# Cryptography Assignment Sample

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## Introduction

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Cryptography has become popular in the last few years due to rapid globalization and technological advancement across various fields using ICT (Information Communication and Technology). It is a method that is used to create a secure connection between a sender and a receiver and no other third party gets any access to those messages. There are four ground rules for cryptography implementation and they are confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. When certain rules are set to limit access or to set restrictions on secret or private information is known as confidentiality (Alghamdi, 2021). The process of taking care of the accuracy and consistency of data throughout the circle is known as data integrity. The authentication principle is used for confirmation of the attributed truth that is claimed by other entities. Lastly, Non-repudiation is implemented when certain information is needed to be denied.

#### Modeling tools

These tools are developed so that a better understanding of the system is developed. It helps in the visualization of a system properly. This also helps in specifying the behavior or structure of the system (Gurtov et al. 2018).

#### Propositional logic, sets, and functions

A simple logic formed using the statement which is propositional i.e. either true or false is known as propositional logic. It is a common technique of representing knowledge mathematically and logically which can be used in ShopRight. The generation of sets and elements is said to be set theory. The proposition functions determine whether the statement having logic is true or false.

#### Relations of modeling tools

The connections formed between two particular entities in a data model are known as relationships and it affects business rules (Kharbeche et al. 2020). This may be in the form of one-to-one, many to many, or one to many which will help ShopRight to distinguish between them.

The model-based reasoning consists of different sets of collection and approaches of techniques that are loosely connected. It is applied mostly in monitoring, diagnosis, and controlling. There are various types of models among which qualitative models are mostly focused. These models are helpful for ShopRight in situations where quantitative models cannot be used because of lacking knowledge or for being expensive.

### Standard Implementation of Cryptography

#### Block and stream cipher algorithm

Block cipher algorithm-The methodology of data encryption in blocks so as to produce cipher text by using an algorithm and cryptographic key. It processes simultaneously fixed-size blocks. Modern block ciphers mostly encrypt data of 64 or 128 bits only in fixed-size blocks. It uses a symmetric key and an algorithm to decrypt or encrypt data. An initialization vector is required by ShopRight to add to the input plaintext so that the cipher key space gets increased making it difficult to break the code (Ro et al. 2018). Different modes of operation are used in this cipher and they are electronic codebook, cipher block chaining mode, cipher text feedback mode, and output feedback mode.

Stream cipher algorithm- The methodology of data encryption bit by bit is known as the stream cipher algorithm. It uses a symmetric key and an algorithm for encryption or decryption of data. The symmetric key which is used in this cipher is known as the keystream. This keystream can be used by ShopRight if it wants to create a "pseudo-random cipher digit system" with the use of a key that will be of a smaller size than the plaintext file. The two modes of operation are synchronous stream ciphers and self-synchronizing stream ciphers.

#### Shared key methods

This method is used in cryptography when only one key is used to decrypt or encrypt data as required and the sender and the receiver keep it a secret from everybody (Shahandashti et al. 2019). The sender first encrypts the message using a shared key and then the cipher text message is sent to the receiver. Then the receiver uses the same key to decrypt that message.

#### Public key methods

In this method, a pair of complementary keys are used to encrypt or decrypt a message. Here, two keys are used such that they are mathematically related and through one key the text is encoded and through the other, the key is decoded. This process is slower than shared keys as it involves complexity.

It is preferable for ShopRight to use shared key method as it is fast and more secured.

#### Digital signatures in cyber security

A digital signature is used to increase the transparency in online transactions which develops trust between business partners and customers. These signatures are created using a virtual fingerprint which is unique for everybody and this type of signature helps in protecting the information digitally. Digital signatures work by producing a unique hash text and encrypting it by using the private key of the sender. This can be a unique method of data encryption by ShopRight.

#### Hashing Method

A mathematical function used in cryptography is known as hash function and it takes inputs of lengths that are variable in nature and it returns outputs always of a fixed length (Han et al. 2018). The values here are hidden making it difficult to guess any input value of the hash function from the output. This hash function is popularly used in cryptocurrencies in order to pass information securely. The most commonly known cryptocurrency Bitcoin uses this function.

### Software development of cryptography

While developing any software, the developers face a number of security threats and a risk of information leakage is there so to avoid it two types of security are developed. First, Application security is a way that helps to create a defense against software exploitation after the completion of deployment. Secondly, Software security is a way that helps in the defense against software exploitation by software building to secure. Two types of testing are done and they are vulnerable testing and penetration testing (Krichen et al. 2020). The process which detects a vulnerability in the given environment is vulnerable testing and the testing simulates the action of an external and internal attacker that breaches the security of that particular software.

### Conclusion

As the world is becoming modern and everything is converting to digital mode, the need for digital security is increasing with every passing generation. This security can be achieved very easily using Cryptographic techniques. This technique not only protects the customer's identities but also ensures accommodation with industry. All this techniques can be highly helpful for ShopRight. Cryptography has been developed for several years since it came into existence and is hoped to reach a very high level in the upcoming time.

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