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Organizational Behaviour in International context Assignment Sample

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Organizational Behaviour in International context Assignment Sample


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  • It is a cultural diversity that brings the increasing attraction of a hotel or tourism company together worldwide. In this task, we will discuss Hilton worldwide and their attention towards cultural diversity and how they manage globalisation and its trends coupled up with the increasing cross-cultural diversification and stakeholders to adopt a strategic hardness for initiating enhanced performances and effectiveness in their profitability. Especially in the tourism and hospitality industry, the developments in globalisation are very well seen in terms of increasing their workforce and labour migrations to expand their operations. So any company attempting to expand the business evening to have a structured international frontiers needs the importance of cultural diversity and becoming bad for the development of strategies to manage the guiding pillar for the industry (Ma, 2021).
  • Hilton worldwide is very well known for its worldwide expansion of hotels and resorts in over 6478 locations as of December 31 2020. Total assets of 16.75 billion US dollars as of 2020 had come a long way from 1919 when Conrad Hilton purchased his first hotel in Cisco, Texas. In late 1979 after Hilton died, Hilton hotel corporation became a competing hotel industry by introducing the hotel giant chain purchase of Marriott. But the current President and CEO of Hilton, Christopher J Nassetta, made sure that Hilton, after the 2016 scratch in valuation and market, can bounce back and is currently at the number 1 of hotels and tourism industry with hundreds and thousands of their facilities and assets all around the world. They also announced their intention to spin-off in the real estate business, creating independent public companies back in 2016 (Jung and Kim, 2021). This report will also discuss their customer loyalty and the modification that Hilton makes sure that companies and hotels cost room for better profitability through different behaviour models (Reidhead, 2020).
  • It is very important for an organisation, especially the hotel and tourism industry, to have organisational behaviour in their company. This is because it is important for making people feel comfortable, but it is also important to improve relations among the staff and improve customer loyalty. Organisational behaviour for any given company relates their elements of the external social system towards their inner knowledge of human behaviour and its application. It makes a basic field of specialised study which performs a fundamental study to modify and reflect the differences and consistency is of the company underlying with their customer relations. In this report, we will discuss the organisational behaviour of Hilton UK.
  • Hilton hotels and resorts are a global brand full of tourism services with Hilton's flagship American multinational hospitality company. It was founded back in 1919. It has a headquarters in Virginia, US. Back in 1989, Hilton also established its owner's program for guest loyalty and completed the architecture of the orbital hotel. This particular hotel looked very similar to the film that came out on a Space Odyssey in 2001, which made the entire hotel look connected in the form of a ring. Hilton creates many such architectural wonders in the hotels, which attract customers daily and their guest service. According to profitability, Hilton saw a huge drop back in 2016 after opening the first hotel in the Baltic states and Chad. The fall in the stock market was not because of these two events but also because of their lack of organisational behaviour. After which, Hilton has shown that capability and has been at the top of the hotel and tourism industry consecutively for a few years (Penman and Hilton, 2020).
  • Hilton worldwide is always inclusive of its vision to make everybody feel warm with their hospitality, delivering an exceptional diversity and inclusion statement. Also, the Instinct of having a heartfelt experience for their guest and customers is very meaningful to Hilton worldwide mission, which gives a significant opportunity to fully commit and represent different languages and cultures into the same background and viewpoint and welcome them into a connective environment. The values that Hilton looks for are hospitality and integrity (Wilson, 2018).
  • According to the present and the CEO of Hilton worldwide, the company's most valuable asset is their hospitality through which the executive community in network programs works and with which they can make guests and customers feel much more homely. No matter where Hilton resort or hotel is based in the world constantly, there would be a mixed ethnic city of staff working there showing that they believe in all races and religions and ethnicity to be equal and even that diversified board of directors are 50% male and 50% female giving a perfect sense of balance ship at the topmost level of the company.
  • Some of the factors that define diversity and inclusiveness by Hilton worldwide are their core attributes and advanced attributes, which demographically and culturally help in skills and competencies. Some of the refined qualities follow the cultural and geographical skills of ethnicity and citizenships along with the individual staff's national origin and religion. Still, above it, their skills and competencies of life experience, educational background, and professional experiences are the most authentic values respected by Hilton and their recruiting team. Communication style and thinking status of one's outlook towards gender identity and sexual orientations and race and physical abilities are significant.


  • Hilton is looking towards profitable margins by removing intermediataries with travel agencies.
  • Hilton’s are growing their markets in Africa and Pacific-Asian regions to promote their resorts and hotels worldwide.
  • Promoting cultural diversity which can provide better customer appreciation and customer loyalty towards hilton worldwide.

These factors will provide an increase of profitability which not only give better customer reach but also provide serious integration with the market. This shows Hilton worldwide is an accumulation of cross-cultural management because the management of staff and employees are the only point of interest in a business, especially in the tourism and hospitality industry. Employees make a huge difference as their behaviour and quality of work increases productivity and profitability for the company (Jung and Kim, 2021).

Market data analysis

Back on December 12 2013, Hilton worldwide became a public company racing for its second IPL with over 2.35 billion US dollars as 45.8 % of the stake in the company was given to Blackstone group. After which, in October 2016, China acquired 25% of the equity in Hilton and took over this 45.8 per cent from Blackstone in a transaction after the first quarter ended in 2017. Hilton's largest stakeholders are China, black stone and the Wellington management groups with 25%, 15.2% and 6.7 %, respectively. Hilton worldwide is currently down at 4.307 billion US dollars in revenue and ten net income as well as a slight increase with a debt of 720 million US dollars as of 2020 after the covid-19 pandemic. Hilton worldwide has the biggest markets in Europe, Asia, and Europe, shared with Russia and America and the Middle East. They have over 700 thousand rooms in the United States, followed by 90000 rooms in Asia and the Pacific region. They also had an ACSI score of 79 in 2021, and they also ranked in leading hotel companies worldwide pack in 2019, 2020 and 2021 (Ma, 2021).

Franchising and corporate affairs

Hilton worldwide makes sure to franchise that rooms with over 8 98% branded under Hilton managed and franchised by other corporated companies. From 2007 to 2013, the ownership of Hilton and other stakeholders predominantly expanded their agreements with relatively few new properties. This franchising became very popular with health and because of held in with other hospitality and tourism groups. The major hotel change mail Marriott also started doing this as significantly it started growing the proportions of franchise rooms. The practices of such an agreement which are franchised with hospitality industries, broad in change for standard brands and the strict licensing agreements. Hilton similarly paid the maintenance with the overhead cost of the franchise properties and flagship properties. Hilton also has a predominantly frequent allocating accumulated point system called the guest royalties or loyalty system. This program largely helps the guests with Elite status in Elliott sweet or Hilton honours programs ranging from member, silver, gold and diamond. There are 71 million members of this card system, mostly predominating in gold membership (Lu and Zhu, 2019).

Cross-cultural management

Forest hotel and resort chains like health Hilton are very important to have corporate affairs and make sure that they are popular in all the cultures available. Hilton worldwide makes cultural management very precisely because they were named as 25 best multinational workplaces by fortune back in 2016. They also ranked number one in the list of 100 best companies to work for in 2019 in 2027 at number 26.

In many popular cultures, this health has also been referred to as in 1971 featured in a Bond movie where Las Vegas Hilton was chosen for a bond shooting. Again in 1995, it was chosen for another James bond movie. In 2006 several movies such as Spider-Man 3, American Gangster and many more were shot in the New York Hilton. Also, the founder of Hilton, Conrad Hilton, was played a major character in the third season of madmen (Lu and Zhu, 2019).

Advantages and disadvantages

There are certain advantages of having an international hotel group with a management concept and wants for vitality and better cross-cultural management with experts who can research the practical results and discussion before exploring multinational hotels in probation of responding to such research. In simple words, it is very important to have cross-cultural management because intercultural management provides different nationalities and cultures to be having an exploration of management and enterprises and is an important part of expanding your own business. Concerning each other, the important part of cross-cultural management is to have acquainted personalities and customs of both the companies to find a balanced point. However, they can understand to eliminate all the other ideologies and create their own so that they can expand to each other's industries or states.

Also, after Hilton worldwide operated 18 hotels in 12 countries in the early stages back in the 1960s - 1970s, they had to come to a point where they needed to enter the Chinese market to take over the Asia and Asian Pacific region. This is where Hilton made sure that their encounters of impact have a cultural significance so that communication and cooperation have a shared goal of profitability and productivity from that chain of hotels and resorts. This is where Conrad Hilton made sure to open 17 hotels in the Chinese Market in Shanghai (Ma, 2021).

This not only resolved the matter is of conflict between employees and the manager is about different customers but also became of peak moment for the Hilton worldwide because this is the point where they could enter the market susceptibility and interesting leave that took over the entire Pacific and Asian market along with the European market slowly in market competitiveness of enterprises. Also, cross-cultural management in Kansas the perspective in a long-term effect and different cultural differences does not affect business. Rather it helps in the issues of the company. For example, Hilton restaurant was known for their American style using until 1970. However, after they started expanding, they started adding a lot of recipes that they developed in the Asia Pacific and Europe back to the American restaurants in hotels, which brought about almost 36.7 % of a change in people liking the food more because now the restaurant did not only become a natural restaurant that any hotel needs, but it became a brand by itself as an exotic restaurant with interesting food flavours.

Recruitment and Training

Recruitment and training are the two most important aspects to manage cultural diversity and maintain a workforce of over a million people worldwide by the company. The basic extension of such recruitment is to have an effective b candidate prepared by the agency for strategic goals and priority so that they can work according to their organisation, broadening workforce and diverse experiences. This is one of the reasons that the employees in Hilton never lack innovativeness because of their experience all over the international business. Their environmental development in policies and processes represents the diverse cultures, and they become more humble and hardworking individuals.

Post-training as a form of the strategy of borrowing power distance from the dimension of distributed organisational context that successfully empowers the minority of the employee is. The difference is used as forces are utilised to generate much more advantages quality of work that the employees can produce so b that they are trained to respect all ethnic, racial and religious differences so that their contractual training also implies that practices that they would be using in the future and distribute them accordingly to the different bi-annual training sessions. Rules of engagement of cross-cultural management are very important for engagement inadequate and medium communications to arrive at in environmental have arrived corporations and collaborations (Lu and Zhu, 2019).

Organisational behaviour model

In the hospitality industry, it is a very important organisation that emerges in a formal behaviour with their customers because it always helps improve the organisation's behaviour and differences. The underlying consistency of individual differences dramatically makes important staff changes about the job-related attitudes.

The study of organisational behaviour also manages stress and conflict and helps perceptual decision-making in the hotel. All of these factors are very important if a competitive economy is to be managed by the company of the particular hotel because learning relating to the organisational behaviour but only shows its results if a positive job attitude is maintained for a significant role in the hotel industry and expected hospital t is given to the customer which makes the guests more loyal towards the particular brand of hotel. The behaviour of individuals needs to be controlled by practising a constant perfection of appreciation and praise for the staff and balancing the criticising training to reward the staff and make them understand what they are doing wrong. This thoroughly considers the mistakes and others interests while moving towards perfection. There are four organisational behaviour models discussed below:

1. Autocratic

This model was revolutionised back in 1900. It shows how the owner or the manager has direct power to dictate the employees for or work and the model also a search how the psychological results of the employees' processes into a formalised managed which makes them manager much more motivated to drive that team towards a cooperative command which in turn is beneficial for the hotel. This is because if every person of a certain team starts working much more reluctantly, the performance drops as the psychology of " hire, fire and perspire'' is very important to a single person who is the manager or the owner of the hotel. Ten only the employees have a value to modernise their thinking capabilities along with their physical labour given for their hotel to fully complete the needs of the particular hotel through exchanging and increasing the social values and hence manage the organisational behaviour (Reidhead, 2020).

2. Custodial

The most evident custodial models, which come to be capable of words of an autocratic model, shows that custodial models are the well economically safe imperative when it comes to a setup for a hotel. This is because the increased ability of aggressive behaviour towards once certain bosses not only makes them much more humble but the staff starts to take supervisors' credibility and to destroy all the adoration makes them very much down to earth so that they could serve their customers well. This model was also developed around 1900 and 1930 when the welfare programs involved many beneficial fringes for organisational behaviour in the hotel and tourism industry. A successful model approaches the economic security of the hotel by having an all-around benefit for the staff with corporate cause and financial packaging along with a form of incentives giving them employee satisfaction which intern day payback showing dependency and loyalty to the hotel and hence performing with better productivity.


Unlike the earlier approaches, the supportive model influences motivation for the employees because a simple motivating factor establishes the relationship between the manager and the staff much more bonded than an alternative power. Also, incentive and reward schemes, on the contrary, autocratic or custodial models, give better reflection and growth space for the employees to show their actual training effectiveness and potential. This is because now a manager pushes the employees with motivational factors, and for their benefit, they would realise that getting self-motivated and creating positive outcomes encourages the idea of setting an aspect of improving human behaviour for their work's perspective and psychological inclusiveness to the organisation. This approach was developed around 1950 is which found that the social system can very well understand the behaviour and the personality of the employee and the training given by the manager, which letters on improves and starts to take responsibility as the performance and confidence increases. It improves productivity and profitability for the organisation (Wood and Hilton, 2018).

4. Collegial

A collegial model extends the supportive model and makes the manager's role more like a functioning coach for the staff to generate a positive work environment instead of only focusing on personal growth. This improves the team functioning and the development the organisation needs from its subordinates. It also provides an extensive partnership between the manager and the employee and shows that equal contribution of the team can be presented to abolish any negative execution of previously made mistakes. This not only provides productivity and profitability for the company but also gives outside of how much the employees can work together in much more disciplined standards (Reidhead, 2020).

Also, the collegial model extends certain supportive organisational behaviour strategies shows its management ability on the dependability of the employee's fixation rate. The employee itself requires adapting to new approaches for generating better positive work and motivating themselves to guide a certain task. It not only creates an understanding between the manager and the subordinate but also for the subordinate, creates a higher sense of achievement in the sense of the organisation and increases their convenience (Penman and Hilton, 2020).

All of these factors, along with the four models discussed, gives an oriented performance by the employee and shows how different approaches of the manager needs to be performed in this emerging corporate error at a different time according to the need because the ethical and respected integrity of the employees working for the company would not always have a certain level of work effort it will make a high and low with time but these models show that the manager maintains the organisational behaviour it will help not only the employees growth but also their productivity would be helping the company's profitability which Hilton worldwide has always achieved (Wood and Hilton, 2018).

Modification to increase profitability

In short, Hilton UK has indeed worked through customer loyalty to build b operating models, which right now has an estimation of 35 million US dollars in an annual system revenue and also they have provided a contribution of customers opinions on their room upgrades and free Wi-Fi which has made Hilton's occupancy over the hotel and tourism system with more than 51%. Other than this Hilton reservation team also generated the highest sales team leader in the hotel and tourism industry along with their operation in large proprietary information on technology platform has given them all the purchasing need for the businesses including the restaurants cleaning services and so want to be driven with the presentation of overall success and alignment of operating models. Hilton worldwide has seen the revenue growth into the new system and improved their sales. It has a cost for higher occupancy at a rate that the brand much more appreciates. Their campaign of " Expect better, except Hilton'' has featured famous actress Anna Kendrick who has made a loyalty program jump from 36 million members in 2012 to 94 million back in 2021. This promising program representation of more than 60% of the jump in the hotel change occupancy has given a b financial model with which the famous hotel industry such as in made it is trying to compete with but after 2016, the rapid growth in Hilton worldwide (Penman and Hilton, 2020).

The emergence of the cultural diversity

The emergence of cultural diversity was essential for Hilton worldwide because of the newly appointed multicultural diversity engagement program that guarantees that Hilton would be present in every major state in every country and every continent worldwide (Wilson, 2018). This means that Hilton is genuinely performing and transforming itself as a multi-power in the hospitality and tourism sector with their hotels and resorts. So whenever a customer or a guest would be thinking about Hilton hotel or restaurant or resort, they would be thinking about a beautiful architectural hotel with vibrant and colourful romantic surroundings that can be achieved by the guests or that customers believe faith shapes your height. Heads Hilton and their board of directors and stakeholders mutually agreed that their hotels and resorts must be an experience for everyone, which has in turn over the years made Hilton at number 1 by fortune 500 and also had made a portfolio for Hilton worldwide with over 14 brands and 5000 properties in over 100 major countries all around the world. They are located in more than 6373 places at this moment (Colocassides, 2021).

Hilton provides a disscusive training on a regular interval which not only provides better source of human resource management amongst the managers of that particular hotel or resort. This gives a constructive overview to manage the staff members and make sure to assess them so that they give better results.

Models of cultural diversity


This cultural dimension theory helps to understand a developed theory by Geert Hofstede. It helps to understand the cultural differences across the countries into a framework distinguishing different National cultures by creating determined identified categories.

These identified 6 categories are,

  • The power distance index, which considers the extent of inequality and power over any other ethnicity or a race that must be tolerated before indulgence of inequality and dissimilar dimensions, can be previewed from a few points of a follower (Wilson, 2018).
  • Collectivism vs individualism is a considerable difference between societies that precede the integrated obligations and dependencies upon certain groups (Colocassides, 2021).
  • The uncertainty avoidance index, this avoids the index of uncertainty, which creates ambiguity and situations unexpected for events.
  • Femininity vs masculinity it's sometimes also referred to as tough versus tender, but considerable spots of masculinity and femininity are attitudes towards sexuality and its equality which are avoided through characteristics if needed.
  • Short term vs long term orientation, the difference between long term and short term orientation considerable shows the societies view over time upon certain objects (Hilton and Driscoll, 2021).
  • Restrain vs indulgence, restraint and indulgence are considered as the dimension that revolves around society creating regions and another gender that fulfils the desire but at the same time takes control over the impulse and desirous of other religions because of which problems are relatively created and how that can be resolved in the considerable extent of societies tenderness.

So this model not only provides an understanding for attitude towards the customer but also provides human resource managers to perform curriculum and activity checks on their staff reports.


The organisation deals with a wide variety of cultures through creating an understanding of reality and bridging the affected differences between caste and ethnic races. All the distinguished 7 cultural dimensions must be developed in such a way that their management and communication model shows the true effect of the inside, and those are,

  • Universalism versus particularism generally talks about the applied definition of culture and the distinguished Idea between right and wrong, and how it can be generally accepted into similar situations by the employees of Hilton.
  • Individualism versus communitarianism generally talks about the individualist ideas and community ideas and how these cultures and ideas can be linked in a non-Western country. In contrast, in the western countries they are very much individualistic yet fully stocked and the continuous change of quickly realising predominant community re influence can bring about a change in the economy as more profitable businesses can be done (Hilton and Driscoll, 2021).
  • Neutral versus emotional is an expressive cultural emotion that is very well known in this model by the cultures of Japan and Great Britain. They were very much angry in public after World war 2. They've found upon each other culture but when the behaviours were allowed to have an emotional culture with together suddenly Japan and Great Britain became two countries which enthusiastically made business and trade with each other post-1970 in such a rate that right now almost 60% of the trade UK does is with Japan and 58% of the trade that to pandas with the rest of the world is concentrated with the United Kingdom (Wilson, 2018).
  • Specific versus diffuse is a large public space that shades people's thoughts in such a way that close friends and associates often see each other formerly both in public and private space diffusing the barriers of culture and ethnic races. This is why it is very important to protect access to public spaces.
  • Achievement versus description is a concern, basically showing the basis of performance of a person's worth in achievement-oriented culture. This is the point where people distinguish each other in the derivation of career position or gender, but the basic description in contrast to the situation talks about well-informed people and all of them to be charged based on what a human being they are not their emphasis on the career of their gender (Hilton and Driscoll, 2021).
  • Sequential versus synchronised time also measures the different ways how the concrete measurements of sequential time and time are money expression false from. It synchronises the abstract focus of various projects into awareness that the human body has a zone rhythm and everybody should have a natural resting time.
  • Internal direction and various directions can be experienced as Hilton makes sure that their employees have 30% of their working hours outside the four walls of the hotel and resort. It can be in the garden swimming pool or back-end work, but it is important that the person app to their circumstances (Colocassides, 2021).

This model provides sequential outcomes for better distinguished description on each staffs synchronished projects and activities.


  • Hell has a context that was earlier discovered for the cultural factors, which creates a contrasting availability of high and low to be understood better. In terms of context, the high context culture shows the elements which help people to understand the results as the low context gives people the explanation and the less chance of misunderstanding present customers. Contrasting both the high end and the lower, it is very important to understand the hai mobile environment where people come and go as required to stop this is similar to the customer is in Hilton worldwide a guest would come and go as they please other than a special occasion. So at every point, Hiltons employees and staff need to be at 100% because then only there over tennis, and you use of nonverbal communication would both welcome the customers and which time the monochromic and polychronic time will contrast into making them better attentive to the details. It is also very important that the space and hai territorial and a low territorial requirement of customers space is given value because it not only helps them to understand the culture that Hilton tries to present them as it also gives them their sense of security and peace (Hilton and Driscoll, 2021).
  • It is very important to respect every ethnicity and race along with making sure that every property worldwide must have a diverse cultural integration
  • It is very important to have leadership quality in 21st century especially when the companies are looking for profitability. For example, during the corona virus pandemic all the tourism and hospitality sectors closed because of which it was very difficult to function. But because of the prominent leadership quality of Hilton, they not only acquired 400+ properties but also managed to stay on the rank 1 in the UK an US. Leadership is the most important factor determining the 21st century demand for growing economy.
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