food preservation procedures. It can inactivate all vegetative spoilage microorganisms and harmful pathogens present in food by using pressure rather than heat. A variable degree of denaturation of protein is founds after application of HPP and those are happened due to “dissociation of polypeptides and modification of surface hydrophobicity”.The analysis found that the application of the thermal process to the pineapple juice increased the overall nutritional benefits of the beverage. Besides this, the presence of cholesterol makes it more appropriate for healthy patients.
The food industries use various technologies to maintain the quality and integrity of the products and one synch technology is HPP. Although there are various reasons that make HPP a dependable system for the reduction of microorganisms, there might be confusion regarding its usage because the safety of the treated products is still debatable. Present research not only identifies the use of HPP in pineapple juice but also usefulness of this in others juice like pomegranate. In the food manufacturing industries application of this process is much more effective as there is an increased need for people to consume healthy products.
In this slide, three different research questions can be mentioned. Throughout those research questions, the researcher can easily gather information about the effectiveness of High-Pressure Processing in improving the nutritional content of food products. Moreover, several issues can be identified while applying HPP to Food & beverage production companies. Various juices which seem to be the same as pineapple juice are improved in their nutritional content by the application of HPP in the food manufacturing industries. Those questions are developed to make the research much more appropriate and specific regarding the nutritional content of pineapple juice.Those are identifying the area of industries where application of HPP resulting beneficial and improve quality of the customers support.
Summarization of the findings
In this slide, two different types of theories, issues and effectiveness of the HPP method will be discussed. A good lifestyle of the people is much improved with the consumption of healthy products such as pineapple juice which is an effective and good product. Moreover, in this procedure, all food particles will be exposed to a pressure of around 200 to 600 MPa. The process is used in the industrial level as it increased shelf-life of juices and need to store those at “4 degrees Celsius” and those are applicable in pineapple and pomegranate juice. Malthusian Theory is analysed which helps to understand relationship between arithmetic growth of the food supply process are exponential population. On the other side, Cornucopian Theory is used which showing growing issues which are related with population and technological innovation process.
This slide illustrates the data from other reaches conducted focusing on the application of the HPP process on other juices.
This slide has discussed the methods that would be approached in order to accomplish the study. The information and data related to the topic would be selected with the help of the “secondary qualitative data collection method”. The selection of such journals and articles would be done which have explicitly explained the effectiveness of HPP in improving the nutritional content of pineapple juice. The choice of secondary data will be done because it would help in amplifying the outcomes of the study. Analysis of the previous research helps to make an appropriate results on effectiveness of HPP process in preservation of juice. It would benefit the research in determining the effectiveness of HPP as well as its impacts on different food and beverage production. The use of secondary methods of data collection would help in strengthening the study with the help of theories and accurate information as researched by others. Therefore with the help of information collection and data gathered it would be easier to determine the utilization of HPP in terms of improving the nutritional content of pineapple juice.
This slide has presented the number of articles that would be given consideration in this study and the approach that would be selected in order to interpret the data. Peer-reviewed articles will be considered in this study and the use of peer-reviewed articles would be beneficial in extracting the most relevant information. This would also be beneficial in maintaining the reliability and validity of the study. The focus would be imparted on the selection of only those articles that illustrate the effectiveness of HPP in improving the nutritional value of food and beverages and the way in which this process can be applied to increase the nutritional capacity of pineapple juice. The thematic analysis is developed on the effective interpretation of the articles, which are connected with the nutritional benefits of pineapple juice. The effectiveness of the juice is increased more, and those improve the industrialization process.
The previous literature has not identified the impact of HPP on pineapple juice. Some research has been done on the maintenance of nutritional quality of the pineapple juice but how does it gets affected through HPP Pasteurisation process is not addressed. Previous articles did not contain much information regarding the benefit of the HPP process for pineapple juice. This has emerged as a gap in the existing literature and the reason behind the selection and conduction of this research study. In addition, the ethical obligations that might arise regarding the safety of consumption of HPP-treated pineapples have not been analyzed previous studies. All these are have been addressed in the study.
From the entire research study, it can be concluded that the application of HPP will be very helpful in increasing shelf life in food products and it will be effective in improving food safety and food quality. Inactivation of the microorganisms in the juice are depends on various factors such as “magnitude of the pressure and the holding time, process temperature, compression and decompression rates, and microbiota” of the juices which are needed. It is concluded, the HPP process not only beneficial for improve quality of the food rather there some industrial benefits. Sales of the food production companies are increased as they can stored food for more time and customers are preferred those as nutritional values are improved more. The use of secondary resources might result in creating discrepancies in the research. The unavailability of real-time information has restricted amplifying of the results of the study. The gathering of the information and real-time information gathering makes the research much more effective and helps the manufacturing industries to increase sales. In this case, the use of mixed methods would have amplified the research outcomes. Although, the nutritional content of apple juice is far different from the nutritional value of pineapple juice. The use of primary data would have helped in the collection of real and accurate information whereas the use of secondary data would have helped in the authentication. Those research articles are selected based on their data which are found based on effectiveness of HPP and their impacts in industry level.
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