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Effective communication is highly necessary for living well after the diagnosis of the patient for understanding their needs. Giving support, positive interaction, and communication is one of the effective pathways for dealing with dementia patients and maintaining the quality of their life.
Positive communication and effective intervention help in supporting the person with dementia in maintaining their self-esteem and dignity because their mental condition of them is very poor which makes many challenges (Laparidou et al. 2019). Positive interaction is referred to as the essential aspect for improving the blood flow inside of the brain that helps in creating the synapses that help in improving the life quality of the dementia patient.
The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the importance of interaction, communication, and support for improving the well-being activities of dementia patients.
Dementia patient has faced a huge amount of challenges in interacting with people that hamper their well-being activities because they have poor mental health (Maki et al.2018). In that case, in nursing care effective communication and interaction with this kind of patient help in supporting them in living well.
Due to that reason, nowadays, proper communication and interaction with dementia patients can be an effective intervention in dealing with dementia patients (Kinsey et al. 2021).
The researcher is mainly shaded on this topic for gathering information on how interaction, communication, and their importance in dealing with patients with dementia support them in living well.
1.4 Aim and objectives
The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance of communication, support, and positive interaction with dementia patients.
1.5 research questions
This study is completely based on the different strategies, which are involved in nursing care to treat people who are suffering from Dementia (Yousaf et al. 2019). This will provide sufficient data about nursing care and the different strategies like communication skills, and rethinking strategies, which are mainly used by the nurses to treat the patients (Hithersay et al. 2019).
This review system is completely done with the help of the different electronic databases, for example, those are as follows: “Google scholar”, “BMJ journals”. These files are completely dependent on the information based on the data, which are associated with nursing care. All the data collected from the “Google scholar” and “BMJ journals” are completely based on the different topics. In the first portion, all the articles are based on the “nursing care” of patients who have been suffering from Dementia (Piers et al. 2018). Nursing care involves different strategies and action plans which are taken by the nurses during the treatment of patients with Dementia. The main concept of this review is completely based on the “essentials of Dementia care”, which involves the different nursing care and different strategies taken by the health care workers during the treatment of Dementia patients (Wang et al. 2022). Different keywords are taken for the proper analysis of the case study, which indicates the total concept of this particular review. Some keywords like “mental illness, disability in communication, emotional issues” are used repeatedly for the analysis of this particular case study (Evenblij et al. 2019). In the table, all the keywords are connected by the OR/ AND.
This review completely follows the scoping process in the collection of all authentic data from the articles, which is ultimately helpful to gain in-depth knowledge according to the different articles (Laparidou et al. 2019). It can be stated that all the collected data in this review is carrying the proper validity and authenticity of the review.
This section will identify study elements from selected journals that have appeared in the search. The aim of this study is to develop an overview of supporting strategies for people living with dementia. In this regard, the articles that have appeared in the previous section will be represented in table format. Some primary research has been identified to present the findings of the studies. A summary of the results will evolve in this chapter in table format.
Changing behaviour toward dementia patients can help them to control challenging behaviour
Rosato et al. (2019) write the analysis of the article, which is chosen for this review. This is completely based on the different factors, which are wholly associated with the “public knowledge and attitudes to dementia (Koutentakis et al. 2020)”. This whole article is completely based on the survey and the data analysis, which are taken from the 121 respondents for the analysis of the different factors and their role in dementia. This is showing the fact that the chosen article is completely based on the survey and the primary data, which is directly collected from the respondents. Ten questions were asked to the respondents to understand the mental condition and the needs of dementia people. This article is selected for this review because it is necessary for health workers, especially for the nurse to understand mental illness before making any kind of strategies or action plans to provide proper health care to a person who has been suffering from dementia. The factors, which are involved in this particular mental illness, play an important role in the development of the proper idea about dementia, which are the primary criteria before taking care of a dementia patient. The data, which are used in the chosen article, are sufficient and authentic to understand the effect of dementia on people and the awareness among the people of this particular disease.
As per the findings of the study by Rosato et al. (2019), common people are not aware of dementia and some people have negative perceptions about this disease. Some people think that the only way to manage the behaviour of dementia patients is by controlling their movements. The researchers have stated that people have a lot of misconceptions about dementia and that results in negative perception and a lack of empathy towards these people months condition This is the reason the researchers have suggested doing more campaigns to increase awareness of this condition. However, Arifoglu and Bouchachia, (2019), suggested that abnormal behaviour of dementia patients is due to damage or loss of nerve cells that disrupt their connections with the brain. Alzheimer's is one of the causes of dementia and mostly elderly people suffer from this condition. Hence, management strategies like improved communication are very crucial. According to Sivasathiaseelan et al. (2019), communication with dementia patients is very challenging and a lot of time misunderstanding happens that leads to unnecessary conflicts with the family members or even with the caregivers. In this regard, showing respect and empathy during communicating with dementia patients can comfort the patients and prevent them from getting hyperactive. Other than that, instead of controlling the movement of these patients, they can be engaged in some activities like dancing, yoga, joining a walking group or swimming. Other than that, drawing or painting, book clubs, and drama groups can make the patients happy and improve their mental state. Therefore, other than just prescribing medicines to dementia patients they must be engaged in various activities as supporting and caring strategies for these patients.
Dementia patients might have several co-morbidities that significantly enhance their usage of primary care
The second journal selected for this study by Browne et al. (2017), inferred that those with dementia who had higher numbers of co morbidities die earlier. Other than that, they had significantly higher usage of health services in terms of primary care. This is probably because elderly people are already at risk of chronic disorders due to compromised immunity. The researchers have found that co-morbidities such as CVDs, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension are some of the chronic conditions for which dementia patients had to use primary care so frequently (McWilliams et al. 2018). Higher cholesterol levels in the blood pose threats to developing “vascular dementia” among patients and these higher cholesterol levels significantly increase the risks of Alzheimer's disease (Wolters and Ikram, 2019). Hence, as elderly people are already at risk of various co morbidities, resource planning must be done according to the co morbidities of dementia patients to ensure holistic support, care, and treatments for these patients. As per the findings of Kim and Park (2017), PCC or “Person-centred care” is best for patients who have several chronic physical disorders as well as some serious mental disorders like dementia. Managing dementia patients is it very challenging and in this regard, PCC interventions have shown to decrease delirium, neuropsychiatric symptoms, as well as depression and enhance the quality of life (Yasuda and Sakakibara, 2017). Other than that, it has been found that Person-centred care strategies can effectively lower agitation in dementia patients for a brief term when using the activity-based intervention for patients. PCC can recognise the unmet needs of dementia patients that could have caused challenging behaviours among these patients (Blake et al. 2020). The PCC strategies enable the healthcare providers to recognise these unmet needs, develop, and provide care and support for dementia patients.
Support from healthcare providers and family members can help in managing these vulnerable patients
The third article by Lundin and Godskesen, (2021) has inferred that pain management was of important care and support strategy for patients with advanced dementia. The nurses suggested involving family members in the shared-decision making process. It has been found that due to impairment of cognitive abilities, dementia patients cannot express themselves and for that, the nurses face difficulties in understanding the actual problems of dementia patients who are admitted to the hospital. Hence, many times, they cannot receive timely treatment and that sometimes worsen the pain. The reasons why they have to rely on non-verbal communications are such as screams, groaning, anxious body language, or facial expressions (Khan et al. 2021). Therefore, continuous monitoring of dementia patients can help to understand the difficulties these patients face. The researchers have emphasised that family members or relatives of these dementia patients interfere with the treatment plan and the most common reason is their lack of awareness about this disorder. The reason why the researchers have suggested this is to ensure relatives are well aware of the condition so that they can get involved in the support process. As per the findings of Woodbridge et al. (2018), an environment where dementia patients live must be peaceful and as they often get confused due to their short-term memory, it is important to stick to their regular routine and have familiar objects as well as people around them. Other than that, Courtney-Pratt et al. (2018) have suggested that helping dementia patients to remember things can help to slowly remember important events. However, for those who suffer from advanced dementia, a long-term care strategy becomes crucial and for that reason, continuous monitoring becomes the first priority. Family members often cannot provide sufficient supporter care to these patients and for that reason; they have to be admitted to adult day care and nursing homes.
The quality of care of the healthcare professionals is dependent on education level and work satisfaction
The fourth and sixth articles by Keuning Plantinga et al. (2022); Huang et al. (2020) have emphasised the fact that several factors contribute to the quality of care and support nurses provide to dementia patients and that in turn affect the clinical outcomes of these patients. It has been found that the attitude, as well as perceptions of the nurse, is dependent on the hospital environment, their education levels, and duration of work. Furthermore, the nurses who had finished their dementia course recently had more positive perceptions and attitudes towards dementia patients. The possible reason for that might be as they are specialised in the area they can better interpret the challenging behaviour of the patients and provide effective interventions in this regard. As per the findings of Thyrian et al. (2017), “Dementia care management” or DCM is a model of collaborative care, referred to as a complex intervention strategy that aims to provide optimal support and care for dementia patients. Other than that, support caregivers use a “computer-assisted assessment” to determine a personalised collection of interventions as well as subsequent success monitoring (Jennings et al. 2019). However, it has been that the nurses who have recently passed or have completed their courses and joined the healthcare organisation are more empathetic towards patients. They are technically skilled to build personalised care plans for these patients. However, as per the findings of Boustani et al. (2019), providing job satisfaction is vital to ensure the nurses provide quality support to the patients. Koumakis et al. (2019) stated that flexible work hours, rewards, and motivation for the nurses ultimately improve the clinical outcome of dementia patients and therefore, healthcare organisations must take initiatives and strategies to improve the work environment so that dementia patients can get the necessary support and treatment.
Therefore, it can be stated that in order to provide holistic care and support to dementia patients it is very crucial to consider their existing co morbidities. This can help to improve the clinical outcomes of the patients. Other than that, it has been found that the nurses have to provide job satisfaction to ensure they provide quality care to the patients suffering from dementia.
The whole review is completely based on the “essentials of dementia” which includes different strategies and action plans, which are taken by the healthcare workers, which helps them to make the improvement among the patients. The introduction part is completely based on the background and the aim and objective of the studies, which indicates the effectiveness of the communication skills as well as the importance of rethinking the different behaviours, which help them in the improvement of the existing strategies, which are mainly used for the development of the patient mental health. The supporting evidence is representing the different strategies that are generally taken by healthcare workers and the factors, which are associated with dementia. The collected data is more authentic which indicates the fact that the secondary data which are collected for this review, are completely authentic. The data in those collected are collected primarily with the help of surveys and the questionnaires that indicate all the data are collected from the healthcare workers as well as the patients who have been suffering from dementia for a prolonged time. The result section is reflecting different ideas, which are associated with dementia and provides sufficient knowledge about this mental illness. The other results also reflect the possible health care strategies which are appropriate for the treatment of the patients who are suffering from dementia. Some results are also representing the fact that the communication skills of the health workers are playing an important role in the improvement of the mental health of dementia patients. The discussion portion is completely based on the analysis of the result and the alignment of the chosen article with this particular case study, which indicates the proper connection between them. The positive impact of the case study is completely depending on the proper effectiveness of the chosen strategies, which are helpful for the development of the proper case scenarios. Overall, it can be concluded that the proper analysis of the result section will help to understand the proper essentials of dementia, which is required for this ultimate case study.
Browne, J., Edwards, D.A., Rhodes, K.M., Brimicombe, D.J. and Payne, R.A., 2017. Association of comorbidity and health service usage among patients with dementia in the UK: a population-based study. BMJ open, 7(3), p.e012546.
Huang, L.K., Tsai, J.C., Lee, H.H., Kuan, Y.C., Lee, Y.T., Lin, C.P., Chao, S.P. and Hu, C.J., 2020. Dementia screening for elderly in-patients and its association with nursing care satisfaction-an observational study. Medicine, 99(2).
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Cadar, D., Lassale, C., Davies, H., Llewellyn, D.J., Batty, G.D. and Steptoe, A., 2018. Individual and area-based socioeconomic factors associated with dementia incidence in England: evidence from a 12-year follow-up in the English longitudinal study of ageing. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(7), pp.723-732.
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