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According to the World Health Organization, health is not only absence of disease it indicates complete social, psychological, and physical wellbeing (Who.int, 2020). It has been identified that health is influenced by multiple social, psychological, and behavioural factors. Here, the thesis statement is positive social, psychological, and behavioural factors that influence health and wellbeing.
Purpose of this essay is to identify psychological and social factors that influence health, wellbeing, and behaviour. This essay is going to discuss the medical model and psychological model for health. Finally, the principle of psychology for health management is going to be covered in this essay.
Health psychology can be recognised as a psychological aspect that focuses on three major areas such as physical (general consideration to health), social (social bonding and relationship with others) and psychological (mental health, stress and values) factors which influence overall health and wellbeing of an individual (Gurung, 2018). Now this section is going to discuss multiple psychological factors that create significant effects on health and wellbeing. It has been identified that lifestyle, personality characteristics, and stress levels may create effects on health, illness, and behaviour.
Lifestyle factors of people are one of common and most significant factors, which might affect the health, and wellbeing of individuals. According to Oostingh et al. (2019), lifestyle factors influence behaviour of individuals, which lead them to have negative health and wellbeing. In Context of the UK, it has been identified that 33% of men and 31% of women are associated with alcohol habits (Bbc.com, 2018). Approximately, 7700 people have died in the UK by the end of 2017 due to alcohol behaviour (Bbc.com, 2018). According to NHS survey data, maximum death rate is associated with alcoholic behaviour.
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In addition, unhealthy eating habits are also identified among UK people. It has been identified that by the end of 2019, 40% of UK people responded that they consumed a healthy meal very often (Statista.com, 2019). Here, it can be stated that healthy eating behaviour is common in the UK. Unhealthy eating habits, poor lifestyle factors may develop cardiovascular disease and major health illnesses (Hamer et al. 2020). Around 90,000 UK people died identified due to poor diet patterns (Dailymail.co.uk, 2019). It has been identified that poor diet influences the issue of obesity, lack of physical activity, which lead people towards the issue of death.
Personality characteristics are another factor of psychology, which influences illness and behaviour. These characteristics can be divided into four groups as personality A, B, C and D. Personality-A types are competitive and ambitious in characters. This type always wants to achieve something in time (Lsbc.lu, 2020). These people are associated with high cholesterol, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Person B is a cool and lazy people, who may face the issue of poor physical activity and obesity. Personality C is dependable and calm, which may face the issue of depression, which is directly linked with obesity (Lsbc.lu, 2020). Type D personality is associated with distress activity, which may face the issue of depression and coronary heart disease.
Further, stress level is a physical and psychological action, which might create negative effects on health and wellbeing. According to Wallace et al. (2021), stress levels may develop the breathing issue, type 2 diabetes. Therefore, by focusing on the above discussion, it can be stated that lifestyle factors, personality characteristics, and stress level are common psychological factors, which may influence health, illness, and behaviour.
Health Belief Model (HBM) indicates belief, perception, and knowledge of an individual regarding health and wellbeing help to lead them to positive behaviour and improve their health and wellbeing (Walrave et al. 2020). It has been identified that HBM is a psychological and behavioural model, which is focused on six major areas to improve the health and wellbeing of individuals; those are discussed as follows.
The perceived susceptibility indicated subjective knowledge of individuals regarding their disease, health determinants, and illness. In this stage, an individual may gather information regarding subjective knowledge of disease.
The perceived severity indicates personal feeling, seriousness of an individual regarding their health and wellbeing (Green et al. 2020). In this stage, an individual gathers information about consequences of a poor lifestyle and enhances their feelings regarding health and wellbeing.
The perceived benefits stage indicates a perception of an individual regarding effective ends of action plans to reduce the health burden and improve quality of life. In the context of psychological factors and poor lifestyle behaviour, this stage promotes acknowledgement among people regarding effectiveness of healthy behaviour and its impact on positive health and wellbeing.
This perceived barriers stage refers to the perception of individuals regarding barriers or obstacles regarding health issues. In this stage, an individual may think that healthy diet behaviour with proper dietician guidelines may be expensive, time-consuming which might affect an individual towards positive health behaviour (Green et al. 2020). The action plan stage is to promote education on proper health education from professionals and implement effective health behaviour to improve health and wellbeing. The final stage is self-efficacy which developed after successfully implementing healthy behaviour and improving confidence regarding health and wellbeing. Therefore, by focusing on the above discussion, it can be stated that the health belief model is an effective and useful model, which helps to promote healthy behaviour among individuals, and it may lead them towards a healthy lifestyle.
Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) is a widely used framework, which focuses on particular issues, which act as potential threats. On other hand, PMT is a major psychological model, which improves the health and wellbeing of individuals by improving their motivation towards healthy behaviour (Wang et al. 2019). This model focuses on two major areas as threats and coping appraisal. In context of threats, unhealthy habits, poor diet, lack of physical exercise, smoking and alcohol behaviour are major threats of lifestyle factors. In terms of coping appraisal of healthy food habits, regular physical exercise is a healthy pattern, which improves the health and wellbeing of individuals. In the next stage, a combination of threats and coping behaviour may tie-up, which helps to reduce the issue of psychological barriers and improve self-efficacy. It has to be mentioned here that significant coping strategies improve healthy behaviour and motivation of an individual (Wang et al. 2019). Therefore, by focusing on the above discussion, it can be stated that protection motivation theory allows an individual to assess the threats and implement coping targets against those threats. In the next stage, this model promotes healthy behaviour followed by influence on psychological health and wellbeing.
Principle can be defined as a fundamental truth, which improves the health and wellbeing of an individual, based on their lifestyle and behaviour. Psychological principle for health management behaviour is going to be discussed here.
Psychological principles promote and maintain healthy behaviour, which helps to reduce illness and improve quality of life (Ogden, 2019). It has been identified that psychological principle key principle is to promote healthy behaviour among people which help to improve health behaviour and psychological; well-being of people (Cheng et al. 2019). Promotion of healthy behaviour is not only to improve the health of an individual rather it creates a significant defect on community health.
In addition, another common principle of psychology is to promote the process of how people should react, cope, and manage illness and disease. It has been identified that the principle of psychological health helps to promote significant behaviour and education among people regarding how they should react, cope, and manage illness. According to Bekalu et al. (2019), effective health education is essential to improve the health and wellbeing of people. Therefore, it can be stated that promotion of health education is another principle of psychological health, which improves the behaviour of people.
One of the significant principles of psychology is to promote personalization of treatment and intervention to improve health and wellbeing. Personalized treatments and interventions are essential because the same treatment or intervention is not applicable for every disease. Here, it can be stated that effective treatment and intervention are also important to improve health and wellbeing. Promoting health care policies and systems is another principle associated with psychological health and wellbeing.
This essay can be concluded that positive social, psychological, and physical behaviour influences the health and wellbeing of individuals. This essay has discussed psychological factors that influence health, illness, and behaviour. This section has been identified that personality characteristics, lifestyle factors, and stress are common psychological factors that influence health, illness, and behaviour. In addition, this essay has analysed health belief models for discussing how it helps in behaviour change. It has been identified that health belief models focus on six stars to implement positive behaviour and health development. Finally, this essay has discussed psychology models, which create positive effects on health behaviour and motivation. In this section, this essay has used protection motivation theory. Finally, the principle of psychological health has been discussed in this essay. Finally, this essay has justified its thesis statement that effective social, psychological, and physical behaviour creates a positive effect on both physical and psychological health of people.
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Ogden, J., 2019. EBOOK: Health Psychology, 6e. United States: McGraw Hill.
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Cheng, S.T., Au, A., Losada, A., Thompson, L.W. and Gallagher-Thompson, D., 2019. Psychological interventions for dementia caregivers: what we have achieved, what we have learned. Current psychiatry reports, 21(7), pp.1-12.
Green, E.C., Murphy, E.M. and Gryboski, K., 2020. The health belief model. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Health Psychology, pp.211-214.
Hamer, M., Kivimäki, M., Gale, C.R. and Batty, G.D., 2020. Lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease in relation to COVID-19 hospitalization: a community-based cohort study of 387,109 adults in UK. MedRxiv.
Oostingh, E.C., Hall, J., Koster, M.P., Grace, B., Jauniaux, E. and Steegers-Theunissen, R.P., 2019. The impact of maternal lifestyle factors on periconception outcomes: a systematic review of observational studies. Reproductive biomedicine online, 38(1), pp.77-94.
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Wang, J., Liu-Lastres, B., Ritchie, B.W. and Mills, D.J., 2019. Travellers' self-protections against health risks: An application of the full Protection Motivation Theory. Annals of Tourism Research, 78, p.102743.
Bbc.com, 2018. Most adults living unhealthy lifestyles. Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-46439892 [Accessed 07 January 2022].
Dailymail.co.uk, 2019. Bad diet to blame for one in six deaths: Poor food choices are killing 90,000 per year – almost as many as smoking. Available from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6883693/Poor-food-choices-killing-90-000-year-smoking.html [Accessed 07 January 2022].
Lsbc.lu, 2020. Understanding Personality: A, B, C, and D Types. Available from: https://lsbc.lu/understanding-personality-a-b-c-and-d-types/ [Accessed 07 January 2022].
Statista.com, 2019. Would you say that you eat a healthy and balanced diet?. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1085381/healthy-eating-in-the-uk/ [Accessed 07 January 2022].
Who.int, 2020. WHO remains firmly committed to the principles set out in the preamble to the Constitution. Available from: https://www.who.int/about/governance/constitution [Accessed 07 January 2022].
Appendix 1: Lifestyle of UK adults
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