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Positive psychology has become a means of living lives with dignity and purpose, and with regard to building psychological well-being and strength. It is indeed that in today’s world, which is filled with uncertainty, psychological trauma, and anxiety that go hand in hand. This is where importance of positive psychology comes forth, which emphasises three dimensions incorporating positive individual traits, positive emotions, and positive institutions, such as civic virtues (Compton and Hoffman, 2019). This research has delved deep into a case study of Amira, who has started trauma-related symptoms that are driven by her past experiences in Syria.
Starting from post-traumatic symptoms to isolation, concentration issues, and various others, Amira is having difficulties, which can be retorted with effective resilience coaching. Traumatic experiences presented in this case study seem to be conducive to deriving a study of positive psychology with respect to various interventions involving CBT, mindful model, and resilience training.
2.1 Importance of emotional resilience
Emotional resilience is ability of individuals to respond to unprecedented or stressful crises effectively. The higher the emotional resilience, the better the ability to cope with unexpected situations. Considering the case of Amira, who is facing post-traumatic symptoms, driven by her past experiences, building emotional resilience through resilience coaching becomes significant. Law et al. (2018) opined that adverse childhood experiences due to socio-economic circumstances, and others often impede them from having good mental health. Hence, early positive interventions determine greater psychological well-being and resilience among children and adolescents. In Amira’s case, her adverse childhood experiences result in experiences of anxiety and other post-traumatic stress, which are to be retorted with effective interventions to accelerate her positive psychology.
2.2 Illustrating Amira’s current behaviour and mental health state using theories of resilience
- The case study of Amira exhibits post-traumatic experiences, which incorporate Amira’s general anxiety, mid-sleep awakening, nightmares, frequent fidgety, and more. According to Augustus et al. (2019), psychological well-being is an important factor for every individual, and hence, a supportive environment along with occupational therapies, counselling, and others plays a pivotal role to accelerate recovery from mental illness. In this context, integration of childhood theories of resilience can be drawn to illustrate Amira’s current behaviour and mental health state. Children like Amria who have been witnessing ongoing anxiety, worries, and concentration issues can be addressed with ways to build childhood resilience (Cooklin and Barnes, 2020). It further emphasises that emotionally warm relationships within a family, adequate love even during different opinions, and others assist to establish resilience among children.
- Unprecedented situations of homelessness and terrorism have shaped Amira’s childhood, which has led to her post-traumatic symptoms. Boniwell and Tunariu (2019) argued that a theory of positive psychology could grasp and discover factors that can promote individuals to thrive with positive experiences (happiness, optimism), characteristics, and institutions (tolerance, altruism). It further illustrated that active coping skills, optimism, and cognitive flexibility can stimulate resilience. Moreover, Amira’s current behaviour can be best explained with compensatory model of resilience. Askeland et al. (2020) propounded that compensatory model of resilience has a direct influence on results of interests, and hence, operates in opposite direction to risk factors. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that traumatic situations in Syria, such as death of the youngest brother, serious injury to father, and others could not build any flexibility or resilience. No recovery or resilience training during her childhood while facing such crises has resulted in her current post-traumatic symptoms of anxiety.
- Furthermore, a life-course approach exhibits socio-economic disadvantages, mistreatment, and others, which lead to mental illness and disorders in later life of individuals. According to Milne (2020), mental health and psychological well-being are largely driven by socio-economic conditions, abuse, inequalities, and others. Similarly, Amira’s lack of resilience has not found any scope to be developed, which leads to her long isolation, reactivity to loud noises, and various others. Hence, considering Amira’s current mental health and behaviour, positive interventions and therapeutic approaches are to be adopted (Karadag et al. 2020). Thus, inadequate resilience training and approaches regard Amira’s concerning post-traumatic symptoms.
2.3 Ways school and Amira’s parents to build emotional resilience
- Considering Amira’s case study, she finds herself in isolation, while facing difficulties concentrating in school. Hence, positive interventions can be integrated in both school and home to promote and develop emotional resilience in Amira to assist her in coping with post-traumatic disorders.
- Ways by which school can help build Amira’s emotional resilience
Responsible personnel in school can integrate mindful-based interventions, as it aims to relieve mental health concerns, symptoms of anxiety, and more (Good Therapy, 2018). In this context, optimism, and gratitude can be promoted in both school and home, as gratitude is always linked with happiness. For instance, an optimistic explanatory style can be adopted by the school to convey a message of positive thinking (Pursuit of Happiness, 2022). Considering Amria’s case, teachers can integrate positive thinking with regard to mindful model. It can be done through their non-judgmental views and perspectives of such incidents, which drain her happiness. In addition, Boyd et al. (2018) illustrated that the mindfulness-based treatments allow approaches, which are considered present-centred to drive emotional resilience. Hence, such treatments encourage non-judgment as well as acceptance of emotions and thoughts in current scenario, and thus, develop strong emotional intelligence. Since Amira is currently facing trauma-related worry and concentration issues, these mindful-based interventions can help to build her emotional intelligence.
- Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is another form of psychological intervention, which, unlike traditional talk therapy, uses a number of exercises. It is intended to reduce depression, anxiety, and other relative psychological issues. Teachers can observe Amira’s behaviours (isolation), feelings (worry), and more to initiate interactions and communications. According to Goldstein et al. (2020), cognitive behavioural therapy can be integrated with effective communication along with mindfulness meditation, and more to drive her emotional stability and intelligence. Thus, using these two interventions and approaches emerges to be highly beneficial and effective to address Amira’s current mental health and behaviour concerning post-traumatic anxiety and disorders.
- Ways by which parents can assist in developing Amria’s emotional intelligence
It is evident that parents play a key role in building emotional intelligence of children, which enables them to have enhanced coping skills and flexibility. El-Khodary and Samara (2019) reported that parental support and parietal psychological control can be highly encouraging to build emotional resilience in response to war-related trauma and post-traumatic stress and disorders. Hence, Amira’s parents to alleviate her long periods of isolation, lower ambition of becoming a doctor, and more, can incorporate a number of ways. Amira’s parents can further connect with clinicians to integrate recovery models to address her psychological ailments. For instance, emotional processing theory can be an effective recovery model, which exhibits trauma narration and processing phase of treatment. Clinicians can conduct psychological intervention as a network of emotional, cognitive, and behavioural responses to past memories can be activated under this recovery model (Alpert et al. 2021). Eventually, corrective responses are provided to suffering youths to learn adaptive responses, which can drive their emotional intelligence through resilience training.
- Since Amira’s parents have also gone through such traumatic past experiences in Syria, assistance of clinicians for psychological interventions can be beneficial. In addition, self-determination theory (SDT) can be another effective framework, which sheds light on the link between motivational constructs and emotional resilience among people (Perlman et al. 2018). A further emphasis indicated that resilience positively correlates with a subjective sense of well-being among individuals. Hence, Amira’s parents to shape her self-regulation, which can result in Amira’s self-determination to go beyond her past traumatic experiences, can perform an intrinsic form of motivation.
- It is undeniable that both the school and Amira's parents can play significant roles in building emotional resilience in wake of her post-traumatic experiences and anxiety. A handful of positive interventions with regard to a couple of recovery models, resilience theory, and mindful-based interventions are discerned to develop Amira’s emotional resilience in response to her post-traumatic anxiety and stress.
3. Ethical consideration
Since this study incorporates delicate information concerning psychological anxiety and disorders with effective approaches or interventions, collated data are not used for commercial purposes. Besides, Data Protection Act 1988 is regarded throughout this study to alleviate any disclosure of intricate information (Legislation, 2022). Moreover, this study includes socio-economic concerns of Syria, and hence, maintaining reliability through privacy is considered. Maintaining ethics throughout this study has undeniably made this research valid and authentic.
From this above study of literature review, it can be concluded that positive and effective interventions emerge to be fruitful in Amira’s case witnessing a number of post-traumatic symptoms. These are also reinforced with feasible models and frameworks, such as CBT, recovery models, mindfulness-based interventions, resilience theories, and more. Ethical consideration is also regarded considering delicate information of Syria and psychological conditions. Hence, good mental health and positive psychology are discerned in light with relevant frameworks by emphasising Amira’s case study.