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Collection and analysing the data are being done through two methods, “Quantitative research” and “Qualitative research”. Quantitative research deals with "Numbers and statistics", whereas Qualitative research deals with “Word and meanings”. It is to be said that, the effectiveness of both the methods varies from a place of research and condition. This essay will compare and contrast quantitative and qualitative research methods, In addition to their application to healthcare. In this essay, various methods, Data Collection techniques, ethics and other necessary critical evaluation will be present regarding both research methods about health care. Moreover, three limitations in collecting the data and analysis will be present with its effects on the research regarding Health Care. Apart from this, a literature review will be a part of this essay. In order to structure this essay, "academic and critiquing skills development" will be present in the module. According to health care research, how these methods will be helpful will also be discussed.
In the case of research purposes, when one decides to choose one model, it is better to stipulate the idea of the main goal and then collecting of information will be correct. "Qualitative approach" is a method of carrying out research, where a researcher has "an active role in interacting with the participants or object" someone wishes according to the subject of the research. In other words, the "Qualitative research" method creates "verbal summaries of research without any statistical summary or analysis". Both qualitative and quantitative research is used widely within the nursing sector based on the research outcomes. It has been seen that nurses use both concepts to evaluate the foremost interventions for the patients as the processes allow them to gather the necessary information. In general, qualitative research focuses on understanding the phenomena in relation to the present context. Therefore in order to carry out any research regarding Health Care, this qualitative research method can help on the grounds of primary data collection by asking questions to the authorities involved in the industry or an employee directly associated with Healthcare services. Sometimes qualitative research techniques can help to evaluate data from family members of the patient too, but in most cases, it will be ethically wrong to ask questions to the family members of an ill person.
Further, the "Quantitative approach" is collecting data based on "tests, data, questionnaires, and other measures". There is "Qualitative research" that tells "why questions cannot be carried out" with the help of quantitative answers. Generally what is beneficial for the "qualitative research" approach is the opposite of the "quantitative research" approach. Quantitative, as well as qualitative research data can be collected from various sources, but It is important to evaluate which source will help to reach the goals of the research study and will answer the research questions. Data collection methods can be "in surveys, observations or case studies". In contrast, quantitative research includes accessing correlation relationships among the variables through developing hypotheses and testing. Both of the approaches are reliable and avoid extracting the expected outcomes for the research.
Several research designs are there that can be followed namely: exploratory design, explanatory design and descriptive design. In the case of research work of the health sector, exploratory and explanatory designs can be followed. Quantitative and Qualitative methods can be of two types: primary and secondary methods. Primary qualitative data is defined through interviews and primary quantitative data is defined as a survey. On the other hand, secondary qualitative data is defined through thematic analysis and secondary quantitative is defined through statistical analysis. The Data Collection process is an important step in healthcare. Several factors are there that influence the health care sector. Interviews, surveys, thematic analysis and statistical analysis will provide effective data from health care officials and also from the patients (Mason, 2020). Collection of exquisite data and sources are being signified through the methods of data collection. The Researchers will have a vivid knowledge in the context of the research. Every data of the research taken is based on the objectives of the research. Furthermore, it can be added that quantitative research allows the healthcare practitioner to gain the accurate insides that is useful to bringing necessary changes in the nursing practices. The sample size that is used under this method is large and with the help of questionnaires and surveys, the data is collected for the study. On the other hand, qualitative research is a cost and time-effective process that help the healthcare practitioners to understand the context through observation and reviewing the other secondary sources effectively. In this approach, purposive sampling is mostly used based on the grounded theory. Symbolized and conceptualized qualitative findings are useful for the rising understanding of nurses related to patients' experiences.
While considering the primary research approach, qualitative data is accumulated through the process of interview. In the situation of a pandemic, interview sessions are challenging to hold, therefore online interviews are generally preferred. In order to research and clinical perspectives, it will be best to interview an experienced person serving the field for many years. Doctors or any health professional holding a higher post in this area are preferred for interviews. In order to arrange an interview, the proper notice should be given to the respective personnel and time is set according to convenience. Questionnaires are previously set that should be asked in the interview (Rodriguez, 2018). The Questionnaires should satisfy the aims and objectives of the research. Several online platforms are there that can be used to arrange the interview such as google meet or MS Teams. The whole interview process is recorded for future reference. Primary quantitative data surveys are preferred for getting vivid knowledge.
From the evidence of the empirical study of care prevention and improvement of practice, it can state that quantitative research helps to improve nurse adherence by highlighting patient safety outcomes (Gilster et al. 2018). In the context of setting the long-term and short-term outcomes, the research helps the nursing practices to provide a deep insight into the risk assessment strategy that is used in this section. The study conducted the interview method to understand the impact of the patient safety principles within the nurse care settings. Moreover, the use of such a method helps to satisfy the patient's safety outcomes.
While considering secondary qualitative data, thematic analysis is being performed (Peat, 2019). The thematic analyses are performed based on the research journals or articles. The journal and articles are selected such that they fulfil the aims and objectives of the research. Several problems can be faced during the collection of the data. Secondary resources cannot be easily found based on recent data (Dos Santos, 2021). Besides, from another study of qualitative research findings, it can be stated that the use of the qualitative research approach is the most common one that is an informative one and also possesses various evidence of changes in the nursing practices (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2018). The potential utility of this method allows the researcher to find the answer to questions that are related to how related to the particular phenomenon. Some examples of qualitative methods in nursing research include phenomenology, qualitative description, grounded theory, ethnography and others. All of the methods possess different assumptions and different questions based on the likelihood. Based on the utilization of the methods, the findings of qualitative research are varied upon. Undoubtedly, this method has become a standard approach in which the healthcare practitioner generates the knowledge pertinent toward the nursing practices. The existing evidence in nursing help to understand the scenario with the help of such an approach that is beneficial for the research objectives. The method of quantitive research as well as qualitative one are bias-free and help to extract the expected result. Findings from the qualitative method can also contribute to the assessment of the patient progress or status respectively.
In the case of a survey, google forms are critically studied based on several tips that are mentioned in those forms. Each factor is being analysed differently (Allen, 2018Any insignificant reference that does not have relevant information are rejected and new journals or online articles are taken. Analysis should be made such that it is easily understood by readers. In the case of statistical analysis, proper data are collected and the reasons behind such data are explained with significant information from secondary sources (sagepub.com, 2022). In the case of commissioned work, the rights belong to the authors until the deal gets signed officially. These prevent any fraudulent activities. Data Protection Act 2018 is also being followed. It also provides vital and vivid information regarding the authenticity of the research. Research work of other workers should be used in unlawful ways. The act states several conditions that can be implemented in case of any fraudulent activities.
It can be concluded that research methods following all the types of data will be able to get a wider view of the healthcare industry. Several factors are there that influence the health care sector. Interviews, surveys, thematic analysis and statistical analysis will provide effective data from health care officials and also from the patients. Surveys can be done among health care workers or patients or the families of the patients. Collection of exquisite data and sources are being signified through the methods of data collection. rules and regulations have to be followed in the case of every type of data.
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