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Imapact of Covid 19 And Crisis Management At Tsogo Assignment Sample

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Imapact of Covid 19 And Crisis Management At Tsogo Assignment Sample


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One of the purposes of this report has been to investigate how the links between environmentalism and the hotel industry have altered since the COVID-19 incident. While the crisis has impacted many sectors of the global economy, the challenges within the hospitality industry have been particularly challenging, and the crisis has exposed a number of crucial adjustments within the company's linkages with sustainable development. It is difficult to predict how future events will unfold, or what potential links between environmentalism and the hotel industry may arise, at this time. Many hopes are being put within the industry on such a return to what may clearly be a more normal operating procedure, but the time period and scale of this recovery remain, at best, uncertain. In this research a literature review as well as some analyses are done in the NVIVO software after conducting an interview to find out the impact of the COVID-19 and crisis management at TSOGO SUN HOTEL GROUP South Africa.

Chapter 1: Introduction


Global business has been seriously affected through the increase in the 19 impacts on a large scale. There has been a considerable increase in the illness level due to the presence of this communicable virus that led to the development of block downs throughout the world. As a result of which a complete shutdown has occurred in many business sectors on a global scale. In this research paper, a focus has been made for analyzing the Covid-19 impact developed on "Tsogo Sun Hotel group". Based on the impact, there has been a proper development of interest on the crisis management that is being adopted by this hotel group in South Africa in a suitable manner. So, there has been a development of interest in this research paper for analyzing the process of human resource management that will help in managing the crisis period in a suitable manner. This hotel group has taken different initiatives in order to provide a proper customer satisfaction through the generation of innovative facilities as well as has planned for maintaining the social distancing protocols in a suitable manner. Sustainability is maintained in this hotel for maintaining the hygiene level in this hotel through the consideration of the different innovative ideas accordingly. 


Looking at the perspective of this research, it could be significantly analyzed that the outbreak of Covid-19 has significantly affected the tourism and hospitality industry on a large scale. There has been complete shutdown of different hotels on a permanent or temporary basis as there has been formation of restrictions for tourists and also for hotel administrative facilities due to the implementation of lockdowns and social distancing norms. Based on this aspect there has been a considerable enhancement in the implementation of practices and strategies that will help in developing a comeback for this crisis period and thereby enhancing the profit level for the hospitality sector. This research has been selected specifically as this will help in understanding the strategies that will be implemented by the hospitality business for having a complete recovery during this crisis period.

So there has been a proper implementation of qualitative and quantitative approaches for determining the strategies that are being implemented by this hotel group in South Africa to overcome pandemic challenges through crisis management. There will be a proper representation of the different techniques adopted for crisis management and nearby implementing theories for analyzing the applicability for the proper management of human resources in the hospitality sector.

Significance for research

Through the utilization of interviews that has been utilized in this research by considering 10 different participants, there has been a proper analysis developed in this research for understanding the crisis management initiative considered by this hotel group. This research will help in understanding the impact that is being developed within the hospitality sector on a large scale and will represent the effect that is made through different innovative techniques for managing the human resources.


The aim for this research is as follows:

  • To examine the applicability of crisis management theories at organizational level during the Covid-19 crisis. 

There will be a proper investigation for "Tsogo Sun Hotel Group in Johannesburg, South Africa" for analyzing the impact that is developed through the outbreak of this fatal virus accordingly.

Research Objectives

Based on the research, the objectives for this research are as follows:

  • To critically evaluate the impact of Covid-19 on hospitality human resources.
  • To apply crisis management theories to shed light on complexities in the changing environments.
  • To recommend crisis management strategies at organizational level that may be effective to tackle issues that have reason due to the covid-19.

Research Questions

The questions for this research are as follows:

  1. How did Covid 19 have an impact on the hospitality sector?
  2. What are the different strategies that are implemented by this hotel group for managing the crisis during this pandemic?
  3. What are the different complexities faced during Covid-19 by this hotel group?

Outline for research

Chapter 2: Literature review

2.1 Conceptual Framework

2.2 IDVS and DV


Digital communication

Consumers as well as the stakeholders benefit from a consistent experience when they communicate digitally.  Through removing necessity moment face-to-face encounters, digital communication across varied incarnations, like AI, chatbots, as well as automation, create this simpler for clients on the way to contact enterprises at a suitable time (Foroudi et al. 2021). By the digital communication the Participative leadership as well as responsibility have increased. Workers are capable for working more efficiently as well as quickly. Groups may develop as well as reinforce a common purpose & set of principles. Working from home is here to stay. And lastly it is a collaboration which is essential for success.


An activity is considered a "mass gathering" if the number of individuals gathers altogether as well as this has the ability for straining the healthcare program's preparedness along with response capabilities in the area where this actually occurs. If one is near others, keep a space of at least 2 meters (6 feet) between himself and those around him. It is vital to prevent gatherings as much as possible in order to avoid the Corona outbreak. Through gathering, the COVID-19 virus is spreading more than any other, as well as this does not take long to transmit the virus from one to another.


The hospitality sector is one of the most visible sufferers of the COVID-19 epidemic, that has lost revenue as well as profitability throughout the time. Organizations are contemplating reduction wherever feasible as individuals adjust to the new standard as a result of digital efforts as well as decreasing company volume. As a consequence of the Covid-19 epidemic, human behaviors were thrown into disarray (Bajrami et al. 2021). Such epidemic has also spurred generosity as well as bring communities together during struggle for survival. The country joined together to follow the proper procedures, that comprised keeping social distance, carrying face masks in the public, as well as routinely cleaning their hands often with soap.


In every hospitality industry, providing excellent service is critical on the way to success. Numerous clients focus on digital evaluations to choose whether or not to contact a company, & just a few dissatisfied consumers discussing their personal experiences may rapidly drive them out of business. The hospitality sector encompasses a wide range of disciplines inside the service economy, including hotel, foodstuff along with beverage service, events organizing, amusement parks, transportation, as well as tourism.

Social Distancing

In a pandemic condition, it is critical to keep social distance from other individuals. It's the only way for ensuring people safety. Security measures, travel bans, as well as the closure of institutions, workplaces, venues, concerts, or retail stores are some of the tactics used. People can use social distancing techniques such as remaining at home, restricting traveling, avoiding congested places, employing no-contact pleasantries, as well as actively separating oneself from everyone.



Almost all national markets have come to a halt as a result of COVID-19, a specific strain of viral illness which appeared at the end of 2019. The tourist business is among the hardest-hit industries through the COVID-19 epidemic, with experts as well as businessmen throughout the world agreeing that the tourism along with hospitality business is presently facing the most acute impacts (Mao et al. 2021). The COVID-19 epidemic had spread rapidly, forcing individuals for adopting new social procedures & habits. This has been observed that the epidemic has resulted in favorable opportunities for digitization in internet services. The government took a choice for developing the new infrastructure, which was recently formed via initiatives. This has been observed that there is a positive vibe in case of developing the digitalization.

2.3 Empirical study

According to the author Jones (2020), The study, which focuses upon sustainable growth, crisis management, consumerism, as well as capitalism, offers an intellectual backdrop for the article as well as a collection of signposts. This is difficult on the way to define environmental sustainability, however the current description, initially developed inside the late 1980s, has still been commonly utilized (Wut et al. 2021). Advancement which satisfies the demands of the contemporary without endangering upcoming generations' capacity for satisfying their demands (Wang et al. 2021). More precisely, there are many conceptions of ecological sustainability. To summarize, there are interpretations focused upon ecological, as well as larger interpretations that include societal, financial, ecological, legal, as well as governmental problems. Certain earlier research regarding outbreaks could be linked to wider conceptions of durability.

As per the author Andris (2018), whilst getting control wherever feasible throughout a crisis scenario is unavoidable, a post-incident assessment must be undertaken after each crisis or near-crisis for examining what the organization did well enough as well as understand what this wants to enhance before confronting the next catastrophe. However, before assessing a crisis, its origins, as well as reaction control, the crisis management group leader must provide a final closure to the situation, indicating a return to normality. A broad crisis assessment must be undertaken at minimum once a week to maintain crisis awareness.

Gossling et al. (2020) offered a summary of the initial stages of such COVID-19 issue, highlighted the possible influence upon sports matches, cafes, as well as cruises, or rather indicated that the tourism company's task would be to discover how to speed the development of a sustainable economy. Further broadly, Di Marco et al. (2020) said that the connections among climatic factors as well as the emergence of contagious diseases have gotten little interest through researchers & had not been incorporated within studies about environmental sustainability. Thinking ahead, Di Marco et al. (2020) suggested that this will be prudent to incorporate the research of the rise of contagious diseases into long-term growth strategy. Various efforts have been made towards construct sustainability. Several researchers use the difference among weak & strong viability as a broad conceptual characterization. According to Roper (2012), the earlier prioritizes commercial expansion whereas the latter acknowledges the environmental factors to certain development as well as argues that strong viability subordinated enterprises towards the global community as well as environment. Most specifically, two main theoretical viewpoints are pertinent towards the present studies. As per stakeholder approach, sustainable development is about serving the demands of all of a firm's constituents, which include the business itself, consumers, workers, vendors, as well as society in general.

For instance, Raub and Rice (2019), highlighted the need of the hotel sector creating effective collaborations with the stakeholders on the way to address sustainability concerns. There are additional theoretical methods that are rooted in political economics. For instance, Castro (2018), proposed a critical theory of durability, suggesting that productivity recovery was dependent upon the utilization of both ecological along with cultural capital. Amsler (2021), emphasized the requirement for 'examining the intricate procedure by which conflicting ideas of equitable destinies are formed, rejected, as well as realized in suggesting a broader crucial knowledge of sustainable development (Foroudi et al. 2021). Various literatures, such as crisis management, consumerism, as well as capitalism, provide background for the present studies. The very 1st two are tied directly with sustainable development, whereas the final has significant policy implications. For instance, Israeli et al. (2021), investigated crisis hospitality industry within luxury resorts in South Africa especially TSOGO SUN HOTEL & concluded that administration is a key role throughout crisis management as well as therefore that hotel operators & the governments should collaborate to build response or predictions for new emergency situations.

Kim et al. (2020) studied the application of the emergency preparedness contingencies idea in the time of the SARS pandemic as well as their findings highlighted the significance of having an emergency preparedness management for each scenario, as well as crisis management preparation. The conventional perspective of demand is founded by the side of the concept of individual liberty as well as customers, for instance, it would have been the main catalyst for change in such an adaptation towards a more stable world (Bajrami et al. 2021). An alternate viewpoint contends that focusing upon social practices as well as communal, instead of personal, decisions, is a more successful strategy to fostering sustainable consumer habits. In a nutshell, many sociologists believe that liberalism shapes modern political, financial, as well as public welfare procedures through emphasizing market economy systems, a limited involvement for the authority, as well as personal accountability.

From the related study of Yangyang (2019), Several individuals have begun to reassess existing behaviors as well as concentrate upon physiological well-being in the middle of the COVID-19 epidemic. Given this increasingly prevalent client requirement, assisting visitors throughout leading a healthy lifestyle may turn out to be a post-pandemic pattern for hotels. Meditation programs, technological detoxification programs, exercise programs, healthy diet programs, as well as sleeping cleanliness program, for instance, are anticipated for becoming more prominent in the marketing strategy of resorts (Ozdemir et al. 2021). In such conditions, this becomes beneficial to conduct more research into how hotels might build individualized goods to increase client welfare as well as the customer experience. Experts may, for example, investigate ways of using visitors' behavioral data as well as intake histories, as well as data modeling, for creating personalized, health-focused services. Humanity's greatest wellness is the source of human health (Wut et al. 2021). The COVID-19 epidemic has compelled mankind on the way to recognize the value of environment as well as the biosphere. Eco friendly kinds of tourism, like eco-tourism as well as slow tourism, are expected to grow into popularity following the COVID-19 epidemic, since such travel modes assist towards sustainable development as well as peace among humans along with environment.

As a result, hotels must satisfy such popular opinion through developing eco-friendly plans as well as green practices in answer to tourists' environmental issues. Research must aim to broaden the knowledge regarding visitors' impressions of sustainable green features via researching why & how such views change throughout accommodation types as well as trip goals. There is also a necessity look into ways for businesses for working with customers on the way to co-create sustainable values (Gursoy and Chi, 2021). Because of the worldwide healthcare crisis created via COVID-19, tourists are more likely to base their trip selections by the side of the supply along with accessibility of healthcare services. Such usage requirement is particularly important for hotel establishments in metropolitan areas, specifically those that get a high volume of conference activity (Foroudi et al. 2021). Throughout this regard, future studies must focus upon how hotel owners must create company's marketing material as well as utilize marketing interaction techniques on the way to demonstrate their ability for protecting the visitors through medical emergencies, guarantee visitors of safety along with healthcare during their stay, & end up making them feel greater comfortable regarding the COVID-19 epidemic.

2.4 Theory & Model

Theory of Sustainability as well as Crisis management 

During the commencement of the COVID-19 issue, numerous shifts inside the linkages among sustainable development as well as the hospitality businesses may be detected. Ecologically, the decrease in the quantity of air flights as well as the quantity of automobile traffic, combined with the shutdown of huge swaths of the industrial sector, quickly resulted in significant decrease in emissions as well as pollutions, along with findings of a variety of biodiversity entering the public sphere (Burhan et al. 2021). Nevertheless, such ecological improvements are difficult to be maintained if & when the business as well as the hospitality sector back to normalcy.

Each business crisis has a variable impact on many or all stakeholders involved inside the firm. Consumers may influence or be influenced by the hotel organization as well as its crisis management approaches. Taking into account the numerous chances for collaboration of a hotel organization as well as its relevant stakeholder groups, an integrative crisis management framework for the hotel sector is developed basis of theoretical underpinnings as well as empirical findings through specialist interview analysis. The approach eliminates the gaps as well as the inconsistencies seen in generic crisis response literature & status-specific criteria for the hotel business.

On the one hand, several observers have underlined the significance of appreciating the ecological advances brought about through COVID-19 crisis, as well as the requirement on the way to incorporate durable sustainability practices within any emerging level of stability. On the other hand, there are fears that corona epidemic has resulted in laxer ecological standards as well as practices.  Whereas the COVID-19 problem might well have resulted in certain short-term unique advantages, this has also had a disastrous effect upon the businesses as well as cultures worldwide. The initiation of the downturn resulted in momentary, as well as with in certain cases additional, job losses in the hospitality sector inside the large percentage of advanced nations, but the effect upon millions around the worldwide staffed, explicitly or implicitly, inside the hospitality sector with less developed nations has been hugely damaging. 

Calculations estimated that the COVID-19 issue might result in the loss of 47.7 million employment inside the Asia Pacific area, with millions more at risk within each other countries. Because there seems to be minor structured labor unions security for individuals, no governmental additional funding for staff, & therefore no social welfare programs inside the most of less developed nations, millions of individuals have been driven through into depth of poverty.

Environmental strategy as well as socially responsible have become increasingly critical strategic considerations for several big corporations inside the corporate sector. The hotel sector contributed to this procedure by developing organizational sustainability initiatives at several of its prominent corporations. According to some experts it is assured that multinational hotel sustainability goals maintain regional credibility, that might represent governmental, social, religious, economic ambitions as well as ideals, is a big problem for the hotel business. The COVID-19 situation has created certain possibilities for business sustainability strategies while also posing significant obstacles (Wut et al. 2021). The crisis, for instance, may be viewed as emphasizing the requirement for the hospitality firm's leaders on the way to react to shareholder expectations by facilitating cutbacks through carbon dioxide as well as greenhouse gas emissions, using lots of renewable energy resources, as well as adopting a high adherence in the direction of reusing materials as well as rotating market economics. Nonetheless, such shifts have significant ramifications for the old business structures of the hotel sector.

Nonetheless, this is hard to overlook the fact that the Corona epidemic has wreaked havoc upon that country's monetary system as well as lowered investment, which might also eventually force the hotel management industry's top people on the way to improve what monetary capacity they do have by the side of their company functions (Breier et al. 2021). Furthermore, there is concern that the COVID-19 situation would reduce the hotel firm's adherence towards the SDGs (“Social Development Goal”). In this case, the main competitors inside the hospitality sector could argue that only through having committed the whole of their existing funds as well as creative energy, for instance, to restarting their hotels functions as well as resuming a few knowledge of business normalcy, would then they acquire the monetary support to proceed, or even more authentically, regenerate, their dedication towards the SDGs. Simultaneously, the requirement for achieving the qualitative phase by the side of the SDGs is rather more acute throughout several lesser advanced countries whereas the hotel sector plays a significant role in neighborhood, regional, as well as economies around the world. A few of the socioeconomic advances created since the release of the SDGs throughout 2017 might already have been lost as a result of the COVID-19 conflict, although this might be hard to re-establish company efforts directed, for instance, at improving water sources as well as basic sanitation along with working in the direction of eradicating poverty.

Fink’s Model of crisis management

Steven Fink's famous publication of Crisis Management: Preparation for the Irreversible outlined a four-stage crisis framework that included the prodromal, acute, chronic, as well as resolution phases. The prodromal stage encompasses the time among the onset of symptoms as well as the onset of the crisis. Throughout this time, according to Fink, risk managers must be active in their surveillance, looking for signals of a growing crisis as well as attempting to avoid or restrict the spread. The acute phase comes whenever a trigger causes the crisis event to occur. The engagement of practitioners as well as their strategies occurs during this period.

As a result, the crisis management approach as well as its components place a premium on stakeholder relationship dependability & collaboration, economic continuity, reduced crisis effect, quicker crisis settlement, as well as increased client retention. In practice, the model developed would serve as a broad framework that can be tailored to the unique requirements of a hotel organization with minimal effort as well as in understanding. Reducing crisis vulnerability as well as improving stakeholder’s client relations is the result of the comprehensive Crisis Management System for such Hotel Industry.

The chronic phase covers the long-term repercussions of the disaster, such as when crews restore damages towards hotel rooms after the COVID-19 outbreak. Ultimately, the resolution phase denotes the closure of the crisis as well as a period for internalizing what actually happened via a root-cause investigation along with adopting adjustments on the way to guarantee that this does not happen again.

Fink's approach, like other leading crisis management frameworks, compares the development of a crisis to a lifespan having numerous consecutive phases. According to Gonzalez-Herrero & Pratt's concepts, the phases are birth, development, maturation, as well as collapse, & they describe a crisis response paradigm which mirrors those phases as problems administration, preparing, crisis, as well as post-crisis. Their approach concentrates upon that communications component of crisis response, as well as the investigators defined problems monitoring as a very reactive stage wherein the company looks for along with predicts potential difficulties.

Alan Hilburg, a branding as well as marketing expert, describes the crisis lifespan as a curve which includes prevention, intervention, as well as restoration. That idea is related with such a well paradigm that has 3 phases: prior, throughout, as well as after a crisis. The major significant frameworks, as per Coombs, are all this three-stage structure & Fink, a scientist often regarded as the pioneer of professional crisis management studies. The above four steps of the crisis management will help the TSOGO SUN HOTEL GROUP to recover their loss during the lockdown period of the COVID-19. By simply following these phases the hotel can easily overcome the tough situation. This is one of the greatest models of the crisis management. Only a good management system can bring everyone again into the business. It has to make sure that always try to forget about the past and move forward towards the bright future. Only then, they can think for a better business as well as better life. [Refer to Appendix 1]

2.5 Literature Gap

The fundamental gap throughout this primary study is the expense of the procedure. Such primary research will also take a lot of time for completing, particularly if a big sample size is necessary. The work necessary for successfully organizing, conduct, as well as analyze primary research is substantially more (Birtch et al. 2021). Inaccuracy should be also considered. Participants might well be biased due to prior interactions with an organization, or they could not completely comprehend a query upon that interview, resulting in incorrect or erroneous replies. This is very costly, time-consuming, as well as takes a very lengthy moment in the direction of finishing since this requires face-to-face interaction with individuals.  achieving the greatest outcomes, some conceptual understanding of the topic as well as, preferably, marketing intelligence abilities are required. Getting sufficient individuals on the way to participate in an interview, particularly when you're doing everything yourself, might be difficult. There is still a knowledge gap on the challenges to detecting alert messages when a crisis develops. As the whole literature review has been conducted by taking information from various journals, in that case, it is seen that every journal has different perspective. So, it is quite difficult to choose the right one and also nowhere has the exact information about the topic.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.2 Philosophical Position


In this research the Positivism research philosophy is used. Positivism, as a research philosophy, holds just "truthful" data obtained via inspection, particularly measurements, is consistent. In positivist studies, the article's role is limited towards collect responses and objective assessment (Bhaduri, 2019). In other words, this is an unbiased examiner who removes itself through individual ideas while doing the study. The research findings in these types of inquiries are typically both visible and quantifiable. Positivism is based by the side of the quantitative findings which result in statistical analysis. For creations, this is the controlling method of investigation within marketing as well as economics specialties. "As a theory, positivism is consistent with the objectivist idea which understanding is derived from life experiences," this has been stated. This takes an essentialist, metaphysical worldview, seeing this as a collection of distinct, measurable components as well as occurrences which connect through predictable, defined, as well as consistent ways.

3.3 Research Approach


Inside this Interpretive methodological framework, it is started via gathering data related to the area of interest. Whenever a significant quantity of data is already acquired, it may take a rest through data gathering and stand back to gain a perfect view of research information (Brown, 2021). At this point, it is looking for significant patterns and developing a theory in the direction of explaining such trends. Whenever it uses an Interpretive technique, it begins with such a collection of facts & afterwards progress through such specific experiences towards a more comprehensive suite of assumptions about such situations. In other terms, ideas progress through evidence to concept, or through the particular towards the universal.

3.4 Research Strategy


Every study project necessitates the development of some tactics. There are numerous sorts of approaches. The major approach used in this research methodology is mostly centered upon various acts.  For this study, it is selected to gather data using a interview method in order to assess the impact of Covid 19 upon that organization as well as for examining the crisis management strategies employed in dealing with difficulties that developed as a result of Covid 19. That is why this is Action-oriented research (Coombs and Laufer, 2018). This Action-oriented research technique is employed here in the research throughout this circumstance in the direction of conducting the collaborative research alongside professionals as well as civic groups in intended to notify practice, programs, community engagement, as well as legislation while also providing towards the academic base of knowledge (Mao et al. 2021). Action-oriented research is the systematic technique for doing study with experts as well as society people with the goal of informing practice, program, community development, and policies even while contributing towards the scholarly domain of research.

3.5 Research Method


The main motive of the research is to measure the impact of the COVID-19 in the business of the most famous hotel in South Africa that is TSOGO SUN HOTEL. In addition to this their crisis management is also be analyzed. For this reason, some special technique needs to be utilized. So based on this situation in this research it is selected one special method (Coombs and Laufer, 2018). This is the interview method. This process is totally maintained by focusing the interview quality. And also, for this gathering and analyzing those data it is also used one special software that is NVIVO. So, this is Qualitative research.

3.6 Research Design


In this research it is used a mixed method approach, allowing for a more in-depth explanation as well as validation of the information gathered. Interview questions as well as documentation received through the organization would be utilized as data collecting techniques. Disorganized interviews permit participants for providing in-depth facts along with some knowledge by their individual thoughts, as well as a summary of their viewpoint, allowing others in the direction of creating an idea through their standpoint (Leta and Chan, 2021). A datasheet would be created based upon the review of the existing literature as well as with the report's motives as follows. The datasheet’s purpose is to extract data which would make the interviewer for answering the goals of this research. Secondary materials would be required in the direction of examining past, current, as well as future trends in Crisis Management. By combining data sets, it may develop a deeper grasp of the situation as well as obtain greater assess the information. Combining statistical as well as conceptual methods may assist in the direction of preventing over-reliance upon that earlier while still capturing "soft-core thoughts as well as concepts" along with the personal components required for understanding complicated social circumstances. This may also be used to improve results through a procedure correlational study. On a deeper theoretical level, mixed methods research integrates mindsets, permitting anyone in the direction of examining through the interpretive viewpoints, permitting them to integrate theories production within the context. Having to employ mixed approaches also assists people on the way to grow their expertise, that is especially crucial for those who are just starting out.

3.7 Data Collection 

Sampling Strategy

Sampling is a particular method which is utilized for selecting individuals of a community to participate in research (Wut et al. 2021). Since numerous groups of concern are too big to deal with directly, methods of random tests have been invented to collect samples obtained via massive groups. In other terms, because to the massive size of something like the target audience, it is forced to analyze a high variety of no. of components inside the community in order to correspond as well as draw conclusions regarding this. Tsogo Sun Hotel Group which is South Africa's largest resort network having approx. 100 properties around the nation, has been chosen for this research. After working for the firm for ten years, it would be able on the way to acquire thorough operating control along with analytical perspectives by the side of the crisis management tactics as well as their replicating processes (Nhamo et al. 2020). It might assist throughout acquiring a somewhat more comprehensive as well as in-depth evaluation by utilizing the "convenience sampling technique". This is one kind of non-probability sampling method. A total number of 38 hotels throughout Johannesburg City will be chosen, with ten participants, including one HR Manager, one Income Manager, two Operating Managers, one Executive Director, two Risk Managers, as well as three Public Staff Members.  determining the impact of the Covid 19 by the side of their job as well as personal lives, simple random sampling would be utilized upon three public staff members. When contrasted with probability sampling approaches, convenience sampling provides the benefit of receiving replies quickly.

3.8 Data Analysis 


To analysis the impact of the COVID-19 at the TSOGO SUN HOTEL as well as its crisis management it is used a special software which is known as NVivo. For this reason, the data analysis will be Primary. NVivo which is one type of mixed method software application, would be utilized for analyzing as well as organizing the material through the interviews via discovering patterns through its search engine along with inquiry features (Sevel et al. 2018). It would permit for more accurate outcomes while emphasizing the method as well as full explanation. The original interpretation of the data obtained for particular research is referred to as primary data analysis. Evaluating actual data is the action of creating interpretation of acquired data in order to reply of the research questions which the context has been initially planned for evaluating.

3.9 Validity & Reliability

The amount with which a notion is correctly quantified inside a quantitative investigation is characterized as validity.  For an example, in this research some interview rounds have been conducted for measuring the impact of the COVID-19 at the TSOGO SUN HOTEL as well as the crisis management of the hotel (Viedge and Mitchell, 2018). But if nothing would be obtained regarding the impact of the COVID-19 after the interview then it is considered as the non-valid interview.  Throughout this research, dependability is employed on the way to validate conclusions. My experience heavily focused for the business, as well as the relationships I've developed while serving inside a management role, would lend credibility as well as legitimacy to the study. Whenever a psychological evaluation is being utilized for evaluating any trait or behavior, reliability is a significant concern (Coombs and Laufer, 2018). For example, in order to comprehend how a interview works, this is critical that the assessment be utilized constantly distinguishes persons at single moment of time or over a period of times. In other terms, dependability is the degree toward which observations are reproducible whenever various people conduct the observations by the side of separate days, underneath various situations, using ostensibly various tools measuring the similar thing (Visser, 2020). In summary, dependability is the constancy or steadiness of measurements throughout a wide range of situations wherein the findings must be achieved. Since reliability is defined as constancy of measurement over instance or steadiness of assessment under a range of situations, the most frequent approach for estimating reliability is with a measuring of connection, the "correlation coefficient", which is also known as the "reliability coefficient". The "reliability coefficient" is the connection among two or more independent variables that assess the similar item.

3.10 Generalization

Generalization is a necessary step in the research methods. In a perfect scenario, it might select an overall community in the direction of investigating a study question. This is what enables experts to apply what they have learned by the side of a limited scale to a broader context. Because of the short sample size as well as insufficient time allotted for the dissertation, the findings would not be generalizable perfectly (Wut et al. 2021). Expressing generalization is particularly troublesome inside the human research since this is frequently dependent upon an evaluation of a general populace and might not apply across populations beyond the mainstream. It is a substantial problem in formulating appropriate policies as well as treatments for other groups. The findings in this case could only be applicable to a really small population or in a very unique context, and thus have weak generalizability.

3.11 Ethical Issues

There is still the possibility that public would give fake responses. While using anonymous interviews, the chance of obtaining a dishonest response is reduced, although this does not eliminate totally (Mao et al. 2021). Here it is utilized a interview session for obtaining the data, so there is a chance that a few queries may be unaddressed or overlooked. Another issue which is seen here that most of the people could not understand the way of asking those questions or the actual meaning. This is another reason they could not able to answer the questions (Viedge and Mitchell, 2018). An interview isn't doing an excellent way of capturing a people's emotive reaction on the way to the queries as well as counter-questions. Some responses might be difficult to categorize. Very little person shows their interest towards those interview questions. For this reason, most of time the interview does not succeed. Some responders might select their responses without understanding & reading the question. Whenever employing interview rounds, it is constantly at risk of being unable to access them.

3.12 Limitation

Personal polls are poor for heterogeneity in terms in the present or across brief periods of time. Because interviews record data at such a specific point in time, quantifying population changes is difficult unless three or even more rounds are done at different points in time. Such repetition can be expensive and time-consuming, making recurring interviews impractical. Throughout most situations, impartial polls were unable to provide firm evidence of cause along with impact (Wut et al. 2021). Accessibility to the large group of individuals is restricted due to insecurity. The inability to conduct an interview leading to a shortage of time. The inability for conducting an investigation owing to a deficiency of financing. Due to competing critical obligations, completing a poll is prioritized very least.

Chapter 4: Data presentation & Findings

4.1 Data presentation

Data presentation is expressed as the act of visually representing the connection among multiple data sets utilizing different visualization forms so that an informed choice may be designed depending on that information. Throughout this context, it is described how to represent the acquired data, as well as subsequent articles would focus upon that relevant sampling methods to be used. The phrases Samples as well as Community, Attribute along with Statistical data, Descriptive & Analytical Facts, Randomized Factors, as well as Samples Distributions have been used. In the direction of appropriately presenting the statistical analysis, it must first recognize the forms of data which are commonly seen within every research project.

Numerous statistical software applications are present for data testing. The summary statistics throughout this article have been created using NVIVO software. First of all, there has been organized an interview session by taking some of the people who can help to give proper information as well as can support to do the research successfully. So, the interview session was held on 10 rounds. From each round it is collected some valuable information. After finishing the interview session about the impact of the COVID-19 within the hotel it is gathered all of the information. Then that information has been rearranged in the excel sheet.  After that that information is imported in the NVIVO software for further analysis. This is critical that information "cleaning" be performed prior to analysis. It has been recommended to consult with a biostatistician prior entering information such that data analysis can go smoothly. So, during the research it has been followed all of these steps. Statistics have been utilized for reducing a big amount of data into a few relevant values. All know that studying the entire population is not feasible (due to cost as well as time restrictions), therefore a sample is created.

4.2 Data analysis

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