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Basically this “additive manufacturing” is rapidly technology expanding the number of “industrial sectors”. Ecological advantages and freedom of design are provided by this “additive manufacturing”. Additive manufacturing changes important files design for fully functional products.
Many additive manufacturing processes are available now (Chen, et al. 2021). These methods of processing are used in the principal of operating and materials. In this method some melts to produce all layers.
There are some methods regarding this “additive manufacturing” are:
This study will discuss only two methods of additive material (AM).
Process one: Laser based
This “laser based” AM (Additive Manufacturing) uses the source of a laser of low to medium power to melt in order, cure or solidify the material. This “laser based” process of AM (additive manufacturing) is basically divided in two parts or sub categories, and this deviation depends on mechanism change phase, polymerization of laser and namely melting laser (Cotteleer et al. 2021). In the process of “laser melting” supplied the material in powder is formed, either directly via nozzles or “powder bed” to the head of processing. A “laser beam” is basically used for material melting, after that this will cool down, and then it will left to be solid in order to be part of production. In “laser polymerization” the materials basically used photosensitive resin, upon exposure its been cured to UV (Ultra Violet) radiation, which was provided by “low power laser source”.
This “laser based” process contains ‘polymerization of laser’ and ‘laser melting’.
All “laser polymerization’ is a process of AM (additive manufacturing). This process are basically based on the same phase of material change principle; a photosensitive resin of liquid that has been solid on laser source illumination (Friedrich, et al. 2021). It basically uses a low power laser source. The “laser polarization” process is basically limited in part to polymer producing of enough resin of low-strength, although they use the application of non-structural and prototyping in the place of ‘structural part producing’.
All “laser melting” is a process of AM (additive manufacturing) process. This melting process basically used a laser source to change a particular material which is ready for melting into fine powder form. After that this particular melting material ready for cooling down, and after that it will turn the final part solid. The ‘x-y plane’ has been used for scanning the optics to steer this laser beam.
Process two: Extrusion process
This is another process of additive manufacturing. This “material extrusion” process is a thermal process and it is used for heated ‘extrusion nozzles’ in order to melt material or soften, Basically plastic, which is provided as wire form (Hämeenaho, et al. 2019). After its being melted, it proceeds through a nozzle of extrusion which is used for depositing this material, and then it will cool down, as per the order to solidify and form its final part into geometry.
This process is defined in two parts “rob casting” and “Modeling disposition of fused”.
There are some reasons for using this manufacturing process. Basically for additive manufacturing the “laser based” process is very useful for manufacturing. This laser based AM (Additive Manufacture) process helps to create a part of solid in very good or suitable shape from its very liquid form (Beiderbeck, et al. 2018). This laser based process is basically very easy to use for a manufacturer. This process is much easier than the other because the laser based process uses the laser; on the other hand the extrusion process is a thermal process.
In this laser based process using this lasers
Basically this “Topological optimization” is a method of mathematics. It helps to mainly make the batter this distribution of these particular materials in a defined domain, and it’s also fulfilling the given limitation the previously established and also minimizing this pre-considered cost function.
This “Topology Optimization” is a method of optimization that employs the mathematical tools for optimizing distribution of this material as a designed part (Torn and Vaneker 2021). In topological optimization the earlier development is considered as manufacturing conventional techniques have some limitations in manufacturing complex geometries.
Topology optimization is the key area of any research because it is implemented in the additive manufacturing (AM) functional part, because of its optimization design and materials technology in advance.
There are some designs problems in the optimization concept about the material size, what kind of shape needed and product topology are optimized simultaneously or separately. All these concepts are very important for manufacturing (Lemos, 2021). Shape of product, size of product, and distribution of the product is mandated in the distribution process. Optimization size basically deals with the size of this material, shape optimization deals with basically the shapes of material. Topological optimization helps to make or build a material with its requirement size, shape and weight.
There are some processes regarding this product optimization.
For optimizing its mandate to traffic in websites home page. It's too difficult to get customers for this product on this product’s site. For the optimization its mandate to make a good design for this product, like shape, topography, size and topology (Jimo, et al. 2021). This will reduce the weight of this product. Optimization is a process, an act, or methodology for making something (a well-designed decision and system) as fully functional, effective and perfect as possible. Especially the procedure of material (such finding its maximum function) involved in it. For any material or any product optimization is very important.
In this section some critical analysis regarding the “additive manufacturing” laser based process.
This “laser based” AM (Additive Manufacturing) uses the source of a laser from medium to low power to melt in sequence, cure or freeze the material. This “laser based” process of AM (additive manufacturing) is basically divided in two parts or sub categories, and this deviation depends on mechanism change phase, polymerization of laser and namely melting laser
Some important parts of this laser based process are SLA (“stereo lithography”), SGC (“solid ground curing”), LTP (“liquid thermal polymerization”), BIS (“solidification of beam interference”), HIS (“holographic interference solidification”), SLC (“selective laser sintering”), DMD (“direct metal deposition”), LPD (“disposition of laser powder”), SLC (“cladding of selective laser”), SLM (“melting of selective laser”), DMLS (“sintering of direct metal laser”) an LENS (“laser engineered net shaping”).
Basically CO2 laser, Yb-fiber laser and laser YAG are used mainly for the laser process for melting.
This LBAM (“Laser Based Additive Manufacture”) is an advanced process for the production and manufacturing of a product. It's a simple way to do this. Its use to forge metal parts, and complete practical and practical graded products. This LBAM (“Laser Based Additive Manufacture”) is a versatile technique for manufacturing.
The laser based process follows in additive manufacturing because its ability is very easy to manipulate the laser beam by control technique of computer numerical cause it has no contact with the work piece and is weightless. Its ability to shape the laser beam in additive manufacture on the mandrel both temporally and spatially consequently enables this processing a big range of the materials and shapes component. Laser beam is always the better choice for AM (Additive Manufacture). The lasers are the most successful source of energy in AM (Additive Manufacture). Because the laser can be transfer large sources of energy into micro scale. Nylon is a common useful material in laser based additive manufacturing. Nylon is a production end use and bly capable of bringing out thermoplastic for all practical prototypes. With high habitat stability it's a durable part and it's an ideal for complex gathering.
Some materials that are being used in laser based additive manufacturing are super alloy based on in, aluminum, copper, steel (stain less), Steel of tool, tungsten, titanium and chrome of cobalt. Especially SLM is useful for tungsten. Because of this highly melting.
The laser based additive manufacturing process is very useful process for manufacture.
Beiderbeck, D., Deradjat, D. and Minshall, T., 2018. The Impact of Additive Manufacturing Technologies on Industrial Spare Parts Strategies.
Chen, Z., Han, C., Gao, M., Kandukuri, S.Y. and Zhou, K., 2021. A review on qualification and certification for metal additive manufacturing. Virtual and Physical Prototyping, pp.1-24.
Cotteleer, M.J., Goldenberg, S.S., Wing, I., Alliyu, O., Kania, S., Mujumdar, V. and Sniderman, B., 2021, November. Cybersecurity Requirements for AM Systems: New Enforcement in DoD Environments, and Resources for Implementation. In Proceedings of the 2021 Workshop on Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) Security (pp. 49-60).
Friedrich, A., Lange, A. and Elbert, R., 2022. Make?or?buy decisions for industrial additive manufacturing. Journal of Business Logistics.
Hämeenaho, E.T., Tölander, H., Nordenberg, E., Komi, E., Rytkönen, I. and Karjalainen, J., 2019. Additive Manufacturing Center Of Excellence (AMCE) In Finland.
Jimo, A., Braziotis, C., Rogers, H. and Pawar, K., 2021. Performance Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing Supply Chains. In Symposium on Logistics (Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 386-411).
Lemos, N.D.S., 2021. The future of additive manufacturing: materialise´ s lbo-Company & market analysis (Doctoral dissertation).
Torn, R.J. and Vaneker, T., 2021. Design method for cost-effectively realizing high variety products. Procedia CIRP, 96, pp.139-144.
Zeelie, E., 2019. A lean project management framework for additive manufacturing (Doctoral dissertation, North-West University (South Africa)).
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