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Floods are the most frequently occurring natural phenomena around the world. Floods sometimes cause catastrophic damage to a country if a proper flood protection system is not established. To accomplish the process to reduce the damage to nature by flood accurate prediction methods need to be developed. The flood inundation mapping is a modern method to establish a good mapping system to map the area frequently covered by water during an event of flood. In flood inundation mapping a digital mapping is created to compare the virtual surface of the water elevation with the virtual surface of the ground elevation. Creation of two dimensional or three dimensional figures gives a proper understanding of the geometric condition of the surrounding topography of the land. Accurate prediction of the area commonly exposed to flood inundation helps the city planner and emergency service to keep notice of it. The use of flood inundation modelling generally involves models of hydraulic to accurately estimate the elevation of the water stage and the terrain condition. It is well reported the devastating impact of the flooding in 2007 in Hull City, as the city is closer to the coastal area the submergence of the low lying area is common.
1.2 Background of Study
The importance of mapping the topography to provide assistance to the selection of the type of flood protection system which will perform well in Hull city currently in the development. Using ArcGIS to map the area where the Flood inundation system will work well will give a clear understanding of the budget needed to establish for the project (Parida et al., 2020). The rising population in Hull City has aggravated the drainage problem that the city was already facing for many years (Asgharinia et al., 2019). Lack of improper planning has caused the city administration to look for modern technology to upgrade the drainage system and building of several new river training works to prevent future calamities. Flood inundation mapping commonly uses a one-dimensional model based on hydraulic help to design and plan the drainage system to calibrate the capacity of the combined sewer (Brakenridge et al., 2019). The use of flood inundation systems are prolific in establishing better parameters that will quickly help to obtain a good structure. Uncertainty in the flood inundation system is also there as accuracy of the techniques applied in creation of the mapping varies on establishing the type of design flow, elevation of the terrain.
The development of ground mapping and finding of existing cross-section of the river channel is important to understand the previous hydraulic condition of the ground. The use of Hydraulic modelling is evaluated by use of rainfall-runoff model to establish the assumption that the structure will work in the region (Coulibaly et al., 2020). The use of flood inundation mapping helps to protect lives and public property by understanding the flood risk and effective cost mitigation system. Proper planning of the drainage system by use of ArcGIS Flood inundation mapping helps to prevent the submergence of the land city of Hull in the future.
1.3 Research Aim
The study aims to use ArcGIS software to undertake the Flood Inundation Mapping system to better understand the ground topography of Hull city. And second of all, the importance of establishing proper drainage systems to prevent overwhelming flooding conditions with keeping in mind the low lying position of the city.
1.4 Research Objective
The set of objective aligned with the aim of the project are outlined in the research:
1.5 Research Question
Based on the only purpose of conducting this study help to understand the impact of lack of proper flood management system in the nature, the research is cordially structured to answer key questions such as:
1.6 Research Hypothesis
The study inspect the scenario on which the evolution of the hypothetical statement are considered:
H0: Flood Inundation Mapping critically helping to plan proper drainage system
H1: Flood Inundation Mapping not appropriately helping to plan proper drainage system
H0: The use of GIS is important to understand the topographical condition of the city
H1: The use of GIS do not give full picture of the ground condition of the city
1.7 Research Rationale
In the year 2007, Hull City was flooded extensively and the drainage system was overwhelmed to handle the situation. Hull city is a low lying land with over ninety percent of the land below the high tide level. Establishment of proper flood mitigation system will potentially help to face the situation well in future. Availability of geospatial data helps to establish the hydraulic model surrounding the watershed process and parameters (Kumar et al., 2021). The accuracy of the flood inundation maps totally depends on the variables that will help to estimate the design flow properly. Hull City frequently faces such devastating floods and establishment of permanent fixity to the problem has become important due to climatic conditions (Tarboton et al., 2018). Flood Inundation Mapping helps to understand the topographical condition of the city well and provide solutions to the problem in a well-planned manner.
Given the uncertainty surrounding the situation and recent advances made in the framework the use of flood inundation mapping is critical in recognising the dependent variables (Tarboton et al., 2019). Flood inundation mapping commonly uses a one-dimensional model based on hydraulic help to design and plan the drainage system to calibrate the capacity of the combined sewer. The width of the uncertainty zone is dependent on the perfection and various flood inundation boundary map. Uncertainty surrounding the information framework provided by flood inundation system allows to cross verify the parameters.
1.8 Research Significance
The project is significantly important to establish a proper drainage system to manage the flooding situation in Hull City. The flood inundation mapping is important to critically identify the risk associated with improper planning of the drainage system (Chen et al., 2018). The flooding condition in Hull City needed critical assessment of the past flooding condition in the city to properly analyse the model that would suit the process. The flood inundation mapping is a modern method to establish a good mapping system to map the area frequently covered by water during an event of flood. In flood inundation mapping a digital mapping is created to compare the virtual surface of the water elevation with the virtual surface of the ground elevation. The development of ground mapping and finding of existing cross-section of the river channel is important to understand the previous hydraulic condition of the ground. Flood mapping of the region to compare the extent of flooding is causing the problem. The research significantly explores ideas that will help to mitigate the problem by offering proper effective methods that will prevent recurring of devastating flood in Hull City (Afshari et al., 2018). The use of modern technology to modernise the existing drainage system is in compliance with the need arising in Hull city. The most captivating purpose of conducting this study is to understand the effectiveness of the use of Flood Inundation Mapping to upgrade the existing drainage system and constructing the need of new river training works to control the meandering pattern of the river.
The chapter extensively provides an insight into the niche areas on which the research is conducted. The aim and objective of the research provide an in-depth understanding of the primary goal established by the research and the need to focus on the problem. The study also covered the research background which need an added emphasis on the involvement of Flood Mapping system and offer solutions which will suit the situation. The chapter explains the benefit of the use of Flood Inundation Mapping system to appropriately establish the need to present the condition well aligned with the actual ground condition. Given the complex interaction of the uncertainties from various variables in the flood inundation process a proper system needs to be developed to better deal with the system well. The design level of the urban drainage system needs to be considered well to identify the vulnerability of the condition of the site. Moreover the chapter helps to present the importance of the research work needed to undertake and in specific areas which will further help to understand the benefits of Flood Inundation Mapping to control the flooding condition. Lastly, the overall framework help to conduct the research is well presented in the chapter.
Afshari, S., Tavakoly, A.A., Rajib, M.A., Zheng, X., Follum, M.L., Omranian, E. and Fekete, B.M., 2018. Comparison of new generation low-complexity flood inundation mapping tools with a hydrodynamic model. Journal of Hydrology, 556, pp.539-556.
Chang, M.J., Chang, H.K., Chen, Y.C., Lin, G.F., Chen, P.A., Lai, J.S. and Tan, Y.C., 2018. A support vector machine forecasting model for typhoon flood inundation mapping and early flood warning systems. Water, 10(12), p.1734.
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Shen, X., Anagnostou, E.N., Allen, G.H., Brakenridge, G.R. and Kettner, A.J., 2019. Near-real-time non-obstructed flood inundation mapping using synthetic aperture radar. Remote Sensing of Environment, 221, pp.302-315.
Tripathi, G., Pandey, A.C., Parida, B.R. and Kumar, A., 2020. Flood inundation mapping and impact assessment using multi-temporal optical and SAR satellite data: a case study of 2017 Flood in Darbhanga district, Bihar, India. Water Resources Management, 34(6), pp.1871-1892.
Vojtek, M., Petroselli, A., Vojteková, J. and Asgharinia, S., 2019. Flood inundation mapping in small and ungauged basins: sensitivity analysis using the EBA4SUB and HEC-RAS modeling approach. Hydrology Research, 50(4), pp.1002-1019.
Zheng, X., Maidment, D.R., Tarboton, D.G., Liu, Y.Y. and Passalacqua, P., 2018. GeoFlood: Large?scale flood inundation mapping based on high?resolution terrain analysis. Water Resources Research, 54(12), pp.10-013.
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