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International Tourism Policy And Development Assignment Sample

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International Tourism Policy And Development Assignment Sample


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Task 1

1.1 “History of tourism policy”

In the context of tourism, the practise of travelling beyond one’s own nation for the purpose of leisure, relaxation, or pleasure, often in connection with the purchase of products and services from other enterprises, is defined as follows: Touring groups are a product of current social systems, which first appeared throughout Western Europe in the 17th century, but whose origins may be traced back to ancient antiquity (Hassan et al ., 2020). The effect of international tourism, which has grown in importance as a substantial economic activity in the early twenty-first century, may be observed all the way from the Arctic to the Antarctica. Consequently, the history of tourism has a great deal of relevance. The history of the tourist may be traced back to the late 18th century, long before the name “tourist” was first used. Historically, the roots of “heritage tourism” and beach resorts may be traced back to ancient Greece and Rome, when travellers could take advantage of planned itineraries that included infrastructure, sightseeing, and an emphasis on important sites and experiences (Adu-Ampong, 2019). They were popular tourist destinations for Greeks and Romans, who rushed to see the Seven Wonders of the World, which were built around them.

1.2 “Critically evaluate the different approaches that can be taken to tourism policy.”

Each industry is asked to develop a solution for sustainable growth in its own region in order to guarantee the long-term viability of our planet. If we look at what the term of sustainability means, it is defined as “a system of ethical standards and principles that guides action in a responsible and harmonious way, taking into account the environmental and social effects of activities in addition to economic goals.” Sustainability is increasingly being used in a variety of fields, including tourism, architecture, agriculture, and community development, to name a few examples (Yanes et al ., 2019.). The relevance of environmental sustainability has moved to the top of the list of strategic concerns for many organisations. Sectors such as tourism, which is one of the fastest-growing economies on the planet, are increasingly looking for sustainable and ethical practises to implement. Due to tourism’s position as an industry that is vital to both economic and social development, there are additional advantages, such as a rise in the number of jobs, money, and production. It is conceivable that it will have a negative influence on the environment, despite the fact that it may do so. Tourism, in the wrong hands, has the potential to permanently change the physical, social, cultural, and economic landscapes of a tourist destination. As a result, sustainable tourism has emerged as a major issue that must be addressed immediately. Sustainability in tourism is critical for a number of reasons, including the depletion of natural and cultural resources as a result of climate change, as well as the loss of social and cultural values in developing countries.

It is also necessary to develop a more sustainable form of tourism by better understanding the many sectors and resources on which tourism relies. As a result, the term “sustainable tourism” is often used to describe a broad range of tourism-related ideas and concepts. Tourism that takes into consideration all the present and future implications on its host communities, industry, environment, as well as the demands of its tourists is a basic definition of sustainable tourism. This is the best approach to exploit natural resources while simultaneously respecting local culture and delivering socioeconomic benefits to all stakeholders: via sustainable tourism, this may be accomplished. It is also a goal of sustainable tourism to help the local economy, residents, the environment and conservation of natural resources while providing tourists with an excellent level of pleasure (Blancas et al ., 2018). The sustainable tourism paradigm, on the other hand, was characterised by Hunter as one that allows for a wide range of tactics to be adopted depending on the unique needs of a particular place. To describe sustainable tourism, we mean any activity, management, or development that does not harm the environment, economy, or society, and that ensures the long-term preservation of cultural and natural resources. People are ultimately accountable for ensuring that economic, environmental, and socio-cultural aspects of our lives are in balance.

1.3 “List the institutions involved in tourism development at the global, national and local scale and describe the multi-scalar nature of today’s tourism policy”

The fact that there are so many different ways to think about governance in the tourist sector, as well as the fact that it is multi-scalar, explains why there are so many different methods to figuring out what governance is and how to do it well. The term “governance” refers to more than only the official institutions of government, such as the federal, state, and municipal governments, as well as tourist boards and other destination management agencies. To establish a long-term sustainable management of tourism, it is necessary to bring together visitors, hosts, enterprises, and conventional governmental agencies with an interest in tourism in an increasingly networked system of inter-relationships involving players in public, private and third sectors (Blancas et al ., 2018). Tourism policy, risk management and capacity studies, the quality of services and happiness of visitors, competitiveness and environmental implications, digitization and the smart economy and many other themes may be studied from a governance perspective.

Task 2

2.1 Executive Summary

The growth of a country’s economy, the enhancement of its global competitiveness, and the contentment of its people are all dependent on foreign tourism. Creating a larger tourist value chain by collaborating with travel companies from other nations and small-town restaurateurs and retailers in distant areas of Brazil According to the World Tourism Organization, Brazil may have lower leakage rates than the world’s lowest tourist destinations.

2.2 Introduction

International tourism is essential for the development of a country’s economy, the improvement of its international competitiveness, and the happiness of its citizens. It is estimated that the tourist business employs over 250 million people, or one in every twelve people on the planet (Rosselló et al ., 2020). This sector of the economy accounts for 7 percent of total investment, 11 percent of worldwide consumer expenditure, 5 percent of total tax income, and a third of global commerce in services. Following the widespread spread of the coronavirus around the globe, travel businesses have been forced to reassess their business strategy.

2.3 “Theoretical approaches to understanding international development”

The research is unable to explain any given system in its completeness since it is based on a simplistic and abstract model. Although this is the case, it incorporates the core characteristics of a broad variety of different platforms. The number of tourists T(t) present in the area at a given moment t, the quality of the environment E(t), and the capital C(t), which is built as a hub for touristic activities, are all factors that make up the model’s generic site. Important to remember is that C(t) represents a stock of services rather than a flow of services provided to visitors (Verger et al ., 2018). The selection of these three compartments is straightforward; however, the description of each compartment using just a single variable provides some difficulties. Hotels, parks, sports facilities, and public transportation networks are just a few of the attractions and infrastructure that may be found there. It’s possible that some people are reluctant to group all of them together rather than doing so.

There are a variety of elements that influence the quality of the environment, including air quality, water quality, biodiversity, and the conservation of species and natural landscapes, among other things. To ensure that the number of variables and parameters remains as manageable as possible, we must go through the aggregation technique described above. This implies that decision-makers may use the minimum model in practise, which is a good thing.

2.4 “Select 4+ countries currently classified by the IMF as “Emerging Market and Developing Economies” and using theoretical approaches to international development analyse the 4+ countries.”


Employee-owned co-ops have been commonplace in Argentina for many decades. Argentina isn’t the only country using a solidarity economy. Also benefiting from these economies are the so-called “Global North,” which comprises countries like Spain, Italy, the United States, Canada, and Germany (Taherdoost, 2018). During Europe’s economic crisis, worker-recovered enterprises like Vio.me and Ri-Maflow arose to show that a cooperative workplace is resilient. As a result of the financial crisis of 2001, the cooperative and solidarity economy began to recover. Because of the current economic and social problems caused by COVID, a new opportunity has emerged for cooperative reorganisation and revitalization.


The collaboration between travel agencies in visitors’ home countries and small-town restaurateurs and shopkeepers in even the most remote corners of Brazil helps to establish a bigger tourist value chain for the benefit of all parties involved. This financial leakage occurs in Brazil and other tourist-hosting nations as a result of the vertical integration of the tourism supply chain, which is common in the tourism industry (Taherdoost, 2018). Brazil, which has one of the world’s most varied economies, may have lower leakage rates than the world’s poorest tourism destinations, according to the World Tourism Organization.


The availability of locally owned tourist infrastructure, such as domestic transportation and hotels, is more easily accessible in wealthy nations than it is in impoverished countries, which are reliant on global corporations to supply it (Taherdoost, 2018). Chile must deal with the negative environmental effect of internal and international tourist transportation, notably flying, as a result of the country’s size. Travellers often go back and forth between the country’s many and different tourism sites. It is common for tour operators to express disappointment at their inability to impact the long-term profitability of air travel.


Environmental protection is an important concern for tourism, which is understandable given the industry’s focus on it. Even though STDs have been described in a number of ways, the essential goals and rationales behind all of these distinct terminology are the same and can typically be seen as the final outcome (Taherdoost, 2018). It is the goal of sustainable tourism development (STD) to ensure that tourists and host communities are satisfied while simultaneously protecting and strengthening the future of the world’s natural resources. A debate rages on concerning whether or not sustainable tourism should be used for planning and management purposes. While it is widely understood that tourism must be regulated and managed in order to protect the long-term use of limited resources, this approach is popular with the general people.

2.5 “Review the usefulness of the theoretical models”

Countries throughout the world depend a lot on tourism to sustain themselves financially. Host nations benefit greatly from the influx of tourists. Tourists generate a large number of jobs, contribute to the upkeep of local infrastructure, and foster cross-cultural understanding. A broad variety of places rely heavily on tourism for employment (Van Breda, 2018). Agriculture, communications, health care, and education are just a few of the fields that make use of these personnel. People go to other countries to take advantage of their unique cultures and delicacies. Many businesses in the area profit immensely from this, including restaurants, malls, and merchants. Approximately one-third of Melbourne’s residents are employed in the tourism industry. The tourism business alone employs around 22,000 of the city’s 4 million residents.

2.6 Conclusion

Thus it can be concluded that as a consequence, the tourism industry was compelled to re-evaluate its business practises and procedures. The Internet and digital transformation will become more significant in the future in the information gathering of visitors as well as the actions of various tourism specialists, according to predictions. Many countries are likely to continue to use virtual solutions and remote labour after the COVID-19 conference concludes, as well as educational programmes that may continue to be available online.

Task 3

3.1 Introduction

Sustainable tourism development ideas and management strategies may be used to all types of tourism, from mass tourism to specialised tourist destinations and destinations. Environmental, economic, and social sustainability considerations must all be addressed in order to secure the long-term survival of the tourist industry (Streimikiene et al ., 2021). It is necessary to achieve an appropriate balance between these three dimensions. A sustainable tourism business may be built with the participation of all relevant stakeholders and the support of a competent government leadership team. Continuous monitoring of the impacts of tourism, as well as the execution of corrective and preventive measures when necessary, are required in order to achieve sustainable tourism.

3.2 “Key relationships that impact on sustainable international tourism development”

During the preceding few decades, the travel and tourism industry has seen significant growth. Previously, only a small number of people could afford to take a dream vacation to an exotic area, but now, such tourism is a regular practise among the general public as well. As the industry grows at such a quick pace, traditional settings are becoming less desirable; instead, people are searching out distant, pure, and unaffected regions and cultures to visit in order to broaden their horizons and broaden their experiences (Liu et al ., 2019). As this trend grows and more people go to these exotic locations, however, a dilemma emerges, endangering not just the environment but also traditional cultural practises and beliefs as well as the ecosystem. While tourism has the potential to increase the revenue, economy, and quality of life of the local people on the one hand, it also has the potential to have negative consequences such as major environmental damage, prostitution, drug abuse, and social and cultural disintegration. With the power of tourism, you can either cook your meal or burn down your house completely. There is a rising demand for ecologically friendly preservation as a consequence of these developments.

The bottom-up approach is a realistic notion for achieving long-term tourism development while also protecting the environment. When the needs of the host community, and as a result, the community’s cultural assets and history, are prioritised above the needs of outsiders, sustainable tourism also known as cultural tourism management seems to be the most effective kind of tourism (Anser et al ., 2020). Local inhabitants have a voice in the development and operation of the region’s tourism sector, and they actively engage in the planning and decision-making processes that have an influence on their everyday life. In order to protect the region’s cultural and natural variety, local residents will be empowered and encouraged to engage in the tourism business. This will prevent the region’s cultural and natural uniqueness from being polluted by outside influences.

3.3 “Explain the impacts (positive or negative) that tourism can have on destinations”

Positive impact

  1. Any discussion of the positive economic effects of tourism must begin with the creation of new employment. For the sixth year in a row, the World Travel & Tourism Council’s annual study demonstrates that the industry generates one out of every ten jobs worldwide (Chang et al ., 2018). The sector has been responsible for more than a quarter of all new jobs generated.
  2. A host city benefits from enhanced global prominence each time a big event, such as the Olympics or FIFA World Cup, takes place. The local economy is bolstered by a significant number of tourists. Stadiums, facilities, transportation, and infrastructure all improve as a consequence of international sporting events. Even in 2004 Athens, Greece, and 2018 Pyeongchang, South Korea, new airport terminals were constructed.

Negative Impact

  1. Terrorist attacks, political instability, disruptive weather conditions, and natural calamities may all have a long-term impact on a place if they strike unexpectedly (Chang et al ., 2018). If a location is bly dependent on tourists, the damage and recovery period will be longer and more severe.
  2. Overcrowding in a city may have negative effects on the quality of life. Over-tourism is becoming a concern in locations like Chile’s rural Patagonia and Spain’s cosmopolitan Barcelona. The slopes of Mount Everest are littered with rubbish, and the number of tourists in Iceland much exceeds the number of Icelanders (Chang et al ., 2018). The National Park Service protects America’s natural treasures, with the top ten national parks drawing more than 44 million visitors in 2016.

3.4 Conclusion

Tourism, according to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), is defined as a one-year or shorter period of time spent travelling outside of one’s own country for pleasure, business, or medical treatment. Some scholars describe tourism as the temporary relocation of individuals from their typical environments, as well as the activities they participate in while in the new site, and as the infrastructure developed to satisfy their needs as tourists. According to statistics, seventy percent of tourists visit the ten most popular tourist destinations, with the other thirty percent spreading their time over the remaining destinations.

Task 4

4.1 Introduction

Cross border travel is included in the definition of “international tourism” to cover cross-border travel. As a consequence of globalisation, tourism has emerged as a popular recreational activity across the globe (Rosselló et al ., 2020). Those who travel and remain in a new area for less than one year, whether for pleasure, business, or other reasons, are classified as tourists by the United Nations World Tourism Organization. The World Health Organization believes that up to 500,000 people are on their way to their ultimate destination at any one time. There is a rising number of wealthy travellers who are bringing their lifestyles to the nations they visit, which is placing a pressure on local infrastructure, such as water and sewage systems, among other systems.

4.2 “Research development issues in an international context”

Nature tourism can only contribute to sustainable development in Mexico if governmental policies are put in place to increase the competitiveness of the sector at both the national and international levels, therefore improving the well-being of the communities in which firms operate. When it comes to concrete actions, private firms must maximise their social responsibilities while also providing support and encouragement to their employees in order for them to maintain and improve the quality of their operations. It is also critical that both communities and private organisations develop operations in this area that meet the established requirements in order to get certification of service quality on a local and global level (Balsalobre-Lorente et al ., 2021). However, despite the fact that the mortgage meltdown in the United States started in August 2007, there were a number of economic variables at play that were not unique to the year under consideration. Long after World War II ended, one of the most catastrophic global crises since the Great Depression wreaked havoc on financial markets around the world. Nature-caused disasters, such as storms, flooding, earthquakes, and tsunamis, as well as the war against drug trafficking, have all had varying degrees of impact on people in various regions of the world.

Impact of Covid-19

The coronavirus outbreak has had a severe impact on the global economy, notably on the tourism industry, which has been particularly hard hit. According to the World Tourism Organization, one-third of the $1,500 billion in tourist revenues earned in 2019 is likely to be lost in tourism revenues in 2020 (MacKenzie and Gannon, 2019). Even while coronavirus outbreaks may have short-term negative repercussions for tourism, they are raising awareness of broader issues such as insufficient risk management in the travel industry, viral globalisation, and illness transmission across borders by tourists. As also, this is an opportunity to critically assess the tourism industry. If we want to encourage responsible, sustainable, and innovative tourism, it’s feasible that we can make improvements in a number of areas.

Cost of inflation and vacation

When it comes to the tourism industry, foreign currency exchange rate volatility is a huge concern. A number of tourism support systems are already suffering the consequences of monetary volatility, owing to the difficulties in anticipating long-term visitor prices due to currency changes. There is no guarantee of year-round income in the tourism industry, which is characterised by its seasonal nature. In response to the alarming increase in inflation, many restaurants have been compelled to raise prices or restrict service. The transportation sector has taken a blow as a result of the recession (MacKenzie and Gannon, 2019). The aviation industry, in particular, is at risk of being hit. Airlines rely on the food and fuel businesses for the majority of their operating costs. Due to the fact that airlines are already on the verge of going bankrupt, they have no option except to restrict services and raise rates. Tourists avoid spending money on expensive vacations as a result, which has a detrimental influence on the tourism sector as a whole.

Tax and Tourism

Some countries impose significant tariffs on the tourism sector. A plethora of taxes are collected across the board on the whole industry, from tour operators, carriers, and aeroplanes to hotels. Service tax, luxury tax, transportation tax, aviation fuel tax, and a host of additional taxes are all collected (Joo et al ., 2020). In addition, tax rates in the United States tend to differ from one state to the next across the country. All of these taxes and levies are eventually passed on to tourists, which restricts the industry’s ability to expand further.

Risk and Security of Tourists

The safety of the passenger will always take precedence above all other considerations. For a long time, the rise of tourism has been hampered by concerns about safety and security. Violence, law and order problems, terrorist attacks and political turmoil all have a detrimental influence on the emotions of overseas tourists (Joo et al ., 2020). Unexpected occurrences that impact visitor confidence in a tourist location regardless of the truth or impression of risk make tourism vulnerable despite the economic boom. At this point in the twenty-first century, terrorist attacks and political organizations have already had a substantial influence on travel security. The following are instances of natural disasters that have an influence on tourism: pandemics, tsunamis, earthquakes, floods, volcanoes, and avalanches, to name a few. The occurrence of unexpected events that undermine passenger confidence and make it difficult to conduct business as usual may be classified as a crisis.

Regularity and Border Issues

Regulatory problems like visa formalities are considered as hindrances. Some places aren’t accessible to visitors because of visa issues. Due to a lack of timely permissions and licenses, a number of projects in the tourist infrastructure and hotel industries have been postponed (Joo et al ., 2020). Governments should, however, aim to capitalize on the benefits of tourism by building proper infrastructure, speedy clearances, and effective policies to regulate tourism and gain foreign tourists’ confidence.

Technological Drivers of Change

Technology is gradually intruding on every aspect of our existence, including our personal relationships. Technology will play a significant role in defining and enabling the future of tourism in both its determination and facilitation. The Internet has levelled the playing field in the field of tourism marketing (Postelnicu and Dabija, 2018). An effective destination website can compete with the industry’s behemoths when it is built to the highest standards. Because of the convergence of information and communication technologies, tourism firms will gain from enhanced efficiency and competitiveness.

Skilled Human Resources

The tourism sector need a well-educated and well-trained workforce that is intelligent, energetic, bilingual, and entrepreneurial in order to overcome the difficulties that it is now dealing with. Employing highly qualified employees in the tourism sector may help businesses gain a competitive edge and provide value to their consumers’ experiences (Postelnicu and Dabija, 2018). The only way to build a high-quality workforce in the tourist industry is to maintain high standards in present tourism education and training. The education and training in these fields should draw from a variety of sources rather than just the specifics of the tourism industry. These sources should include but not be limited to geography, finance, and marketing.

4.3 “Develop plans for a tourism project that address those issues”

As part of the design process for a sustainable tourism development plan, a substantial amount of research and assessment is carried out before reaching a final decision on the development’s trajectory. First and foremost, these procedures are being implemented in certain places in order to limit the quantity of resources that are being squandered (Aquino et al ., 2018). Clearly, “conservation,” which is a synonym for sustainable development, is a conscious endeavour to bring disparate environmental ideals into harmony with one another. In his introduction, the author describes sustainable development as a “fundamentally flawed idea.” Various individuals’ approaches to understanding the notion of sustainable development are generally recognised (Dube and Nhamo, 2021). Some perceive this as an alternative to mass tourism and a counterweight to it, while others see it as a surge in the volume and intensity of visitor activity.

Environmental preservation becomes less of a factor in metropolitan regions where soft solutions for sustainable development are employed for planning and management since highly developed tourism activities do not necessarily place a pressure on the local social and natural ecosystems. Similarly, in rural areas that have been severely degraded or changed, where the expansion of tourist activity has the potential to considerably improve environmental protection, the opposite is true (Dupre, 2019). Large hotels and theme parks are examples of activities that, in the framework of sustainable tourism development, might benefit from the use of soft approaches that place a b focus on the development component of the activity. While sustainable tourism policies are based on the belief that even slight increases in tourist traffic can result into intolerable social and cultural harm to a region’s natural and cultural resources, traditional tourism policies are based on the belief that even slight increases in tourist traffic can result intolerable social and cultural harm to a region’s natural and cultural resources. It is the notion that no action should be made if the consequences are uncertain that emphasises the long-term component of sustainable development, which is compatible with the core platform of adaptation and prudence. It is possible that prohibiting all tourist activity in some areas would be an excessive approach. The development of small-scale ecotourism is often encouraged in areas where tourism expansion is authorised by law.

Quality tourism does not need expensive travel, but rather requires a value-conscious attitude to spending, the maintenance of tourist assets, and a concern for the local environment from both public and private sectors. Tourism planning, development, and administration should take this into consideration. There are several steps in the process of creating travel plans and constructing a sustainable tourist industry. Identifying the goals you want to accomplish and doing a thorough evaluation of all relevant information are the first steps to getting started. First and foremost, it’s vital to prepare well before commencing any research or development. This includes creating goals, choosing team members who will do the actual study, and organising and monitoring all phases of preparation. In the following step, precise objectives for increasing tourism will be determined (Andrades and Dimanche, 2019). The eventual effects and repercussions of tourist development are critical to the fulfilment of the goals indicated, thus one must approach this activity with prudence. In order to avoid a conflict between established objectives and national or regional goals, considerable consideration must be given to areas of particular importance in terms of tourism development during goal creation.

4.4 Conclusion

Thus it can be concluded that the World Health Organization believes that up to 500,000 people are on their way to their ultimate destination at any one time. There is a rising number of wealthy travellers who are bringing their lifestyles to the nations they visit, which is placing a pressure on local infrastructure, such as water and sewage systems. It is critical that both communities and private organisations develop operations that meet the established requirements in order to get certification of service quality on a local and global level. The year 2007 was one of the most catastrophic global crises since the Great Depression wreaked havoc on financial markets around the world. Coronavirus outbreaks may have short-term negative repercussions for tourism, but they are raising awareness of broader issues such as insufficient risk management in the travel industry. If people want to encourage responsible, sustainable, and innovative tourism, it’s feasible that they can make improvements in a number of areas.


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