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An energy audit is a process in which an expert staff examines, evaluates, and assesses the flow of energy inside a structure. For the purposes of saving energy, the process of energy audit is carried out. Reduced energy intake, prices of energy, as well as carbon emissions are only a few of the objectives of energy audit. In this following research, it is required to discuss the disadvantages of the process of energy audit as well as the opportunities of industrial audit. It is required to discuss different types of energy audits process along with the application of the different types of energy audits in the industries. All the phases, processes as well as types of energy audit components are required to discuss in this project. It is required to discuss the process of ECM which is also known as conservation measures of energy in this project. Data analysis is required for energy accounting. It is required to do the risk analysis process for the project.
The goal of an energy audit is to determine the resource efficiency of an industrial office building by examining as well as evaluating the building's flow of energy. In industries where the consumption of power is very high, it is necessary to make the utilization of the energies in the industrial sector an effective way (Wang et al, 2018). Concerns about power costs, energy independence, sustainability as well as renewable energy have become a hot topic. Asset breakdown, as well as dependability, may cause crises of energy due to uncertainty in performance measurement. It is required to analyze the efficiency of the energy with the help of a process called an energy audit (Killip et al, 2019). When doing energy audits on the facilities of manufacturing as well as industries rather than smaller business establishments or perhaps even huge buildings, problems are more likely to arise.
When it comes to improving the industry's power consumption, the process of an energy audit is essential (Kangas et al, 2018). The process of energy audit identifies the elements that may be used to increase the consumption of energy in the sector. The process of energy audit helps in laying out a specific plan in a logical manner. The challenges of an energy audit are divided into internal components as well as external components. The external factors of the barriers to the energy audit are the variables of the market such as the distortion of the energy price (Ahmad et al, 2021). The policies of the governments are also a part of the external factors including the regulatory framework dynamics. One of the main disadvantages of the energy audit is that the process of an energy audit is not able to save energy in the industry. The process of energy audit decreases the emission of carbon in the following industry.
Energy diagnosis - This audit incorporates economic calculations as well as the use of metering equipment to determine real energy use and inefficiencies. An Energy Assessment produces an energy budget (a description of the uses of energy) and a set of appropriate conservation measures generated from building or performance facilities (Farghalyet al, 2018).
Investment-grade Audit - The audit provides a complete assessment of the use of energy, along with a quantitative assessment of execution with specific investments, operating and maintaining expenses, and an assessment of the optimal portfolio.
Walk-Through Audit (WTA) - This audit comprises a walk-through assessment of any facility to detect concerns with operational, maintenance, or inadequate infrastructure, as well as areas that require additional assessment (Solnørdalet al, 2018).
For the industrial building facility WTA energy audit is performed. The energy used in a different component of the building is mentioned below in table 1. The building facilities are typically concrete made with 16000 m^2 areas and the rooftop is one layered wooden board with insulation of isocyanurate. The lighting system of the building is the conventional electric lamp; pumps are in good condition with 80 percent efficiency.
|Electricity consumption (per year)||Current Operating hours||kWh/y|
|Light||24 X 7||650,400|
|Pumps||3 hours in a day||240,010|
|Ventilation fans||24 x 7||983,479|
|Space cooling||24 X 7 in summer||275,841|
|Space heating||24 X 7 in winter||255,841|
|Computer, other equipment||8:00 - 17:00 (Sunday closed)||368,628|
|Total energy (2019)||4,791,770.00|
Table 1: Energy consumption
(Source: self created)
Major energy consumption unit
Different energy-consuming unit in the industrial building facility are
Energy used by the industrial building can be conserved by various measured and these are by changing lighting of the bundling with energy-efficient lighting facility, by making different behavioral changes and upgrading HVAC and motors of the pumps (Alam et al, 2019).
|No of changes||Description||Natural Gas Savings (GJ/yr)||Electricity Demand Savings (kW)||Electricity Energy Savings (kWh/yr)||Natural Gas Savings ($/yr)||Electricity Savings ($/yr)||Total Savings Inc. Avoided O&M ($/yr)||Implementation Cost|
|1||Upgrade of LED of wall scones, parking lights, interior lighting, and exterior lightning||-||65||436,200||-||32,075||4275||155264|
|2||Temperature reset of chiller for water||-||14||28196||-||3228||3228||7000|
|3||Shut down of domestic pumps for hot water||-||0.7||2536||-||250||250||5296|
|4||Night Setback (22 C vs.18c), setup (22C vs. 24C), DCV (zero OR with carbon dioxide sensor), and VFD during 22:00 to 5:00 for 7 hour||30||5||10027||288||1034||1034||8006|
|5||Shutdown in between 18:00 to 5:00 for 11 hours||150||1||13005||13005||1121||2513||3520|
|6||Shutdown of low occupancy HVAC from 18:00 to 5:00 for 11 hours||85||1||1005||756||881||1756||3506|
|7||Variable Frequency Drives for Pumps P1||-||2||14067||-||1121||1254||7926|
|8||Insulation of heating elements||435||-||-||3906||-||3906||10569|
|9||Air sealing and Striping of Door Weather||106||-||-||934||-||934||3512|
Table 2: energy management opportunity
Graph 1: Energy consumption
The above graph (Graph 1) shows the energy consumption of the building from February 2018 to December 2019. The consumption of energy is not consistent in industrial building facilities. From February 2018 there is a steady growth in the consumption of energy in the building facility up to August 2018 after that the energy consumption started decreasing to the lowest consumption of energy in December 2018. Therefore the consumption of energy is higher in the time of summer as compared to winter the heist consumption of energy in this time period was in July 2019.
Graph 2: Load factor
The above graph (Graph 2) shows the load factor of the building from February 2018 to December 2019. The load factor was not consistent in industrial building facilities. The load factor of the energy of the building is fluctuation during this time period. The value of the load factor is highest in December 2019 and lowest in July 2018 which means in the month of December the load factor is highest and in June-July load factor is lowest.
Graph 3: Energy consumption and demand
The above graph (Graph 3) shows the variation in the energy consumption of the building from February 2018 to December 2019 with respect to the energy demand in these periods of time. The consumption of energy increases with the increase in the demand for energy within these periods.
Graph 4: Energy bill
The above graph (Graph 4) shows the energy bill of the building from February 2018 to December 2019. The bill of energy is not consistent in industrial building facilities like energy consumption. From February 2018 there is a steady growth in the bill of energy in the building facility up to August 2018 after that the energy bill started decreasing with the decrease to the lowest consumption of energy in December 2018. Therefore the consumption of energy is higher in the time of summer as compared to winter the heist consumption of energy in this time period was in July 2019.
The ISO50001 might give a greater chance for the organization to better control its power and its utilization. The following ISO50001 operational and functional requirements can be matched to the industry's present system. An energy management system is a framework for implementing managerial and technology solutions that will significantly reduce carbon emissions and electricity prices over time (García-Sanz-Calcedo et al, 2018). All system parts include the development of an energy policy, objectives for energy effectiveness improvements, a calendar with detailed dates for achieving goals, and a plan of action that outlines exactly how the institute's objectives will be realized. The ISO 50001 framework is based on the Plan, Do, Check, Act model, which is supported by the US Energy Department. During the planning phase, the firm develops priorities and goals, laying the groundwork using current energy efficiency indicators. During the do stage, the firm implements steps to improve energy and environmental performance (Khatoon et al, 2019). During the check stage, the organization analyzes and evaluates its energy consumption, comparing it to the baseline. In the executing phase, the firm decides what adjustments to make next to maximize energy effectiveness. The procedure is then repeated forever with a new planning step. ISO 50001 would then assist an organization in making great use of all existing power investments, creating accountability and improving communication about electricity consumption, encouraging orderly energy management, and prioritizing the successful implementation of energy-efficient advancement through continuous enhancement.
The risk associated with the energy system of the industrial building facility can be addressed through the Energy Management System (EnMs). An EnMs system incorporated with energy performance indicators (EnpIs) and Energy Baseline (EnBs). Concerns about potential and risk are components of an organization's strategic decisions (Fernando et al, 2018). A business may anticipate future scenarios and results by identifying the opportunities and hazards throughout the EnMS strategic planning, enabling undesirable consequences to be addressed before they occur. Similarly, favorable characteristics or settings which may lead to potential advantages or advantageous outcomes may be found and pursued (Hilorme et al, 2019). A suitable timeframe implies that the company makes adjustments for legal standards, operating cycles, or variables influencing energy consumption and conservation so that the informational time accurately depicts a wide range of performance. An appropriate EnPI is anything that provides direction and monitoring about just how much progress has been accomplished and whether the energy plan is on track to meet its goals with the least amount of energy and money.
It is plainly obvious that costs will develop as request rises. Nonetheless, utilization may not generally be successful, and power is wasted in specific spots. Energy expenses might be fundamentally decreased by expanding viability and bringing down use (Shafiee et al, 2019). In numerous areas, the cost of energy represents the largest part of the absolute expense. Expanding energy effectiveness is a basic advance in bringing down complete expenses. One of the benefits of fuel the board is that it diminishes ecological mischief while additionally bringing down poisons. Ventures might lessen their reliance on energy imports by utilizing energy actually for an assortment of activities. It will likewise ease the strain on energy supplies.
An energy audit is a procedure in which a team of experts checks, analyses, and assesses the flow of energy within a structure. Reduced energy use, energy pricing, and carbon emissions are just a few of the goals of an energy audit. When it comes to reducing the industry's power use, an energy audit is critical. The energy auditing procedure reveals the aspects that may be utilized to boost energy consumption in the industry. WTA conducts an energy assessment on the industrial building facility. The energy consumed by the industrial building may be conserved in a variety of ways, including replacing the lighting of the facility with energy-efficient lighting, implementing different behavioral modifications, and improving the HVAC and pump motors. The ISO50001 may provide a better opportunity for the business to better govern and utilize its power. The Energy Management System can handle the risk connected with the industrial building facility's energy system (EnMs). Energy costs may be significantly reduced by increasing viability and decreasing utilization.
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