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There are various stages in the construction of a 2 storey dwelling house. Different types of elements are necessary for dwelling house construction. The Westminster University wants to construct a dwelling house at the Harrow campus. The house will be constructed for a manager. The final details of this new building are not finalized. It is assumed that the size and shape of the new house will be the same as the old structure. The old house was constructed in 1996 at another site of the university. In this report, discussion regarding construction technology, details of construction of new houses and modern technology of construction are performed. These are given in the next chapter. Hand drawings regarding ground floor and foundation are given in the construction detail section and the relationship between all the essential elements of foundation are given in that section.
The two storey dwelling house should be constructed for the family of the resident manager. In this house, there should be 3 bedrooms. Stand-alone house is also known as a detached house. This type of house does not contribute to sharing its wall with any other structure. Most of the time, this type of house is constructed for one family. In this case also, the house is to be constructed for the fatality of the manager. Traditional method is used for the construction of this house.
Cavity wall: The cavity wall is the wall that is made with the help of brick masonry. in this wall, there are two walls. These two walls are called leaves or skins. Air space is present between the layers of two walls. Metal ties are used to join these two walls at a regular interval. These types of walls are known as exterior walls(De et al 2020). The width of air space in between two skins of the cavity wall is about 5-8 cm. The thickness of the exterior wall is generally up to 200 mm. The inner skin of the cavity wall is b enough to carry imposed load and the thickness of inner skin is restricted up to 100 mm.
The popularity of cavity walls has increased rapidly. The thermal property of this wall is the main reason behind its popularity. It is sound resistant and moisture can be prevented by using a cavity wall. On the other hand, this wall is highly fire resistant(Malomo et al 2020). When a normal exterior wall is constructed in the house, then it may catch rainwater and penetrating rainwater inside the wall can harm the whole structure. Hence the cavity wall is used to prevent the penetration of rainwater and moisture. The air space between two skins of a cavity wall helps to resist the moisture consumption.
For the construction of a cavity wall, a b base made up of concrete can be used. On this base, normal brickwork is done and the gap is provided between them. For inner wall construction, “standard bricks” are used and for outer walls “facing bricks” are utilized(Hodgson et al 2018).
The metal ties are used to join these two leaves. The ties are made with the help of steel. These ties are rustproof. The horizontal spacing of metal ties are limited up to 900 mm. These types of ties do not consume moisture from the exterior wall to the inside wall.
Foundation: The foundation of a house is an important element. It is the lower portion of a structure. The purpose of this kind of structure is to transfer the load from superstructure to underlying soil. The type of foundation for a house depends upon the characteristics of soil. If a huge amount of load is to be transferred through low resistive soil then pile foundation can be utilized. Pile foundation is mostly used for high rise structures such as bridges, tall buildings etc. But in most of the cases, for residential purposes strip footing has been used. Here for the construction of a detached house for the manager, strip footing can be used. For the cavity wall, strip footing has been utilized.
Column: To transfer the load from superstructure to the ground columns are essential. Concrete can be used for the construction of columns. These columns should be placed as the required site of construction. According to the layout of the design, this should be done properly. The supervision of a site-in-charge or civil engineer is essential for the construction of columns for the house.
Beams: Beams are also the essential elements of a structure. Here also a beam is required. Concrete can be used for the construction of a beam. The load from the roof can be transferred to the columns with the help of beams. After that, the load is transferred to the underlying soil.
Floor: Here a 2 storey house has to be constructed. Therefore there are two floors. The floor should be made with the help of Reinforced concrete. Concrete is also used as a flooring material. It is durable and cheaper in nature. For the living purpose of the manager and his family marble can also be used as a flooring material. They are easily cleanable and stain proof. On the other hand, these marbles are also used for extra cleanliness purposes. The design and colors of the flooring marbles are also different and it is available in the market of London.
Stair: Staircase used for moving between two levels. Stairs help to access the upper level effectively and quickly. From floor to floor access can be done with the help of a staircase. There are two parts in a staircase. These are risers and trade. The maximum width of trade is 300 mm. On the other hand, the height of the riser should be a maximum of 150 mm. Easy and safe travel can be done by staircase. Like floors, stairs can carry a huge amount of load. The load of people and additional loads like the weight of furniture and other things act on the stairs. Therefore the staircase should be made b enough so that it can withstand against this huge amount of imposed load. Here for the construction of 2 storeys detached house U shaped stair may be used.
Roof: For the construction of this detached dwelling house, timber is used for roofing purposes. Here timber is utilized as the main element for roof construction. Timber is a traditional material to build roofs. Till now it is the first choice for self-builders and house builders. Timber is available everywhere in the world(Jovanovi? et al 2018). Thus the popularity of timber has increased significantly. The weight of timber is very light and the ration between strength-to-weight of timber is excellent. A roof truss made up of timber is a framework of a structure. This truss is used to support the roof structure. The trusses that are made with the help of timber or wood are used in Canada, USA and other countries like the UK.
There are numerous advantages of timber trusses. Greater flexibility if offered by this type of trusses. For commercial, industrial, residential buildings or structures, roof is the most important element. It helps to protect the inner elements of a building from external factors. It is the most expensive and largest component of a structure. The list of advantages of timber trusses is huge but few disadvantages can also be seen(Jamilan et al 2018). Timber is molded into any desired shape. Today in the modern method of construction, timber trusses are widely utilized in Canada, USA and UK. The houses in the UK are framed with the help of timber trusses. These trusses are utilized in commercial and residential applications. It is also gaining acceptance in the world and now it is widely used in Japan and Europe also.
According to UK building regulation code, 2010, any construction activity is needed to be done. The building regulation of UK building regulation code 2010 covers the extension and construction of buildings. Some building regulations are given below-
The varieties of MMC techniques have changed the industry of construction. The condition of the construction industry is not the same if it is compared with the present time. The change is very significant and it can bring joy and success for this industry.
Modern methods of construction are developed by the construction industry with proper design and planning. The benefit of these techniques are given below-
There are many modern methods that are widely used for construction purposes. These ares-
Above are the main methods of the modern construction system. Discussions regarding the benefits of MMC methods are given below-
Therefore there are various advantages of MMC techniques. For the construction of a dwelling detached 2 storey house for the manager on the “Harrow campus”, several modern methods can be utilized. One of them is a timber frame. The timber frame can be described as a panelized system of structural floors and walls(Schuster et al 2020). These are made with the help of timber clad and studs. The timber frame helps to transfer horizontal and vertical loads to footing. Timber frames are one of the modern methods of construction. Timber frames are suitable if the conditions of ground are very poor. If structural spans are not so large, then timber frames can be used for the construction.
A prefabricated frame of timber can be installed on the site faster. Interior trades like electrical wiring process and plastering are enabled by these frames. However the fabrication and design process of timber frames may take additional time. In very low temperature cases these frames can be installed easily(Wei et al 2021). The thermal performance of timber frames is usually higher than traditional construction. These frames are both robust and b. For cost-effectiveness, careful design of elements of the timber frame is necessary. The timber frames are energy efficient and a natural insulator(Perkovi? et al 2021). The temperature within the house can be regulated by the timbers. Thus comfortable space for living is provided by the timber frame. The maintenance process of timber frames is easy and the durability of the frame is comparatively high. A variety of size and design can be made with timber. Hence different types of frames are available in the market. Wood is a renewable material. It can be recycled easily(Zilberova et al 2019). Thus these types of frames can be used in Harrow campus. The advantage of these frames over traditional methods is discussed and many benefits can be seen. Hence it is proposed that the frames of timber can be used for the construction process.
In this report, modern construction techniques are discussed. The benefits of these techniques are also discussed. The benefits of timber frames are discussed and proposed here for the construction of detached houses for the manager. On the other hand, in section 2, the hand sketch regarding the foundation of the cavity wall has been done. The relationships between the elements of foundation are clearly shown in this figure. Section 1 describes various elements of the detached house. From cavity wall to timber roof, the essential elements of a structure are discussed in this report.
De Wolf, C., Hoxha, E. and Fivet, C., 2020. Comparison of environmental assessment methods when reusing building components: A case study. Sustainable Cities and Society, 61, p.102322.
Hodgson, S., 2018. The changing nature of damp investigations and the implications of retrofit cavity and external wall insulation on standard forms of building. Journal of Building Survey, Appraisal & Valuation, 6(4), pp.301-311.
Jamilan, S., Semouchkin, G., Gandji, N.P. and Semouchkina, E., 2018. Spatial dispersion of index components required for building invisibility cloak medium from photonic crystals. Journal of Optics, 20(4), p.045102.
Jovanovi?, M., Miri?, A., Jovanovi?, G. and Petronijevi?, M.A., 2018. Earth as a material for construction of modern houses. Facta universitatis-series: Architecture and Civil Engineering, 16(2), pp.175-188.
Khoso, A.R., Yusof, A.M., Chai, C. and Laghari, M.A., 2021. Robust contractor evaluation criteria classification for modern technology public construction projects. Journal of Public Procurement.
Malomo, D., Pinho, R. and Penna, A., 2020. Simulating the shake table response of unreinforced masonry cavity wall structures tested to collapse or near-collapse conditions. Earthquake Spectra, 36(2), pp.554-578.
Perkovi?, N., Stepinac, M., Raj?i?, V. and Barbali?, J., 2021. Assessment of Timber Roof Structures before and after Earthquakes. Buildings, 11(11), p.528.
Schuster, J., 2020. Re-Writing the Construction History of Boughton House (northamptonshire, Uk) with the Help of DOCU-TOOLS®.
Shibani, A., Agha, A., Hassan, D., Al-Hadeethi, Y. and Choudhury, M., 2021. Effectiveness of the Modern Methods of Construction in Terms of Cost and Time: A case Study of the United Kingdom. Journal of Civil Engineering Research, 11(1), pp.19-28.
Shibani, A., Hassan, D. and Shakir, N., 2020. The effects of pandemic on construction industry in the UK. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 11(6), pp.48-48.
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