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This report is developed on the qualitative research tasks that are initially known as the primary research context. Here, based on the provided links of the videos, key mistakes of the interviewer during the interview and good points on conducting an interview are illustrated clearly. A clear illustration of two interviews is mainly taken under consideration here such as “Demonstration of qualitative interview with mistakes” and “Demonstration qualitative interview: How it should be done”. Moreover, a detailed evaluation of the participant observation is also developed here along with a conclusion part.
This report has been developed to evaluate the qualitative research tasks based on the two particular interview contexts. One context is appropriate enough whereas the other one can be considered a poor example of the interview process. Key mistakes in this regard have been well identified as well such as not providing much attention to the interviewee, hurry in talking, and others. It is essential enough to resolve those mistakes appropriately in order to gain effective outcomes. The interview was conducted to analyze the interviews behavior an the respondents answers. The respondent was the nurse who response all the answers properly for the behavior of the interviewer. The nurse replied about her works life experience as well. On the other hand the participant observation methods such as overt and covert participant method which are essential for the qualitative method of research.
2.1.1 Introduce the research topic
The interviewer introduced the research topic in a little bit of a hurry and without conducting any introduction part with the participant; she straight went with the topic (Chrzanowska, 2014). It is quite awkward as it is essential enough to put a short introductory part before starting the interview as it can give the participant enough confidence and be able to gain a better impression from them.
2.1.2 Speed of talking
The speed of talking of the interviewer was high enough for which the interviewee did not understand most of the things that are well observed by her facial expressions.
2.1.3 Interviewer behavior
The general behavior of the interviewer was not good enough and sometimes, it was observed as criticizing as well.
The body language of the interviewer was quite confusing as her body posture, gestures, movement and eye contact varied from time to time. In the viewpoint of Giovanna et al. (2019, p.7), the body posture of both interviewer and interviewee needs to be well maintained during an interview in order to ensure the better convey of information.
Approach to build rapport
In case of building rapport with the interviewee, it has been identified that the individual had no such willingness to build two-way communication. It is also observed that she was busy with her phone two times during the interview process and missed what the interviewee said (Chrzanowska, 2014). As stated by Meissner and Lyles (2019, p.390), it is important to build rapport as through this, it can be possible to reduce the response biases by influencing the interviewee for engaging more deeply with the interview process. However, in this interview process, rapport building is missing along with eye contact with the interviewee.
In case of the listening skills, it has been identified that the interviewer listens less to the words of the interviewee. She was busy most of the time illustrating her statements rather than listening to the participants. She did not have enough patience to provide much time for the participant to state her opinions adequately and it also seemed that the interviewer felt bored enough in the presence of the interviewee (Chrzanowska, 2014).
The interviewer was respectful although for once, it is observed that her dominating language and criticizing behavior regarding the learning abilities of the interviewee cannot be well accepted. It made the interviewee quite upset as well and she can doubt her actual abilities (Glegg, 2019, p.305).
Way of asking questions
The way that the interviewer asked questions was in too hurrying at the time of speaking and her body language was quite inadequate. According to Eriksson et al. (2019, p.843), inadequate body language within the interview process is responsible for causing boredom for the interviewee.
2.1.4 Objectively asked questions
Most of the questions were not asked objectively and it was responsible to make the interviewee quite confused. She was also not able to answer the questions properly and felt criticized for the irrelevant questions.
2.1.5 Criticize of the interviewee
The interviewer criticized the interviewee at a time by doubting her learning consequences and knowledge areas. However, the ending of the interview was also not appropriate as no presence of such greetings or adequate concluding statements are observed. The interviewer just used the phrase "it's about time for us to wrap up" which is not appropriate enough to close an interview process (Chrzanowska, 2014). It is essential to show gratitude toward the interviewee and also to send "thank you emails". However, here the interviewer was in such a hurry that she did not think to do all of these perspectives. Based on the above context, it is quite clear that the interview is able to show a clear perspective that it is essential for the interviewer to be skilled enough for managing the entire process. The above-identified mistakes need to be avoided completely in order to make the interview process improved enough.
2.2.1 Introduce the research topic
The interviewer introduced the research topic in a particular way and the "to the point" context was also well maintained here. This context was beneficial enough for the interviewee to provide the answers accurately as well. After providing a short introductory statement, the interviewer provided an all-over brief about the interview in a short and concise way to deliver the main aim of the entire process. It is very relevant to gain a clear overview of which specific areas need to be highlighted in the interview process and which particular answers need to be provided rather than compacting all of the learning at a time that can cause strong confusion (Malmqvistet al. 2019, p.1609406919878341).
2.2.2 Speed of talking
Focusing on the speed of the interviewer, it has been observed that the interviewer maintains an appropriate speed through which it is possible to make the whole interview process a successful one (Chrzanowska, 2014). She was quite aware enough regarding the answers of the interviewee that highlighted that she valued each of the answers properly. A gentle and soft speaking tone was also observed in the speaking tone of the interviewer which was much more relevant to make the interview pleased enough (Rahmanet al. 2021, p.4).
The interview behavior must be attentive and enthusiastic about the topic that the interviewee asked the person. The reviewer must have a positive empathy for the person who is called the interviewee (Iovinoet al. 2022, pp. 12). The approach of asking the question has to be at a patient level to listen and understand the interviewee’s answer and point of view.
2.2.3.The general behavior of the interviewer
It is one of the most important for the survey that reflects the video as it reflects the answer quality of the interviewee (Bettens and Warren 2021). If the interviewee, the nurse, feels comfortable with her behavior then it could be a significant issue for the survey and the possibility of getting unauthentic data.
2.2.4.The body language
The interviewer was attentive as she listened and asked relevant questions. As per the study by Wendt et al. (2021. pp 7813), the interviewee could be very much conscious of the behavior of the interviewer when the topic of the interview can be sensitive and confidential as well. Therefore the interviewer's behavior must be quiet, she should be a good listener, and the interviewer should focus on the interviewee’s comfort level.
2.2.5.Approach to building report to the interviewee
According to the author Gundet al. (2022), her approach to the interview was very gentle and supportive as the person who is answering can trust the interviewer to maintain eye contact which could help to achieve the optimum quality of answer from the interviewee.
Her listening skill put significance to the interviewee so that she asked the next question from the previously replied answer. Sometimes the listening quality can help to construct some important questions even which were not added to the structured questionnaire. She must be very intelligent too as she is required to identify the important parts of the listing so that she can ask the relevant question.
2.2.7.Respectfulness of the Interviewer
The interview was respectful to the nurse who was the interviewee in this interview as she was very comfortable with the interviewer but sometimes she shifted her attention to her wristwatch. Even the nurse did not hesitate to answer about the certain problems that faced by her. As per the study by Wendt et al. (2021. pp 7813), the friendly and respectful approach to the respondent help the survey to get honest and authentic replies to construct a successful and informative conversation
2.2.8. The way of asking questions and probation
As per the study by Wendt et al. (2021. pp 7813) the way she asked the question and probed the interviewee is remarkable as she successfully identified the nurse’s point of view on different issues and phenomena, for example, the HIV aids patients and pregnancy, her experience in her job, and the water issue in her workplace. In addition to the context of the respondent as a respective nurse, she shared her influencing experience with the interviewer that the nurse was very happy and satisfied to help her junior colleagues to understand the nursing techniques. These answers were achieved to the efficiency of the interviewer who was very intelligent, focused, and friendly to the respondent (Iovinoet al. 2022, pp. 12).
2.3.1. Participant Observation
As per the author Boccagni and Schrooten (2018, pp. 225), among the different kinds of research methodology most important is participant observation as it is a present context in the research-oriented segment. The application of participant observation refers to the working ability and the justification of the particular workability. There is supposed to be a link between exploration and the presentation. There are four types of participant observation such as complete participant, participant as an observer, observer as a participant, and complete observer.
2.3.2. The overt or covert participant observation
The observation in a research sector is the primary element of the overt or covert participant observation. It refers to and reflects the observation of a researcher in an analysis where the researcher’s appearance can be direct or indirect (Van Damme 2019, pp. 14). Even sometimes the researcher can appear only as an indirect observer not as an active one. If the participant is aware of being in supervision then it is overt and when the participant is not aware of being in supervision then it is called covert participant observation.
2.3.4The use of participant observation as a method to gather qualitative research:
As stated by the author Islam et al. (2022, pp. 11) participant observation is information and ethnic method to identify the norms, culture, lifestyle, accessibility to the identification of particular communities' traditions, values, and many more.
The most important method of participant observation is the interview method, the main process of gathering the information for qualitative research (Döringer 2021, pp. 278). It is the process of conversation between two questionnaires and a respondent with a structured questionnaire of a particular phenomenon.
It can be concluded from the overall context that both of the interviews are suitable enough to provide a clear overview regarding the common mistakes and appropriate aspects that need to be maintained during the interview. Moreover, it has been also well understood that the behavior of interviewers matters most to make the interview process a successful one. It is also essential to keep the interest level of the interview intact during the interview process as well.
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