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The retail environment is dynamic and ever-evolving. In the past, convenience meant more costly things, but this is no longer the case since customers today demand both speed as well as affordable pricing from their shopping experience. In today's retail market, handling customers is the primary driving force. This change in retail competitiveness has resulted in the rise of a number of smaller, regionally-focused businesses competing against one other for customers. Since merchants can't afford to reflect on advantages to their consumers, they must also provide a variety of fresh items, but also develop innovative methods to improve the efficiency and agility of their operations. There are several instances in the background of shops using technological innovations to suit their customers' wants and to truly comprehend their behaviors, such as the creation of big box stores and indeed the introduction of one-day shipping for internet purchases. However, the changes in customer behavior are a result of the current big digital revolution wave.
According to Chen et al.(2018), when it comes to analyzing data, it's simple to deploy a rule-based strategy that doesn't take advantage of patterns (such as demand trends for various things) and isn't tailored to each individual business or item. The best price at which Wal-Mart can sell all of its products by a certain date may be different for each item in the store, with varying pricing elasticity’s. Researchers developed an analytical approach to price reductions because researchers wanted to gain sustainable competitive advantage as well as data-driven. Prices in physical shops can't be marked down as far as they may on the internet. To make room for new goods (such as modulars), items in shops must always be sold completely by some other deadline. As during the discounting period (i.e., sale phase), adequate inventory must stay mostly on shelves to meet client demand as well as prevent out-of-stock issues. If a product is damaged in an e-commerce context, it is simply deleted from the inventory (Chen et al.2021).
Additionally, at a retail shop, price adjustments are restricted to a few times due to the expense of labeling and manpower, but in an e-commerce context, cost increases may be made with many occasions as necessary. If a product is out of stock in an e-commerce context, it is simply deleted from the catalog. Additionally, at a retail shop, price adjustments are restricted to a few times due to the expense of labeling and manpower, but in an e-commerce context, cost increases may be made as many times as necessary. Comparing brick-and-mortar businesses to online retailers, the computational ecosystem is harder to teach in. Data streams (— for example, commodity searches as well as things submitted to a basket) may be logged in the e-commerce digital environment, giving the algorithms additional information about consumers (Theodore et al.2020). As a result, majority data in shops is observational because of the prohibitive expense of conducting studies throughout the store itself. In this structure, the forecasting as well as improvement engines serves as the foundational pillars. For different price levels, the prediction algorithm calculates the projected demand. This includes a no-change scenario. If a single-price discount or a multiple-price markdown is the best approach, the optimal control algorithm proposes the last (— for example, separate as well as multiple-price reduction). This new high-level architecture is shown in the diagram below. According to the optimization problem shown in this image, pricing and also the times at which they have been changed seem to be the choice parameters (Guo et al.2021). The expenditure of repackaging represents a consequence inside the optimization problem.
Including over 2.2 million employees around the world, Walmart faced a slew of labor-related litigation and concerns (Yuan et al. 2021). These difficulties include low salaries, unsafe working conditions, and insufficient health care of the employees. The anti-union policy of Walmart is very b. This is one of the issues of Walmart. The immense power of buying is also one of the drawbacks of Walmart. They provide very low wages for the local employees. Management issue is also another problem of Walmart as the size of the following business is very high, but the controlling power of Walmart is very weak. The challenges of Walmart include a poor reputation of the company, concerns related to environmental sustainability, competitive pressures, government interference in overseas markets, as well as different cultures of the overseas market. The model of operation of Walmart has allowed it to maintain a long-term dominance in the retail industry (Helo et al, 2021).
Walmart is using big data research to build predictive features into its mobile app for shopping. The smartphone app or the ecommerce website of Walmart builds a grocery list as well as the list of shopping by analyzing the information according to what clients as well as others buy each week. They started to use several approaches of machine learning to predict the choices of the customers (Grover et al, 2018). For the purpose of their strategic implementation, the management of Walmart employs three initiatives. The initiatives are as follows: Save money to live better, play, win as well as show, and clean, friendly as well as fast.
The flow of merchandize at Walmart is very fast. They provide items to the customer within a span of 2 days. Sustainability is one of the main parts of the green policy of Walmart. This policy is also known to us as the facilities of zero waste.
Walmart's team of risk management supports the reliance of Walmart on technology to boost efficiency. The team of risk management of Walmart also developed a dynamic system of allocation of the casualty which is also known as CAS that enables Walmart to transfer the eventual expenses of disasters to shops more quickly. Walmart's risk management team supports the company's reliance on technology to boost efficiency. Among its numerous achievements, the team of risk management of Walmart has established processes for quick closed-circuit video monitoring in its retail operations, program coordinator performance metrics to better recognize, replicate, educate, as well as reward best business practices, a smartphone website for even more effective event input, bot software, and much more.
According to Nitin Kishore et al.(2020), using historical data and current market conditions, the forecasting engine attempts to determine the price–demand connection for each product. Considering that consumption would be either predictable or stochastic, Gupta addressed the issue of price reductions in a standard managerial accounting (RM) paradigm. Request for a product in a randomized situation seems to be an increasing function of the product's cost alone. With different degrees of market volatility, quantity demanded seems to be an integral multiple in a stochastic scenario (Jensen et al.2021). However, researchers made a few tweaks to make it work in investigators’ area of expertise. Price determines consumption during an RM model; several predictor factors do it in investigators’. (2) During the discount period, investigators have imposed a limitation that investigators must retain merchandise on the shelf)(Zhou, 2019). In an RM model, investigators use historical data to establish the price-sensitivity indicator, the vulnerability of consumption to movements in costs. It is theoretically possible that the best markdown approach is a particular price range that ensures that bookshelves are cleared by the given date, but not afterwards the above date. Since pricing modifications are simpler to execute and do not need the expense of re-labeling products, this method have been used? Whenever mean reserving values (i.e., the maximum prices customers are prepared to pay for items) decrease over time, knowing whether single-pricing technique is significantly inefficient becomes more critical. Using a multiple-pricing method to empty the shelves by a certain date is the next best option when this occurs (Badiane et al.2019). The multi-objective optimization was designed to maximize revenue while taking into account the three advantages. Assuming that consumption is unpredictable as well as dependent on a number of factors (such as holidays, seasons, and foot traffic in stores), including pricing, is the basis of their method. They employ a two-model evolutionary algorithm to anticipate the price–demand relationship in order to get the most accurate results. For the purpose of estimating consumption, gradient-boosting extrapolation includes historical data to infer the link between such a variety of predictor factors, such as the price. Prediction models are formed using an aggregate of weak representations in this approach. With this model, users get a prediction system made up of a collection of mediocre forecasts (i.e., decision trees). They include: (a) accumulated revenue data over time, with both prevailing as well as continued to lag (i.e. preceding cycle) time-series sale prices; as well as (b), features based on prices, such as price fluctuations from the preceding whole week benchmark prices, which also include disparity as well as profitability. (b) price-based showcases a calendar-specific binary showcase like a holiday as well as schedule of events incident; a categorization showcase like the type of the investigators as well as calendar incident; a mathematical showcase like the inventory levels when compared to the current assets at the beginning of something like the discount timeframe; an item categorizations inside this Wal-Mart ecological system like a subclass, categorization, department, as well as division of something like the product; as well as a conversion feature (Bai et al.2020). Using the Radioactive heat transfer, a fractional differential equation (PDE) designs the correlation between inventory reduces and price increases by encapsulating all plausible different factors but apart from time and cost into something like a purely statistical k, which is the remedy to something like a second-order PDE but which is managed to learn from historical information.
According to Khatun et al (2019), based on several predictor variables, the first demand-forecasting model delivers weekly projections. During the discount period, this may be used to determine numerous price changes. When a product is marked down, the second model uses a single price point to estimate demand and examines how on-hand inventory falls. Each forecasting model has a diverse set of applications. By explicitly measuring price elasticity, researchers also assessed the effectiveness of anticipating the link between price and demand. However, there are several disadvantages to employing elasticity. It's not enough to only look at the impacts of price on demand; users also have to look at the consequences on the market as a whole (Albert, 2019). Using simply price elasticity to represent demand does not offer a complete picture of the environment, which results in omitting key aspects in something like a precise prediction.
The pricing and indeed the time points at which prices are updated are the optimization model's key factors that determine. As a penalty, the cost of re branding is included in the optimization problem. A single-pricing discounted technique is preferable in certain situations, whereas a two-price strategy is preferable in others. One price technique and two pricing strategies are presented to solve these concerns. The markdown-optimization component's effect on operational expenses and revenue production was studied using evolutionary algorithms (DP) throughout the development cycle. DP, on the other hand, was proven to be ineffective in investigators’ scenario because of the high volume of data (Li, 2021). Customers' willingness to pay the highest price for with an product decreases with time, making it increasingly important to determine whether the specific strategy is considerably efficient. Whenever it happens, the very next best solution is to use a multiple-pricing strategy to clear the stores by a specific date. Wealth maximization was one of the three goals of the multi-objective optimizer.
Despite the reality that it is the largest private employer of the world and has a substantial economic influence in the United States, the Walmart Corporation confronts a number of ethical difficulties with worker remuneration, gender inequality, worker exploitation, as well as the health care facility of the worker (JEVTI? et al, 2020).
Walmart has pushed to employ technology, which includes machine learning approaches for prediction as well as checkout facility for the worker which are powered by cloud computing as well as option for pickup, to provide customers with greater flexibility as well as to improve the entire customer experience. They got a competitive advantage over the other retailing companies for huge offerings of financial services, huge customer base, and reputation of the brand as well as ecommerce department. All the products of Walmart are available on their official ecommerce website.
Walmart has a logistic method of cross-docking in which the majority of freight entering their facilities of distribution is sent on belt conveyor which immediately led to trailers getting packed for specific stores (Kamath et al, 2018). This decreases the need for warehousing space.
Walmart offers to the neighboring market several food as well as beverage items such as dairy products as well as meat products, fresh producer, deli items as well as bakery items, frozen foods, seasonal grocery, bread, seafood, condiments, chips, cookies as well as snacks. Green grapes are sold by Walmart (Babich et al, 2021).
Identifying the issue to be addressed and the primary goals to be achieved were critical beginning of the project. Data mining was proven to be necessary for various sales forces. In order to determine the campaign's intended audience, a promotional campaign must first segment its target demographic. They really have to know what investigators’ clients are interested in and what age categories they correspond to in order to plan product offerings. The commerce data science department at Wal-Mart was responsible for the development, execution, as well as testing of this project. Including merchandising as well as maintenance, the developer team and even the data-science team proved that adopting store-specific data-driven algorithms regularly outperforms the old rule-based approach (Bae et al.2020). By conducting numerous testing before moving on with manufacturing, it is gained the trust of the customers. It can be compared the outcomes of investigators’ algorithm to those of the rule-based policy every time we performed the pricing determined by using algorithm. Using artificial intelligence techniques (deep-RL) in huge corporations, such as Wal-Mart, throughout the globe, was also a testimony to the fact for their study. The end-to-end optimization framework's implementation on a big scale comes with a number of problems, and the researchers have developed solutions to those issues. The capacity to learn as well as change at the same time is an advantage in today's complex and dynamic economy.
A consumer's identification (such as age, location as well as sexual identity), investment appraisal technique (including such dates, investigators’, location, buy kind as well as store identity), and lastly Face book data were incorporated in the focused data. It is conceivable to create a set of categories depending mostly on user's social media site interests as well as Wal-Mart’s internal information, which may then be monitored by specialty WebPages as well as groups. Segments may be created using these categories (Basuet al.2021).Effort and time were needed for the idea to be conceived as well as implemented in order to assure a smooth application and user approval. A realistic limitation was introduced towards the algorithm during the testing in Wal-Mart shops (for example, a discount % barrier). Designers created a dashboard that allows us to dynamically offer pricing depending on the number of goods on the shelf (Begley et al.2020). Clearing time is constrained by practical considerations, as seen in this example in a few shops; researchers discovered that pricing increases had different effects on sales than researchers had anticipated. Walmart covers 35 million square feet as this is the approximate coverings of their channel of distribution. Walmart appears to use the intense design of the channel of distribution. The strategy used by Walmart is an intensive strategy of distribution, in which the stores of Walmart not only supply the same sorts of items, but also have the same responsibilities as well as tasks. This is true for every retailer of Walmart on the planet (Pournader et al, 2020). Walmart uses the process of data mining to identify trends in point-of-sale information. Data mining assists Walmart in recognizing trends that may be applied to generate product suggestions to consumers based on which goods were purchased simultaneously or prior to the sale of a certain commodity (Seaman and Bowman, 2021). The rate of error in the process of data collection is very low as the data mining approaches properly predicts the outcomes. They also utilize several approaches to machine learning for the purpose of better prediction.
The product suggestions for different customers are the dependent variables as well as the product, data mining approaches, goods as well as services as well as the several machine learning approaches are the independent variables for this following research.
The data preparation necessitated the creation of divisions that covered classes as well as ages. The data mining of online communities led to the creation of these divisions. "10" has been specified for ages underneath 10 years; "10-20" has been designated for ages among 10 and 20 percent; "20-30" was specified for ages to come among 30 as well as 40; "40-50" was established for years amongst 40 and 50; "50-60" has been established for decades throughout 60 and 70; and finally ">70" was established for ages beyond 70 (Dewan et al.2021). The Wal-Mart project's Interfaces were also used to gather information about consumers and transactions. In order to be able to link each category to a certain segment/store and each segment to a specific shop, it was essential to generate an image is given on the store information that was accessible. All of the properties listed in b. are included in the category files, and the final class corresponds to the segment assigned to each classification. The qualities of each age group are just the same, but again the client's age determines which age category somebody is placed to. It is required to select the secondary data for the purpose of primary prediction. Once the data selection is completed, then it is required to clean the data as well as construct the data for proper prediction. Then it is required to integrate the data.
Retail outlet clustering, experimenting, price–demand forecasting, as well as optimization modeling are all components of the discounting solution they built. Each modules may be upgraded independent of some other components, which would be a benefit of something like the system (El-Ebiaryet al.2021). It is possible to enhance price–demand forecasting, for illustration, without using modeling techniques. In certain cases, experiments may be conducted both online as well as offline. On the internet, researchers were able to test alternative pricing in physical businesses, but offline tests relied on past transaction data for their results. It was one of the most difficult aspects of deploying the whole system throughout all product categories to ensure that the end-user interaction remained seamless.
Data mining methods at Wal-Martmust be used in data modeling in order to achieve the goals established in investigators’ research. Researchers employed WEKA in data gathering, which combines techniques for conducting research in artificial intelligence that are focused on the learning experience of a computer. The "Cluster" function was used to aggregate information network into groups as well as produce new records with customers with similar attributes from previously generated files. Clients with similar features may be grouped using the "Cluster" panel; the "Associate" panel establishes a connection between features and indeed the ultimate classification; and the "Select attributes" committee allows us to use the characteristics that are most important towards the final assignment. NumericToNominal, a filtering that converts numeric data to hypothetical, was used to expand the number of methods accessible. There were two algorithms that might be employed with all of this: the SimpleKMeans and indeed the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms (Jha et al.2018). To make sure that the attribute and its class are always detected, tests were run using the "Associate" as well as "Select attributes" functions. As predicted, the most important characteristics throughout the "Select attribute" situation where group as well as age. After creating ARFF files for 10 persons using useless data, designers ran them through WEKA to ensure that they were accurate. Since several qualities were irrelevant, they remained omitted from this study. The settings of "seed" as well as "numClusters" were modified in files containing 1000 as well as 5000 sets of data before running Cluster testing on WEKA. Researchers found that in the "Associate" experiments, "lowerBoundMinSupport" affects the amount of relationships shown (Lo Brutto, 2021). For subcategory records, the binary number was always presented as 0.1 inside the findings. Because when quantity of "lowerBoundMinSupport" was modified to numbers less than 0.02, the restrictions were shown. CRISP-DM assessment as well as deployment issues are described in the chapter Conclusions and Recommendations.
Even though this is a rule-based demand, it indicates that even the new algorithms required including capability for choosing which retailers and goods can be included in a discount and picking the reduction dates. Many of Wal-Mart’s most important choices would have to be made underneath the pressure of a tight deadline. As Apache Kafka transactions, designers passed in the store, commodity to be heavily discounted, and end date of the markdown window as parameters to the service. Users (— in other words personnel responsible for producing retailing choices) of the application have the option to apply their suggestions, the rule-based policies, or their own personally set pricing (PURC?REA, 2021). Algorithms were used to evaluate the success of each markdown plan to those employing a rule-based approach (i.e., a plan for all market segments, including dozens of stock-keeping components (SKUs) across all related locations, to be removed before a new module refresh date). Subsequently researchers released the system, researchers’ have tracked the proportion of U.S. discounting strategies that have implemented investigators’ suggestions and discovered that it began at 30 percentage points of food items and has since grown to 100 percentage points of all items including clothes.
An algorithm filtering process was used as stated before in the section on Modeling. SimpleKMeans and even the EM method have always been used to do grouping testing. Characteristics and organizational, occurrences, and percentage distribution of each cluster using SimpleKMeans are shown in Table below.
Females with something like a penchant for Food as well as Grocery are found in the Alimentation sector in Cluster 0, which has 42% of the data (green color in figure 1). Cluster 1 is made up of women who enjoy bags and luggage which are between the ages of 24 or otherwise 35. They fall under the umbrella of "Fashion" in this instance (dark blue color in Figure 1). Cluster 2 is made up of 34-year-old male consumers who have a predilection for health and beauty products (the health sector in figure 1 is represented by the cyan hue) (Ritzer et al.2019). According to the findings of something like the three clusters, the typical client is 5 years old as well as shops inside this Luggage and even bag's category most often (segment of fashion).
Designers also tested the EM algorithm on the very same documents (Soule et al.2020). It is important to visualize the findings in Figure 2, where groupings group the data with comparable values. However, which one of the clusters includes client data relevant towards the Fashion category.
There were no errors while using the "Associate" technique with Apriori algorithm, which was able to identify the proper classification for all subcategories throughout all files. When using the CfsSubsetEval procedure in the "Select Attributes" tab, the characteristic (throughout this example, the categories) was correctly detected.
EM Algorithm may be used to develop targeted marketing campaigns based on the data it collects. Consumers who are fashion conscious, for example, will be able to receive a community of people with an interest in sort of manner. It is also feasible to target people above a certain age, for example, customers over 60, if a company is important in performing advertisements for that demographic has a wide range of options for guiding measurements toward desired results depending on business intelligence, thus it may be utilized to accomplish particular objectives. There are many key performance indicators (KPIs) Wal-Mart must keep track of, including inventory usage, attrition, balanced average percentage error percentage, and traditional back-casting methodologiesand a keen eye for business. Back material is a tool for planning a path, not for making predictions, and every route has its own set of dangers (Torres-Baron, 2018). Other risk factors identified by the company include continued unpredictability about the duration as well as long-term impact on the economy of the COVID-19 pandemic, market pressures from rival retailers' M&A activity, as well as financial consequences caused by global warming in replying to weather extremes as well as fully cooperating with new regulations related to climate.
To put it another way, one of the most important concerns with back casting seems to be the context in which it is used and the timing of its deployment. Back casting, which is centered on a sequential way, may provide a larger risk when constructing strategies during moments of uncertainty. It's important to keep in mind that while some people advocate using back concrete as a tool for strategic organizing, its effectiveness will ultimately depend on how much the people using it are able to use it (Watson, 2019). Also, back casting should only be used as one procedure among many available for strategy development.
These trials as well as simulations yielded quantifiable findings, which researchers used to support the validity of investigators’ technique. In 2018, researchers utilized deep-RL (i.e., start exploring) to improve discounting approaches for culinary but also necessary items by comparing the outcomes of their approaches with anyone that employed the commandment approach to evaluate the benefits of their algorithm. An investigational system was originally developed by data scientists and engineers across Wal-Mart’s machine-learning as well as application design agencies was put into place. In order to carry out the experiments linked to pricing in shops, the data scientists had to include several problems (i.e., commercial restrictions) into the experimental setup. An example of a restriction would be the structure of the studies to evaluate various pricing methods. An SKU's price is the same for everyone in a physical shop, but online sellers might present various prices to different consumers for the same item. Wal-Mart canovercome this problem by applying the rule-based approach to retailers inside each of the demography and sales segments researchers defined inside the Algorithmic Architecture section.
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