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Psychology Postal Assignment: Depression sample

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Psychology Postal Assignment: Depression sample

Introduction: Psychology Postal Assignment: Depression

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Task 1: Academic poster

"Depression may influence up to 10% of the residents", with symptoms consisting of half of the affected people. There are many mental health disorders such that anxiety, eating, disruptive behaviour, bipolar disorder and all these health disorders mild to moderate depression and there is no reliable evidence that any one-treatment method is b enough to cure. Although, the strength of the evidence is backing several treatments varies. This study aims to investigate one of the mental health disorders and regarding its problems and criticisms approaches and theories need to be selected. In this paper anxiety, disorder is chosen in which fear and anxiety are considered as core and primary features of the disorder. 

Concept of normality and challenges linked with a clear concept of normality

According to Richards et al. (2020), sleep is a vital psychological process, which influences the performance of people in various functioning such as emotional, metabolic, cognitive and immunologic. Although, understanding the neuroanatomy of sleep regulations in humans is in combination with unique electroencephalography (EEG), pharmacological and imaginative studies observed delivered some of the clues regarding this disorder. It is important to be clear about how behaviour is needed to be before one can judge that he has an anxiety issue. Statistical infrequency explanation might help to configure or address the normality link in mental health disorders. As per the statistical report of NIMH, depression may affect 27% of elderly people due to sleep issues and this would make it common but that does not involve it is not a problem (Simplypsychology.org, 2022). Taking the help of this type of explanation degree to which norms are violated culture, context and situation, age and gender are included which delivers effectiveness of the normality in specified health disorders. For example, someone who fails their job will not be able to get up and go to work with money for their family and that will certainly cause distress but does not cause irregularity.

Figure 1: brain regions consist in fear due to fear, anxiety expression and modulation

brain regions consist in fear due to fear, anxiety expression and modulation

In contrast, deviation from social norms is expected of behaving in society as per the majority and whether it is implicit or explicit, "social norms always allow an individual the regulation normal social behaviour". The “deviation from Social norms” irregularity is determined because it signifies that all behaviour which breaks social norms is “strange” and it doesn’t evaluate between socially deviant behaviour and mental abnormality and the main problems always come there (psychologyhub.co.uk, 2022). For example, "someone found blameworthy of being a drink-driver may have broken a social norm, but they are not considered to have a mental abnormality". 

Main systems for the classification of mental illness

Most mental and behavioural disorders are classified using ICD and DSM systems, which classify diseases once the diagnosis is established in that person in a well manner. "The ICD-10 is constructed by a global health agency that has a public health mission whereas DSM 5 is yielded by a single national professional association" (Apa.org, 2022). Having feelings of nervousness, fear and panic are some mental symptoms and physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat and sweating are some signs and symptoms of anxiety disorder. Besides that having difficulty concentrating and feeling restless or on edge are some signs it, which create a mental imbalance and proper treatment with help of this system, is necessary. The ICD is distributed as a broadly possible system tool which is available at a very little cost whereas there is a little bit of justification for utilising the DSM as a separate diagnostic system. 

Summary and evaluation of two therapies for the disorder

"Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)" is one type of behavioural treatment which mainly target three therapeutic goals such as accepting emotions, choosing a direction and then taking proper action. The provider also helps patients to do all the activities, which they always try to avoid (Clevelandclinic.org, 2022). It teaches paying attention to purpose in the present and acceptance skills and therefore manifesting behaviours and recognising personal values. 

"Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT)" is an example of a psychoanalytical approach, which helps people to get over anxiety disorders. Using this approach, a health expert teaches an individual to identify patterns and thoughts which leads to unsettling feeling and reactions to anxiety-producing objects (Clevelandclinic.org, 2022). It has mainly three phases which are proper education, application and relapse prevention and that inform an individual in different ways to help the person to manage reactions and reduce all responses. 

Debate section Task 2

Utilisation of medical, psychoanalytical and behaviourist model for anxiety 

Anxiety is a vague unpleasant emotional state with qualities of distress, easiness, dread, qualities of apprehension and the GABA system is mainly responsible for the motivation of anxiety and fear. The biological approach seeks to understand several specific neurotransmitters connected with anxiety. The main key assumptions of the biological approach are behaviour and thinking which structure, functions the nervous system, and have been implicated in phobias and panic disorders. "Exposure Therapy" is considered s one of the important medical-based therapy in dealing with patients who have anxiety disorders such as "fears of height, phobias, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder". During exposure therapy, a therapist exposes the person to set a specific type of social setting which help them to get over with anxiety they have become comfortable in.

The behavioural theory consists of avoidant behaviours and certain environmental changes, which experience reinforcements and environmental reward, which leads to the development, and maintain those depressive symptoms in a suitable way (Pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2022). This model also provides "initial support for reinforcement between avoidance and depression". As anxiety, disorders are mainly connected to people's difficult situations and this reason therapy like intolerance of uncertainty therapy, and acceptance theory might be taken and that will be effective to get over that anxiety. 

The psychoanalytical model reflects unconscious conflicts and if there exists an unconsciousness of mental contents and processes then this model might be very effective for anxiety patients. The primary assumption of this model is to the belief that all people face difficulties and unconsciousness of desires, thoughts and memories. 

Strength and weakness of biological, psychoanalytical and behaviourist model

Strengths and weaknesses of the Biological model: The main strength of the medical approach is that it provides clear expectations and useful treatments for a variety of physical disorders as well which can be scientifically tested and proven. For most mental illnesses, there is no definite proof as well and often fails to figure out the influence on behaviour, which is a weakness of the biological model. 

Strengths and weaknesses of the psychoanalytical model: It helps the patient retrieve all the anxieties that arose from the lack of resolutions to conflicts that occurred in different evolution stages and that are a major strength of this model. This model mainly works in stages and if the patient does not feel satisfied after completing those stages then their anxieties in the future will develop more and that is considered a weakness. 

Strengths and weaknesses of the behaviourist model: In this approach, the patient is treated based on observable behaviour and that help collect data in an easier way, which delivers a major effective strength regarding anxiety issues. In contrast, this approach is environmentally deterministic. 


Observing all the approaches utilised in this process for overcoming mental health, the behavioural approach or model is evaluated as most effective as it suggests behaviours, which are learnt through response and environmental stimuli. 



  • Ozdemiroglu, F., 2022. The effects of chronotype on sexual satisfaction and quality of life in couples. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences26(20), pp.7333-7343. https://www.europeanreview.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/7333-7343.pdf
  • Pauley, D., Cuijpers, P., Papola, D., Miguel, C. and Karyotaki, E., 2021. Two decades of digital interventions for anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness. Psychological Medicine, pp.1-13.
  • Richards, A., Kanady, J.C. and Neylan, T.C., 2020. Sleep disturbance in PTSD and other anxiety-related disorders: an updated review of clinical features, physiological characteristics, and psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology45(1), pp.55-73. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6879567/


  • Apa.org, 2022. ICD vs. DSM Available at: https://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/10/icd-dsm [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]
  • Clevelandclinic.org, 2022. Anxirty Disorders Available at: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9536-anxiety-disorders [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]
  • psychologyhub.co.uk, 2022, definitions-of-abnormality Available at: psychologyhub.co.ukhttps://www.psychologyhub.co.uk/student-resources/paper-1-psychopathology/definitions-of-abnormality/ [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]
  • Pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2022. Behavioral theory of depression: reinforcement as a mediating variable between avoidance and depression Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21315876/ [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]
  • Simplypsychology.org, 2022. Statistical Infrequency Available at: https://www.simplypsychology.org/abnormal-psychology.html [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]
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