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The overall essay is based on the "Evidence-based practice" in nursing and an in-depth critical review has been done of the article. This essay has focused on the experiences of shame of the alcoholic people and their feelings related to barriers in terms of sobriety. Through this essay an overall research method of the article along with providing a critiquing tool for the analysis. Along with that, an in-depth analysis of the findings of the article has been emphasised in this essay. Evidence-based practices have also been evaluated in this essay. The thesis statement will be argued in context with an evaluation of evidence-based practices through the overall study of the chosen article.
Background of the research article
The research article has been based on the experiences of shame of the alcoholic people and their feelings related to barriers in terms to sobriety, and in the UK misuse of alcohol has been considered a major risk factor for death. In the UK, around 602400 people have been identified as dependent drinkers and among them, 82% have not assessed any type of treatment (Alcoholchange.org.uk, 2022). In the case of feelings of the people related to guilt, shame is directly related to the habits of consuming alcohol or other drinks. On the other hand, different social attitudes and emotions that include shame and guilt have arisen for the people that are addicted in nature to a particular thing (Bucki et al. 2019). The main result in terms of consuming alcohol has created different physical and mental issues that affect the overall lifestyle of the person and their family members (Risso et al. 2020). On the other hand, the sobriety factor has become impossible for the additive people that are used to taking alcohol or other drinks for a long time.
In order to make them proper for social life, the role of therapy and acceptance groups need to be developed. Along with that, as stated by Madras et al. (2020), in the case of treatment for the patients, evidence-based practice (EVP) can be considered effective and necessary.
Methods that have been used in the article
The research has been followed in a primary qualitative way through conducting an interview with around eight participants. A set of questionnaires has been developed that are all open-ended and suitable for the qualitative data collection. This research was conducted through focus group interview sessions in terms of gathering knowledge and opinions of their personal beliefs and experiences. As opined by Spiby et al. (2022), focus group interview sessions can be effective for conducting primary qualitative research by gathering in-depth knowledge about the research topic. In the case of this research, the questionnaire has been set in terms of gaining the knowledge of the participants regarding their recovery phases, and overall experiences.
This research study is based on the “Purposive sampling” method that helps in analysing the research topic into in-depth concepts. As stated by Campbell et al. (2020), this sampling method has been effective for primary qualitative research. In the case of that research article, participants have been selected for gaining the proper observation and behaviour that has been shown by the participants. Along with that, the experiences and their recovery stories have been collected in the form of interview sessions with the help of proper questionnaires about the research topic. Around eight people have been selected for the interview and they all are identified as adults. Among the total 8 participants, five people are males and the rest are females. Along with that, the age ratio of the participants has been selected from 27 to 74 years along with the participants staying in sobriety from around 21 months to 35 years (Sawer et al. 2020). Through overall experiences and shame stories of the participants, different opinions have been collected as the data of the research.
Data collection method
On the basis of research quotations, a set of questionnaires has been developed in order to collect the data on the research topic for the further analysis and evaluation of the research topic.
The research question of the article is as follows:
Q1: How do the patients describe their shame stories?
Q2: How do the feelings of shame help the patients recover from alcohol dependency?
The interview session has been started with the overall understanding of the aim and research importance to the interviewers along with a general discussion with the participants. On the basis of two research questions, different open-ended questions have been asked to the interviewers in terms of their recovery process and overall experiences (Sawer et al. 2020). Along with that, the best expenses and worst experiences of the participants have also been collected as the data.
Data analysis method
On the basis of qualitative research, a Narrative thematic analysis has been done for the research of the article. Along with that, through collection through interviews of a focused group the data analysis method has been followed by the primary qualitative data analysis for the research topic. As per the opinion of Barbazza et al. (2021), this type of data analysis can be effective to evaluate the overall data and analyse them in the proper way to research towards an effective conclusion from the research.
All the participants have been taken for the interview as per their will on the particular research topic and they all are adults. The proper identification of the participants has not been disclosed along with pseudo names that have been used to replace their original names. No participants have not hampered or mentally affected the research along with porous health and safety of the participants has been maintained throughout this research.
Potential for bias
The main source of bias might come from the participants in terms of presenting the data of the research in a different manner from the actual.
[Refer to Appendix 1]
Through the overall data collection from the interview sessions, two major findings have been identified for the research such as most of the parents of the participants are additive in nature and acknowledge the shame. Through this part of the essay, an overall critical analysis of those two factors has been evaluated giving an overall idea about those two major findings of the research.
Findings 1: The majority of the participants had parents who were addictive in nature.
According to the chosen article, it has been observed that all of the participants of the interview session have shared their personal experiences and stories about their lives (Sawer et al. 2020). Through the overall analysis, it has been identified that the participants expressed their history of the addiction to alcohol along with their experiences in terms of recovering from those habits. Along with that, it has been identified that the majority of the participants have come from parents that have had addiction in nature in the past. On the other hand, around four people in the interview process have faced a past having the addictive parents that trigger their habit of alcohol consumption. As stated by Yurasek et al. (2019), a child of a family having parents with addiction in nature triggers the child to make the same kind of mistakes in terms of addiction or consumption of alcohol.
In context with that, the article “The Effects of Parent, Sibling and Peer Substance Use on Adolescent Drinking Behaviours” can be considered as the same kind of research that has been presented in similar situations and identify the impacts of parents with addictive nature on their children (Yurasek et al. 2019). Along with that, the role of subconscious minds and the surrounding nature can also impact negatively on people in terms of addiction. Through the critical analysis of the interview data, it has been identified that adverse conditions, addictive parents, and surroundings can be considered as the major reason for becoming addictive in nature for alcohol of those patients. In comparison with a normal family, the overall chances of being addicted have more in a family with addictive nature history with their parents. Through the critical evaluation of their interview related data on the research topic, the major outcomes have been identified as that most of the participants have become addicted and the parental addictive nature has been considered one of the main reasons for that addictiveness towards alcohol.
Findings 2: The participants have acknowledged their shame.
After the overall critical analysis of the experiences and stories of the participants, it has been identified that the participants have acknowledged their shame that helped them to recover from the addition of alcohol. As opined by Verhaar et al. (2022), behaviours have played an important role in terms of mental health that has been considered one of the major reasons for becoming addicted to nature. Along with that, parental behaviours, and lack of self-esteem can be considered as other important factors of the addition of alcohol (Morris et al. 2020). Through the overall analysis of the interview data, it has been found that acknowledging the shame has been considered as the major factor that can help in the treatment of addiction to alcohol the participants. Along with that, acknowledging the shame can be effective in terms of recovering from health issues (Sawer et al. 2020). In terms of acknowledging the shame and other related feelings about the addiction, can help any patient in recovering from the addiction through the use of the evidence-based practice.
Through the overall data collection method for the research paper that has been conducted through an interview, it has been found that most of the participants have faced shame about their addiction and that has been acknowledged by them to receive from that (Sawer et al. 2020). Along with that, the participants have acknowledged that alcoholism can be considered an addictive illness and recovery from that illness has not been successful without acknowledging it. As opined by Dodge and Clarke (2018), the inferiority complex of a patient has been identified as the key factor that triggers the addictive nature of an individual to alcohol. The research article has highlighted another major outcome in relation to the context as specific inner shame can be effective in recovery from the addictive nature of alcohol. The research article “Shame is bad and guilt is good: An examination of the impaired control over drinking pathway to alcohol use and related problems” has been centred on the importance of shame in the personal life in terms of improved self-control (Patock-Peckham et al. 2018). Along with that, acknowledging the shame and personal strengths and weaknesses has been provided as effective for the patient in terms of recovery from the addiction to alcohol.
"Evidence-based practices" can be described as the opinions and works of medical experts in terms of providing any type of treatment regarding any medical issues. Therefore, Evidence-based practices can be considered the main opportunity in terms of providing treatments to the necessary patients after analysis of their traits regarding the health issues (Aveyard and Sharp, 2017). As per the opinion of Parahoo (2014), "Co-occurring psychiatric disorders” can also be treated through Evidence-based practices. As Evidence-based practices are based on the experiences and knowledge of medical experts, therefore the overall treatments for each person have been different from the other person. Along with that, the overall process of treatment has been prepared after the analysis of the traits of the medical issues. As opined by Ellis (2018), an observation process has been conducted for a single person to enhance the overall traits of the symptoms and clinical issues through proper evidence-based practices.
As opined by Brayford et al. (2008), different practices of medical staff can provide valuable information regarding the treatment of the patients for particular symptoms of medical issues that have been considered in Evidence-based practices. Evidence-based practices can also be considered beneficial for the treatment as it provides evidence-based medicines for specific patients. In the case of treatment of alcohol consumed patients, Evidence-based practices can be effective in terms of managing the symptoms of that person (Ceyhan et al. 2019). As the article is based on the issues regarding experiences of shame of the alcoholic people and their feelings related to barriers in terms of sobriety, therefore Evidence-based practices can be considered effective treatment for the treatment of those patients. As per the opinion of Mikkelsen et al. (2020), through Evidence-based practices, affected people can get benefits in terms of gaining treatment for better outcomes and better lives of the people. As the evidence-based practices have been acquired from the practical knowledge and experiences of the medical experts and professionals, therefore it can be considered an effective treatment for the patients who are suffering from shame and guilt feelings in terms of consuming alcohol.
Evidence-based practices are more patient-centric and help the patients express their issues with the health problem and get benefits from the treatments (Norcross and Wampold, 2018). Along with that, as the Evidence-based practices are made after the overall analysis of the patients regarding the health issues, therefore the evaluation of the health issues can be specified more easily that helps in the overall treatment of the health issues (McGovern and Carroll, 2003). On the other hand, as opined by Bowling (2014), understanding the basic cause of the issues of the patients helps in enhancing the overall relationships that further help the patients to recover from their health issues with the different evidence-based practices of the medical experts and clinical staff. Along with that, clinical interventions that are evidence-based can also be considered as effective in the case of implementing those interventions in solving practical health issues such as habits of alcohol consumption. In case of treatment through evidence-based practices, asking the patients about their journey toward addiction to alcohol consumption can be helpful for the medical experts to prepare evidence-based treatment plans for better outcomes. As per the opinion of Cluett (2006), the people's evidence-based practices affect people can be returned to their normal life through the implementation of proper treatment and acknowledging the self condition of the patients.
Through the overall analysis of the research article, it can be concluded that evidence-based practices have been considered the effective treatment process for recovering from the addictive nature of alcohol. The major outcomes that have been identified from that article have been described as the majority of the participants had parents who were addictive in nature and acknowledging the shame of the alcohol-addicted patients that helps them to recover from the addictive nature. On the other hand, parental behaviours, anxiety, depressions, and surroundings behaviours are the major reason that triggers the addictiveness of consuming alcohol. Different evidence-based practices such as improving observation processes, person-centric processes, and others can be effective for the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. The overall research method and data collection method that has been considered primary qualitative have been effective to meet the research questions and helped the research to find and meaningful conclusion.
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