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a) Circuit Diagram
Here an asynchronous motor is used, voltage and current measurement blocks are also used to measure, R circuit and C circuits are used, and PID controller is used to control the whole system.
Self excited DC generator is a machine where the field winding is excited by the output obtained from that generator. It can be of two types, shunt generator and series generator. Terminal voltage of a self excited shunt generator decreases while load is increased (Madeira et al. 2020). It also happens in the case of constant speed. Following curve shows this phenomenon. In this graph it can be seen that the upper section of the curve is going down. It indicates a decrease in currents due to the decrease of terminal voltage reduction. This happens with the increasing load. At maximum load the generator is unstable.
Reasons behind this are:
i) Generated emf is decreased for armature reaction which is the main reason behind magnetic saturation (Kalla et al. 2020). Due to this flux per pole is also reduced.
ii) The drop happens due to resistance of armature winding.
iii) Voltage happens at each brush of the machine.
iv) At a constant speed or rpm, if terminal voltage decreases then the field current also decreases. As a result, emf generation is also reduced. If the machine is heavily loaded, a stable position is never achieved.
c) Advantage and disadvantage of “self excited generator” over “separately excited DC shunt generator”:
Self excited DC generator is a machine where the field winding is excited by the output obtained from that generator. It can be of two types, shunt generator and series generator. In the case of shunt generators, field winding is parallaly connected with the armature connection and in series generator, field connection is in series with the armature winding (Chandramohan, et al. 2018). In the case of a separately excited DC generator, field winding is supplied through a separate external DC energy source. There are some advantages and disadvantages of “self excited generators” over “separately excited DC generators”.
Advantages: Basically separated excited generators are expensive due to the use of separate excitation sources. Such sources are not used in self excited generators and this makes it economical.
Disadvantages: Separately excited DC shunt generators can pursue their work in a stable condition and can accept any fixed field excitation. It also can give a big range for output voltages. These features cannot be achieved in a self excited generator as they are excited by the output.
a) Basic operation and features of 3-ph AC synchronous generator
A synchronous generator is a machine which can convert mechanical energy to AC electric energy using electromagnetic induction. These are also called alternators. Components of this machine are: stator and rotor (Taylor et al. 2018). Stator is generally a stationary part where armature winding is situated and here voltage is also generated. Rotor is the rotating portion of this machine. It produces the main flux. Rotor of this alternator can be of two types. These are: salient pole and cylindrical.
Cylindrical rotor provides mechanical strength to the whole structure of the alternator. It also proves a noiseless operation.
It mainly follows the principle of electromagnetic induction. When flux linkage to a conductor increases or decreases, then emf is induced. When the armature winding is inserted in the rotating magnetic field, then a voltage is induced in the armature winding. “Rotor field winding” is excited through a DC source (Li and Xie, 2018). Alternating south and north poles are created on the alternator. As the rotor is moving in the anticlockwise direction, armature conductors present on the stator are intercepted by rotor pole magnetic fields. In this way a EMF is produced in the conductors by “electromagnetic induction”. This is the main working principle of an alternator (Ierna et al. 2019). This principle is based on Fleming's right hand rule and the frequency is based on pole no and the synchronous speed.
b) Difference between the 3-ph AC generator and shunt separately excited DC generator
Differences between AC synchronous generator and shunt separately excited DC generator are:
a) Generation of electricity in PV panel:
With the passing of time, energy consumption is also increasing due to an increase in population. As energy resources are decreasing with time, use of renewable energy is a big plus now. Solar PV (Photovoltaic) panels are widely used to convert solar energy to electricity (Moltames and Boroushaki, 2018). This is mainly done to reduce energy consumption and consumption related cost. Silicon based PN junction is used in this, when a photon strikes this material then covalent bond between two silicon atoms breaks. In the semiconductor, electrons are present in the outer shell and they creates a weak bond which needs energy to be free. When sunlight fells on the panel then electrons gather energy from that.
Electrons from the outer shell of a silicon atom get energy to transfer from valence band to conduction band (Mohammad et al. 2021). When they reach the conduction band, they break the covalent bond and get free. This is the reason behind the difference of potential difference or voltage. Flow of electrons create electric current. If the terminals of these PV cells are connected with wires then it starts generating electricity.
A silicon based PV panel efficiency is around 15 to 20%. Temperature of solar cell, cooling fluid flow rate, intensity of radiation, dust and humidity can affect PV panel power generation
b) PV installation for industrial or residential application
For generation of electrical energy from solar energy, PV panel installation is necessary for industrial as well as residential use. Here in this diagram different components are connected with this solar panel (Shireen et al. 2018). These are batteries, inverters and meters. After generation of electrical energy inverters can convert that DC to AC. AC is suitable for all industrial and residential appliances. A meter is used to monitor this energy usage.
For using a PV panel following aspects are necessary to be considered. These are: gathering “solar power components”, calculating load, selecting battery, inverter setup, setting rooftop solar panel, converter and battery stand setup etc. Three main types of PV systems are: grid tied, off grid and hybrid model.
UK produces 900kWh/m2/year
PV panel is of 16*1.5 m2 with 16% efficiency
Total Capital cost = (16*1.5*325) = £7,800 including installation and supply.
iii) 60% of total energy = 2,016 kWh
40% of energy = 1,344 kWh
Money saved in electrical bill = ((16/100)*2,016) = £322.56
Additional 5p/kWh is saved in export. Total saving:
Money saved from exported energy = ((21/100)*1344) = £282.24
Total saved money in a year = (£322.56 + £282.24) = £604.80
a) Choice of battery
In the case of renewable energy and hybrid sources, there is a requirement of storing temporarily. For storing energy temporarily, batteries need to be attacked with PV panels. In this case electrochemical batteries are used.
i) 10 kWh battery storage is needed for a building for solar panels for consumption at night. These panels are expected to last for 20 years. An electrochemical battery can be used to store energy. Perfect choice for battery will be a Nickel based battery. Battery life is very high for this battery. It is a rechargeable battery (Qu et al. 2019). Here materials are “nickel hydroxide positive plate” and iron negative plates and electrolyte is potassium hydroxide. Long life span of this battery is due to low solubility. Here some filled tubes are present in this battery structure. Positive plate is nickel hydrate.
While charging, oxygen ions transfer from one electrode to another. So these cells are also called oxygen lift cells. In a charged cell, positive plates are super oxidized and negative plates are in reduced state. In the discharging mode, the positive plate is in a reduced state and the negative plate is oxidized. These batteries are not hazardous (Salkuti, 2021). Nickel based batteries are of different types. They are: Nickel metal hybrid battery and Nickel cadmium battery.
Advantage of this kind of battery is: this battery is of lower weight due to less amount of electrolyte present in this battery. Here for this battery, plates are also light. Service life of this battery is very high because of various provisions. Disadvantage of this type of battery is that it has lower “energy density” and less specific power.
ii) 50 kWh battery for an electric vehicle’s motive power. It is expected to last for at least 10 years. Here Lithium ion batteries can be used for both battery electric vehicles as well as hybrid electric vehicles. It is mainly designed to store higher electrical charges. In this rechargeable battery, lithium ions travel from the negative electrode to the positive one. In an electric vehicle both lithium ion battery and lithium polymer battery can be used (Salkuti, 2021). But lithium ion batteries are more effective than lithium polymer batteries because their energy levels are higher and these batteries are also more efficient. Lithium ion batteries are the best for higher energy usage. These batteries are used for their high energy density, almost zero memory effect, comparatively less self discharge capacity, higher open circuit voltage and a longer lifespan (Kim et al. 2019). There are many advantages of using this battery in electric vehicles. These are: Safety, availability in standard sizes, light weight, longer life span, higher usable capacity, temperature tolerant and faster charging tendency.
Components of this battery are cathode, electrolyte, anode, current connectors (positive and negative) and separators. Mainly the anode and the cathode stores lithium. The electrolyte present in the battery carries positive lithium ions from anode to the cathode (Agrawal et al. 2018). The opposite work also happens through that separator. The Movement of ions generate free electrons and this creates a positive charge at “positive current collector”. This way current flows through the current collector. The device is negatively charged. While battery discharging, the anode delivers ions to the cathode and flow of electrons is generated from one side to the other. While charging the device, exactly the opposite incident happens for that battery.
Lead acid battery is drawing current = 12 amps
Time of lasting = 2 hours
Charge should be remain = 20%
It discharges in 2 hours and it degrades the capacity by 35%
Capacity of the battery = ((100*12*2)/ ((100-20)*(0.02*2+0.6))) = 46.875 AH
a) Technology in electrical vehicle
Different electrical elements are necessary in an electrical vehicle operation. Many hybrid models are used which can be charged by electricity. These are called electric vehicles. Normal vehicles generally use an “internal combustion engine” that can be 2 stroke or a 4 stroke engine. This type of engine is generally fuel by gasoline (Cano et al. 2018). On the other hand, electric vehicles do not use such combustion engines to work. These vehicles are propelled by electromagnetism. Electric vehicles use batteries to store electrical energy and this energy can power a motor. Tesla electric vehicles uses such technologies to build an effective model of electric vehicle. Components of this vehicle are explained in detail. Here the technology of Tesla Model S is explained in detail for understanding the difference between electric vehicle and conventional vehicles.
Here in this vehicle, several components are used in electric vehicles like induction motor, inverter, differential, transmission, regenerative braking system and battery pack are present. In a conventional combustion engine, several parts are used such as DC motor, coolant, piston, shafts and an alternator for charging the battery. But in electric vehicle such complicated design is not necessary. An induction motor is used which is responsible for constant output. Weight of the induction motor invented by Tesla weights 31.8 kg and gives an output of 270kW. It makes the machine lighter and more useful. A general combustion engine can only put 140kW power and weights almost 180kg rpm of a conventional machine is around 2000 to 4000 rpm. But an induction motor used in this vehicle can go around 18,000 rpm. Most of the EVs use “single-speed transmission”. Smooth power curve of an induction motor can give expected performance to an EV.
An inverter is needed in an EV to convert DC current collected from the battery to three phase AC. This inverter can also control the speed of this vehicle.
In this vehicle, a combination of 7000 little “Panasonic cylindrical battery” cells are used. This battery is robust in size and it is placed in the bottom of chassis. Position of this battery can helps in maintaining low “Centre of gravity” and provides easy handling. These features are adopted from conventional combustion engines.
b) Application of Electrical technology in Manufacturing Machine
Machine manufacturing is a process of stamping, forging, bending metals for manufacturing a machine. Machine learning is a very important key to manufacturing machines. These are: maintenance of the machinery, reducing downtime which is unnecessary, timely maintenance scheduling and predicting failures (Wang et al. 2020). Electrical technology can be used for manufacturing electric machines. Mainly works in this system are designing of electrical equipment, customization of equipment, Industrialization of electrical equipment, Design of electrical devices and automation of an industry.
Elements: In Tesla model S, is a dual motor car. One motor is in the front side and another is in rear. These motors are mainly responsible for controlling the torque in front and rear wheels. As a result “unparalleled traction control” is achieved. Electrical linkages are used to supply power to the wheels. Autopilot in this model combines 360 degree sonar, radar and camera. For this technology it is able to park itself. Electrically controlled ventilation system remains blocked until the system needs a cooling. This has hidden charge ports which opens automatically while charge is needed. The cabin of the driver contains a well maintained noise system which control the sound dynamics. There is a 17 inch screen in the driver’s area which provides many details like day and night mode, battery charge, mobile connectivity and many more. Tesla battery is a lithium ion battery and manufactured by Panasonic. Performance of this battery is very good. Battery temperature is controlled by heating/cooling circuit and can be preheated by internal heater. Travelling long distance is possible for “Tesla’s supercharger network”. This design was manufactured in Tesla factory, California.
a) Different sources of electrical energy
In the UK and Europe local consumers receive power from different sources. These are gas, wind power and nuclear powers.
Wind power: Wind power generation station converts wind energy to electrical energy. First the wind energy is converted to rotating energy and then rotating energy is converted to electrical energy (Wang et al. 2018). Here wind turbine blades are connected to the rotor of an electric machine. This rotating shaft is connected to an electric generator and this generator helps to produce electricity.
There are different electrical components used in a wind turbine based electrical production system. These equipment are: Generator (Nacelle), Rotor blades, Tower, Transformer, Electric lines. Mainly “doubly-fed induction generation” is used in large and medium size wind turbines. Rotor blades help to rotate the turbine blades so that the rotating shaft can move and produce electricity. Nacelle combines a set of gears and a generator. This helps to produce electrical energy, Transformer helps to convert DC electricity to AC which will be suitable to use in households (Elgamal et al. 2019). Tower is necessary to hold the structure of the blades and the generator. Transforming end is connected to transmission lines for transmission of electrical energy. Controllers and brakes are also used in this type of energy production. This is a renewable energy source and this also helps to reduce pollution in the environment. This can help to resist climate change in future.
Natural gas power: Natural gas plants mainly use gas turbines for rotating their turbines. Natural gas is combined with water steam which expands and combusts through a turbine while running a gas turbine. That turbine is connected to a rotating shaft and as a result the shaft starts running and this is connected to a generator (Saganeiti et al. 2020). Generator is responsible for production of electricity. These types of power plants are very easy to make and run. Burning natural gas produces pollutants like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide but these are very less in amount. There are two types of natural gas plants. These are “simple cycle gas plant” and “combined cycle gas plant”. Simple cycle construction is simple and less efficient than a combined cycle one.
Electrical components necessary in such a type of plant are: Compressor (increases the pressure of intake air), combustor (burning of fuel and high velocity gas is produced) and Turbine (Uses the high velocity gas to run the rotating shaft attached to it). After the generator produces electricity, it is stepped up through a transformer and then the electricity is transmitted. Mainly “Dual fuel generator” is used in a natural gas power generating system.
Nuclear power: Nuclear power plant is a conversion of nuclear power to electrical energy. These power plants generally use radioactive elements for generation of electricity (Rahman et al. 2022). In nuclear power plants nuclear fission is used to heat water and this heated water is used to spin a turbine which is connected to a rotating shaft. That shaft is connected to a generator and from that generator electricity is produced. “Steam generators” are used in nuclear power plants.
Components of a nuclear power plant are: Pressurizer (A primary cooling circuit), Reactor vessel, control rods, fuel (Radioactive material), vapor generator, containment building, Turbine, transformer, water coolant, cooling tower, condensator and alternator. In nuclear fission, atoms are splitted to create energy. These plants are safe for producing electricity but if an accident happens then the environment and people will be affected by it.
b) Comparison between all these generations
These are three types of generating stations for electricity generation. These means are mainly taken to save non renewable energy sources like coal, petroleum and to save the environment from hazardous gasses that are produced from burning fossil fuels. But there are some basic differences between all these power plants. These are enlisted below.
But all these means are effective for saving the environment from pollution and emission of greenhouse gasses (Terfa et al. 2022). Only the nuclear power plant can cause pollution to break down any broilers and reactors. It can leave a harmful impact on both people and the environment.
Conventional vehicles use combustion engines such as two stroke engines or four stroke engines for moving a vehicle. Nowadays electrical vehicles are very attractive for their operation system. Conventional vehicles are responsible for more environmental pollution by emitting different greenhouse gasses for combustion of petrol and diesel (Abdelbaky et al. 2021). Petrol and diesel sources are decreasing day by day and price is also increasing. For this maintenance of a vehicle is becoming very difficult with time. So to face all these problems, electric vehicles are introduced in the market which will use electrical energy instead of conventional energy sources. At first, making this vehicle was very tricky as charging stations are also needed to install for charging these vehicles. Initial cost of this vehicle is more than a conventional one but it is useful in the long run. Now these vehicles are also improving with the time. Main objective of improving these vehicles is to reduce the cost as well as increasing its efficiency. For this purpose, batteries and fuel cells. Hybrid systems are also used to improve this technology.
Battery technology: Lithium ion battery is the main component widely used in all electric vehicles worldwide. Current electrode is “liquid lithium salt”. Research is happening for solid electrolytes, electrolytes based on sulfur and electrolytes based on polymer. Compounds like, s LFP (Lithium Ferro Phosphate), NMC (Nickel Manganese Cobalt), NCA (Nickel Cobalt Aluminum) are used as cathode (Biroon et al. 2019). These are compared based on their performance and efficiency. Changing these parameters can help to model costs in a system. Changing the chemical composition of an electrolyte can change output parameters like volume density, gravimetric density, and safety of the battery, life cycle, discharge rate and many more. These parameters are helpful to understand the performance and efficiency of a battery.
Cost of a battery can be estimated by the cost of raw materials like: thermal conductors, sensors, electrolytes, separators and many more. Labor cost and building cost can also be included in a battery cost. If impurity is used in any element of the battery, then the cost can be reduced and this will be helpful for future use.
Use of hybrid systems: Hybrid systems are such systems which are combinations of different electricity generating components like generators, storage systems, and renewable sources. These systems are generally used in “grid-connected mode”, isolation from the main grid etc. There are several advantages of introducing such systems in electric vehicles. These systems work more effectively than traditional ones (Kavanagh et al. 2018). Fuel wastage is less in this system so this system can use less fuel and can use it more efficiently. The main objective of a hybrid vehicle is to mix an electric motor and a gas engine. Batteries connected with such vehicles charge automatically while operating. Growth in this section will help the whole world in future. These vehicles have higher resale values than general and also require less maintenance.
Figure 15: Hybrid electric vehicle
Fuel cells: Fuel cells used in electrical vehicles are mainly powered by hydrogen and these have more efficiency than conventional combustion engines. These fuel cells have about no hazardous emission like renewable energy sources. Most common fuel cell used in a vehicle is a “Polymer electrode membrane” cell. There is a membrane present between the anode and the cathode plates. Protons pass from one electrode to the other. If the catalyst in the fuel cell can be replaced to bimetallic Nano-composite from noble metal. It can give a higher amount of power at a low cost. In this way fuel cell costs can be managed. In this way electric vehicles can be made cheaper.
New technology in charging: Now a company Voltempo has introduced hyper Charging technology for EVs to make petrol and diesel stations to cost effective charging stations. Setting up this feature can be 70% quicker than the traditional charging stations and cost will be almost 30% lower.
New Motor technology for EV is axial flux. Automotive aerial flux motors can be used here. All the EV market is using radial flux but usage of axial flux is proving new benefits to the systems. Using reluctance motors can free spaces in the car cabin area.
a) Current and future Energy supply mix
As conventional energy sources are decreasing with time, renewable sources are used by people to generate electricity. It is happening to meet the current increasing demand for electrical energy. Different energy sources are introduced for energy supply mix. These are like wind energy, hydro energy, biomass energy, nuclear energy, natural gas energy and solar energy. Use of these energy sources are also decreasing impacts on the environment (Adedoyin and Zakari, 2020). Nuclear, wind power and hydropower are the areas of almost carbon neutral. So these are widely used in this world. These are combined used as 10.7%, wind power is supplying total energy of 2.2% and solar power is contributing 1.1% in this world now. These two sources, solar and wind energy are also starting to be popular. All the countries are now trying to lower their carbon emission to save the climate and also trying to save the conventional energy sources. Here the UK energy mix is explained in detail. Main contributions of the energy industries in the UK market are: Gas, electricity, nuclear fuel, oil, gas and coal. Coal was initially used in this industry for supplying energy. Now this whale country is going to renewable sources.
This figure is showing that the consumption of energy from the conventional source star decreases with time (Daggash et al. 2019). This means that the industries are switching to renewable sources. Due to this decrease in the usage of conventional energy sources, carbon emission and greenhouse emission is also decreasing with time. From 1990 to 2000, energy usage from conventional sources increased then it also started decreasing.
This chart shows the use of renewable sources in the UK. This table shows that the energy consumption is increasing with time. These sources can save the conventional resources and also can save the climate and environmental effect. From this chart it can be seen that nuclear energy consumption is not increasing with time as this energy generation is associated with radioactive elements (Logan et al. 2022). Wind energy and solar energy is increasing slowly with time, hydro and bioenergy is increasing rapidly with the years. At first this increase was slow but now this change is happening rapidly. Current percentage of renewable energy mix in the UK is 42.8 percent in 2021. This can clearly say that the UK is changing their focus from conventional energy sources to renewable sources. This percentage is 2.1% higher than the previous year’s percentage.
This image shows that in the UK now natural gas is the primary source of energy generation. Nuclear energy generation is in the second position. Coal consumption is very less now. Wind and solar energy are improving and making their market now. Biomass energy is also a good source. It means that the world is switching from conventional energy sources to renewable sources for different reasons. The UK has also made a path to totally replace its current model by a renewable energy model by 2025.
This diagram is showing the future planning of the UK by 2025 to change their conventional energy source by cheap renewable sources. With this increase, the carbon emission chart is decreasing. Use in renewable energy is also lowering the costs of different projects running in the UK using electricity. This can be advantageous for people and the whole economy. The UK has already set a goal to be completely carbon neutral by 2040 (McGlade et al. 2018). According to their current speed, in 2025 their carbon intensity will be 108%. At first it was expected 2030 but replacing the whole system is difficult work to perform. Conventional energy sources are decreasing with time, renewable sources are used by people to generate electricity. It is happening to meet the current increasing demand for electrical energy. According to different reports, renewable generation is increasing with time in the UK, energy generation from gas is decreasing with time and it will be very less till 2040. Electricity imports will increase with time. As electricity import will increase, it will also increase expenditure regarding that.
These plans are made different from the current condition. After all these changes the UK is still lacking to achieve the climate goals (Konstantas et al. 2018). Main reason behind this is the carbon dioxide emission from the other sectors of the society such as transport, industry, homes, services and refineries. Only reducing emissions in the energy sector alone cannot manage the whole scenario. Another reason behind missing the target is lack of transparency.
b) Advantage, disadvantage and recommendations
Conventional energy sources are decreasing with time. So renewable sources are used by people to generate electricity. As a solution energy mixing is done to save conventional energy sources. In this case energy mixing planning for the UK is presented. It can be seen from different reports that conventional energy source usage is decreasing with time and use of renewable energy sources is increasing with the time. It is seen from the reports that the UK has planned for reaching carbon zero by 2030. For this they have increased use of renewable sources but they have not succeeded in this. The main reason behind this is other sectors which are still contributing to carbon dioxide emission. First recommendation for this is to assist the other sectors to get a carbon neutral position. For achieving this target electrical vehicles are to be increased. Proper infrastructure is needed like the economical price of these cars and charging stations for electric vehicles (Rosenow et al. 2018). To increase energy supply, usage of nonrenewable sources should be increased with time. There are different advantages and disadvantages of this mixing energy sources. Energy mixing means using renewable sources instead of using conventional sources to save conventional sources. Mixing energy can be more efficient than the conventional one as this reduces the emission of carbon dioxide and other harmful gasses.
This will also reduce pollution and will help in climate change. Conventional energy sources are decreasing with time, renewable sources are used by people to generate electricity. Increase in efficiency will also help the economy of a country. There is a need to include more technology and innovation to improve usage of renewable energy sources. Usage of renewable energy sources can decrease the use of water in the case of electricity production. While using solar energy, advantages are: reduction in electricity usage and cost, development of technology, less maintenance, less installation cost. But this energy storage can be expensive and highly dependent on the weather condition (Grubb and Newbery, 2018). Nuclear energy production is an advantageous process but installation of this type of energy generating station is costly and this type of power station can be hazardous in the case of an accident. This can affect both the environment and the people. There are some disadvantages of energy mix.
Quick conversion of the generating station is not possible as it takes a lot of infrastructure. If development of infrastructure is low then the whole system will be slow. Future prospect of this is growing usage and innovation of new technology. Renewable energy almost contributes 26% of the total energy usage of this work. According to the international energy agency, this figure should be 30% by the year 2024. Due to covid-19 pandemic these plans slowed a little bit in the year 2019 and 2020. By 2024, solar capacity should grow to 600 GW. Total renewable energy production should be 1200 GW by 2024 but this target is still a way to achieve. As these energy consumption will rise, electricity production and unit price will be cheaper. Residence based solar capacity should be 142 GW by 2024. Now China has the largest solar capacity installed for residential purposes. Wind energy capacity should be increased to 57% by the year 2024. Hydro power should be increased by 9% that is 121 GW by the year 2024. According to their current speed, in 2025 their carbon intensity will be 108%. At first it was expected 2030 but replacing the whole system is difficult work to perform. It can be expected that by the year 2050, total energy consumed by this world will come from renewable sources and then carbon emission from this sector will be absolute zero. Disadvantages of renewable sources are: all these sources are heavily dependent on weather. Installation and conversion charges are very high at first. These challenges should be overcome to make a world with 100% renewable energy.
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