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Here the topic is food poisoning and food related illnesses in different cities. Food poisoning is called a foodborne illness which is caused by eating contaminated food. E-Coli, salmonella, listeria and norovirus are the parts of food poisoning because these are the food viruses which can spread in the human body through contaminated food. The poisoning occurs from various types of foods like cross contamination and undercooking meats, vegetables and fruits, cheese products and raw milk, eggs, raw shellfish and seafood, raw flour and sprouts (Okumus et al. 2019). As a short term effect, it can cause vomiting, stomach cramps and nausea which can be cured after sometimes. But in the long term effect, kidney failure, nerve and brain damage and chronic arthritis can happen. The symptoms can be noticed from 6 hours to 1 day after in taking these foods. Here the other part is food related illness and consumption of contaminated beverages and foods are the main causes of the disease in the UK. Mostly it happens due to the effect of viruses, bacteria and parasites. Children, aged people, pregnant women and people with weak immune systems can be affected by food related problems. Norovirus, Clostridium Perfringens, Salmonella, Staphylococcus Aureus and Campylobacter are the common germs which are the causes of food illness (Czarniecka-Skubina et al. 2018). The main causes of the illness are improper methods of cooking like an unhygienic environment, excessive temperature, dusty equipment and utensils, poor health of the cooking staff and food collection from unsafe sources. The prevention is only possible by sanitizing and cleaning the kitchen surfaces, washing hands in proper time, using the food products from safe sources, sanitizing and cleaning the equipment and utensils before cooking, keeping away from excess use of raw animal foods and never using the date expired foods in the UK. The interesting area of the topic is to find the poisoning of foods and the effect on the human body (Dietrich et al. 2021). The topic is very important to society people because it can make them aware of how they can prevent the attack of germs in their regular food habits and keep themselves safe by maintaining proper hygiene. The purpose of the research is to explore about the researching part that how the foods affects in human body and create the form of short to long term illness.
The topic of research is taken from the descriptive side because here. The points are used to present the characteristics of the daily in taking foods and how these can cause the poisoning effects. It also refers the remedy to solve the problem, the symptoms of the disease and the maintenance of the clean and hygienic environment (Onozuka et al. 2019). The aim of the research is to secure the society people from any type of food poisoning effect and make them safe from foodborne illness. So the topic is very important for them to know about the poisoning of foods, the long and short term effects of them, and the activity of the germs and the maintenance of a clean and hygienic environment in the kitchen.
Here the discussion about the contaminated foods like undercooked or raw meat, poultry, light cooked or raw eggs, under pasteurized or raw milk and raw shellfish. These types of foods can cause foodborne illness like diarrhea, vomiting, digestion problems, gastric, nausea and others. These are the short term effects and it can be seen in 6-8 hours after in taking the foods. But the long term effects are uremic hemolytic syndrome, chronic arthritis, nerve and brain system damage (Lee et al. 2020). These are the non-removal effects of the body which cannot be cured properly. So from the first time, people must be careful before eating contaminated foods. Here the topic is discussed to know the bad effects of the food products to the people and to be aware of them before in taking it. There are some rules which can help people to overcome the problems of foodborne illness. First, cleanliness means washing and sanitizing the hands and the surface of the kitchen before, after and during the cooking time to avoid the effect of germ, second, separating means keeping the cooked foods in safe distance from raw meat, seafood, poultry and eggs, third, cooking means the types of healthy cooking habits by maintaining the proper temperature to kill the viruses, bacteria and parasites and fourth, chilling means keeping the refrigerator 50°F or below of the temperature should be used by cooking staff. If they can maintain these rules then the harmful effect of contaminated foods must be avoided and the people surely overcome from foodborne illness and lead a healthy life (Wallace et al. 2020). But for this, proper cooking methods and hygienic environment are the most important parts to overcome the short and long term effects of contaminated foods and keep the human body from diseased free condition.
According to Si et al. 2018, here the discussion part is about food safety in urban china. Food safety is the process of storing, handling and preparing the foods to prevent the effect of injection and help them to make sure that all food products give proper nutrients which is helpful to continue a healthy diet chart. Keeping cleanliness, separating cooked and raw products, cooking properly, making foods at a particular temperature and using fresh vegetables and clean water. These are the only ways to maintain safety and avoid any type of harmful disease because the clean and hygienic environment can destroy the effect of viruses, bacteria and parasites. The benefits of food safety are preventing people from allergic reactions and food poisoning because if they are not aware of their daily food habits and cooking methods then these create a great problem in their regular life and cause foodborne illness in London. So from the first time, they must be careful about how they can prevent the disease and lead a healthy lifestyle without making any problems. If they cannot maintain the rules then the short and long term effects can happen (Si et al. 2018). The short term effects like diarrhea, vomiting, digestion problems, gastric, nausea and the long term effects like uremic hemolytic syndrome, chronic arthritis, nerve and brain damage are the diseases of the illness. To give more information to the society, the food safety program is organized in Urban China by the health staff. It is the written document where the main part is the food business and the safety hazards of foods, handling activities the products and the development of marketing process are discussed by the managing department and health supervisors. The benefit of the program is that it easily improves the confidence of the people about the food products and they can understand the value of nutritious foods in their daily life which can also develop the business. Actually, the food safety program in Urban China creates the awareness of the society about the contaminated foods and they can know the value of maintaining a clean and hygienic environment in the kitchen. In this way, they can avoid the effects of foodborne diseases and lead a healthy life by in taking cooked foods and sufficient water. The health staffs are properly trained and they are knowledgeable and efficient in their work so they are able to teach the people how they can maintain cleanliness in their daily life.
According to Hembrom et al. 2020, here the discussion part is the comprehensive evaluation on heavy metal contamination of foodstuff and risk factors on human health. Chromium, lead, zinc, arsenic, copper, cadmium, mercury and nickel are the types of heavy metal. The causes of heavy metal contamination are industrial exposure, pollution of water and air, junk foods, high dose medicines, improper coated containers, and the ingestion of paints based on leads. Most probably, the heavy metals can be mixed with food products and the vital cause is the pollutant of water, air and soil. Means it is the problem of humans because when the plants grow then they can consume the heavy metal in soil with their foods and the vegetables and fruits of the plant must contain the heavy metal for this reason. When the people intake the foods they can consume these heavy metals in their body in Manchester. Mostly, cilantro, wild blueberries, garlic, lemon water, chlorella, spirulina, atlantic dulse and barley juice are these types of foods which can easily contain the heavy metals so the people must be careful about it before in taking the products. Otherwise they can make the harmful effects in human body like dysfunction of kidney and gastrointestinal, disorders of nervous systems, vascular damage, skin lesions, dysfunction of immune system, cancer and birth defects (Hembrom et al. 2020). These all are the types of chronic and acute disease which cannot be cured properly and make the people physically and mentally unable day by day in Manchester. It is the short message for the people who are not aware about their daily food habits because it is very essential to make a proper concern about the food value and before eating the foods. When they know the nutritional value in their regular food then they can easily make them healthy and fit. Along with this, they can avoid the harmful effects of the heavy metal by judging the quality of foods before cooking and using the filter water to make them safe from any type of harmful diseases. In the modern days, there are some remedial processes to save people from heavy metal contamination like thermal treatment, chlorination, adsorption, ion-exchange, chemical extraction, electro kinetics, membrane separation and bioleaching in Manchester. But the first step is cleanup technologies or remediation. In this process, the heavy metals are excluded from food products and drinking water and keep the people secure from the harmful effects of heavy metals.
According to Nayak et al. 2019, here the discussion part is future prospects and key concepts of global food safety as the adaptive complex system. Global Food Safety is a private organization and it helps to improve the food value by maintaining the food chain. The roles of the organization are to create the food standards if harmonized internationally by protecting the health of the consumers and ensuring the trade practices of fair foods means it helps to protect the people from foodborne illness by maintaining the quality of the food. The key concepts of global food safety are cleanliness, separation, cooking and chilling. First one is cleanliness means washing and sanitizing the hands and the kitchen surface before, after and during the cooking time to avoid the effect of viruses, bacteria and parasites. Second one is separating means keeping the cooked foods at a safe distance from raw meat, seafood, poultry and eggs which can keep germs. Third one is cooking means the types of healthy cooking habits by maintaining the proper temperature to kill the germs and keep the food safe. Last one is chilling means keeping the refrigerator 50°F or below the temperature to keep the food products fresh for a long time (Nayak et al. 2019). These are the basic functions of safety which are maintained by the organization and their main aim is to deliver the people fresh and nutritious foods in proper time. But this is only possible for the good communication and cooperation of the staff of the organization in Leeds. They all are hardworking and efficient in their work and always maintain a friendly environment in the workplace. They also share their problems to each other to get the solution and the management team helps them economically. For maintaining the food quality and communicating in a proper way, the consumers are very satisfied and they want to buy their regular products from here. The aspects of the organization are maintaining personal hygiene, handling the safety of foods, preventing the process of cross-contamination, controlling allergen, cleaning procedures, cooking temperatures and storing of food. They also want to continue the rules in future and hire more efficient and communicative employees in Leeds To develop the working structure because they can easily handle the work and the consumers. These are the future prospects of the organization to develop their economic system because the process totally depends upon the working structure and customer handling abilities of the staff.
According to Chikkanna et al. 2019, here the discussion part is arsenic exposures, threat and poisoning to human health. Arsenic is the chemical element and mainly it is the combination of sulfur and other metals. It is used in semiconductors as the doping agent for the devices of solid state. Arsenic is mainly found in sediments, soils and groundwater. The common causes of arsenic poisoning to human health are breathing air which contains arsenic, smoking the products of tobacco, taking breath in contaminated air from mines or plants which use arsenic, living very close in industrial sectors and being exposed to waste sites or landfill. After contaminating the arsenic in the body there can happen short and long term exposures. The short term exposures are stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, weakness and headaches. But the long term effects are skin lesions, cancer and even death. So people must be careful about the effects of arsenic and maintain a healthy lifestyle by avoiding arsenic related foods. The people become detach from the society for the bad effects of arsenic like social discrimination, social instability, refusal from families and communities, problems related marriage (Chikkanna et al. 2019). The people who are living in the industrial areas must be aware about the problems and use masks for self-protection. Otherwise it can directly affect the cell and cause of death by multiple mechanisms. 95million to 200million people suffer from these problems due to intake of underground water and it is harmful for skin, liver, eyes, lungs, kidneys and lymphatic system. It also can cause behavioral or mental problems by daily intake of arsenic contaminated water. ≤50 micrograms per liter is the normal amount of arsenic and if the level is high >50 to <200 mcg/L it can cause harmful effects in the body. The children, adults and aged people all can suffer from this disease because of excessive consumption of the element. The awareness and safety of the people are the only way too safe from the harmful effects of arsenic.
Here Blau and Duncan (1975) have described their seminar work on social justice. Both Blue and Duncan analyzed the status attainment of their framework by using the basic model of mobility. It is the type of process where every individual attains their systemic positions of social stratification of the society (Yuan et al. 2022). Education, rewards, income and occupation are the key factors of the process. Differentiation of Statuses, Process of Evaluation, Ranking of Statuses and Process of Rewarding are the main factors of social stratification. Here the main part is social mobility which refers to giving a chance for everyone toward prosperity.
The research topic follows the quantitative approach. It is the research strategy which focuses on the collection and analysis of the qualifying data. It is the type of deductive approach where the main matter is presented in the theory testing process. It emphasizes statistical and objective measurement, numerical or mathematical analysis of the data collection through questionnaires, polls and surveys. The collective and analytical data of the research topic is collected from the different articles to gather the important and different types of information of the topic (Buheji, M., 2020). The strengths of the quantitative approach are that it helps to give important information with a very quick search, increases the size of the sample and makes different types of data in the related topic to make the research more attractive to the learners. So the quantitative approach is used here and these are the strengths of it. But sometimes the articles do not match with the related topic and do not focus on the numbers. It makes the difficulty of the research model and it is very time taking process so in the time of research, there can make a space or misleading due to lengthy process. These are the weaknesses of it and if it is maintained in the time of research it can be overcome.
Questionnaire data collection method is used in this research because here the standardized question is asked to follow the topic properly and proper answers make the research very easy. The questionnaire process also helps to collect individual data by maintaining the fixed scheme which is very useful for the research and helps to make the topic informative (Vianna et al. 2020). The strengths of the process are that it is a less expensive, practical process, making the popper results in an easy way, visualization and easy analytical method, responding in anatomy and actionable data. But there are also weaknesses in the process which can make the research totally spoil like improper answers, differentiation in interpretation and understanding, ignoring to share emotions and feelings, unconscientiously responses and lacking personalization.
Here the selected cities are London, Manchester and Leeds. Online survey samples or questionnaires are chosen here because it was impossible to travel from one city to another to collect the important information by door to door campaign. At this time, the pandemic Covid situation is running so it is better for online surveys to gather the data. Here the sample size is 51 and it is selected because it is considered as a sufficient number for holding CLT (Izquierdo-Yusta et al. 2018). As the sample size is 51 so the selected numbers of people are also 51. The response is very good in this survey because the people also want to keep their distance for maintaining hygiene and it is possible for the online survey. They give very responsive and proper answers of all questions so the research is successful in a short time period.
The questionnaire data collection method is valid and reliable for the research because it is the type of face to face conversion and all doubts are clear in this process. The responses of the people are also very good and they help to give all types of important answers related to the topic. The surety comes when the research topic is acceptable and informative to the learners then it is clear that the finding was reliable and valid.
Here data is collected basis on three parts of the topic. First one is food safety in Urban China, second one is the comprehensive evaluation on heavy metal contamination of foodstuff, third one is future prospects and key concepts of global food safety as the adaptive complex system and risk factors on human health and fourth one is arsenic exposures, threat and poisoning to human health. In the first part, the basic process is discussed which are keeping cleanliness, separating cooked and raw products, cooking properly, making foods at a particular temperature and using fresh vegetables and clean water. The short term effects like diarrhea, vomiting, digestion problems and long term effects like uremic hemolytic syndrome, nerve and brain damage are the diseases of foodborne illness (Shahid et al. 2020). For solving these problems, a food safety program is also organized by the health supervisors and management team. In the second part, the causes of heavy metal contamination are discussed like industrial exposure, pollution of water and air, junk foods and the ingestion of paints based on lead. The effects of the heavy metal consumption are dysfunction of kidney and gastrointestinal, skin lesions, dysfunction of immune system, cancer and birth defects. The modern treatment processes of the disease are thermal treatment, chlorination, membrane separation and bioleaching. In the third part, the key concepts are cleanliness, separation, cooking and chilling and the future prospects are maintaining personal hygiene, handling the safety of foods, cleaning procedures, cooking temperatures and storing of food. In the fourth part, the poisonous effects of the arsenic are poisoning to human health in breathing air which contains arsenic, smoking the products of tobacco and being exposed to waste sites. The threats of the arsenic are stomach pain, nausea, weakness and headaches, skin lesions, cancer and even death.
Here the questions are based on food safety, contaminated food consumption, hygiene maintenance, long term and short term effects of foodborne illness and the effect on the society. Here the research question is about the effect of contaminated foods in the human body and the data is collected based on the discomfort of the people for foodborne illness. The data collection is questionnaire based and the given questions are about the related topic where they share their personal experience of the illness in their family members and own self (Ghazani et al. 2018). So all the answers are modified and based on the current situation. The researchers do not face any problematic situation due to insufficient data and all are very helpful and cooperative. With the help of all the research is completed and successful and it is acceptable to the learners.
Here excel analysis is used in analytical methods. Based on the research question, data collection and analysis happens. All the people are very cooperative to make the research result successful. In this analysis, the collective data from the respondents are converted into excel analysis to make it safe for the future.
In methodology, the quantitative approach is given as a research process and the data collected is questionnaire based. But the main problems of the quantitative approaches are increasing the size of the sample and the improper answers of the questions which must be developed because most of the people are cooperative and they spend their time to help the researchers (Broad, G.M. 2020). But sometimes they are also neglected and get wrong answers which are not related to the topic. So the sample size is increasing and completing the research in a very lengthy time. For this, the researcher must be hardworking and knowledgeable and spend more time to get the result better. In the questionnaire method, they sometimes ask the wrong questions which are not related to the topic and they cannot conveniently understand the answers in the proper way. So this makes a problematic situation and solving the problems, the only solution is to make more confident and knowledgeable for facing the online survey with the respondents (Lamine et al. 2019). The main limitation of the topic is the inconvenience in face to face questions due to Covid situation and for the online survey, the researchers face the network and free discussion issues. The technical processes of food safety, personal hygiene maintenance and saving the human body from short term and long term effects of the contaminated food helps to improve the knowledge of the researchers and develop the criteria of the topic.
Here the topic is about food poisoning and food related illnesses in different cities. The main three cities of the UK are London, Manchester and Leeds and the food safety, heavy metal contamination, future prospects and key concepts of the matter and the poisonous effects of arsenic are described here in a brief. The research results will make a clear prospectus for the future generation because from this part, they will know the process of food safety, the causes of foodborne illness, the short term and long term effects of the diseases and also the recovery method (Landrigan et al. 2018). The right way of cooking, hygiene maintenance, cleanliness of the kitchen and its surface and the separation of the raw and cooked groups will help people to live a healthy life. The different ideas from the different city people make the research more informative because they share their personal feelings and knowledge of the questions and all the answers are based on modern technology and there is no chance of copy paste. The research process is so easy due to online surveys and the researchers collect the information while staying at home. So there is no cost of travel and they make the research more efficient which will be easily acceptable for the future generation.
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