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Effective Interdisciplinary Study Portfolio Assignment Sample

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Effective Interdisciplinary Study Portfolio Assignment Sample


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Interviews are among the most helpful tool that is very critical for effectively understanding different perspectives that can include their life experiences, expertise and many more (Slade and Sergent, 2018). For researchers, this plays a significant role in shaping the research effectively and efficiently depending on the field. There are many subject matters that are needed to interview to attain quality research materials. In addition to that, there are many forms of interviews that can be applied depending on the situation, starting from the structured form to the unstructured form. Even though the length of the interviews can vary extensively in length, there is a requirement of following the right way to use the interview that might involve opening, administration of the question and also closing (Johnson, Scheitle and Ecklund, 2021). This presentation is going to be involving the discussion on how to effectively conduct research participant interview and what are the aspects that are vital such as forming an effective relationship with the target audience as well as the subject matter over the course of the interview, amount of information and the limitation of time, questions structuring. 

Preparation for Interview

One of the first stages in the time of preparing for the interview is finding the right audience that is relevant to the subject matter and can aid in providing valuable insights, perspectives and thoughts on the subject matter. There is a serious requirement to approach the right target audience to make the research more comprehensive and effective (Sussman, Setayesh and Venapally, 2021). There are various ways of approaching the right audience or the individual for the interview, such as with the help of social media, which is among the most powerful tool that can aid in finding the right individual for the interview, phone calls as well as newspapers (Tan and Zou, 2021). In addition to that, the next step is effectively preparing the questions for the interview that is relevant to the research while also considering the targeted audience in mind.

The academic language that is used often times can be very complicated for individuals who are not actively connected with the world of research (Potter, 2018). The test interview can aid in arranging the question in the right order and also making essential changes to effectively matching with the goals of the research. There is also an essential requirement for respecting the interviewee and also forming a meaningful relationship between the target audience and the subject matter to gain the most useful insights (DeJonckheere and Vaughn, 2019). Trust is the main component in terms of expecting distinct insights from the interviewee.

Interview Types

There are various interview methods that can be observed actively taking place in the world of research. There are many methods or approaches that can be effectively utilised during the time of conducting the research interviews. Many researchers, the time conducting the research engages in immensely focusing on the subject since it is among the components of the procedure of the research. The followings are some of the interview methods but are not limited:

Focus Groups

One of the popular methods of research interview involves the focus group that includes a group of people that are interviewed at the same time to gain real insights and perspectives (Gill and Baillie, 2018).

Unstructured Interview

An unstructured interview is an informal type of interview that involves the interview engages in asking opening ended questions in which longer answers are expected by the interviewee (Chauhan, 2019).

Structured Interview

A structured interview involves a wide range of questions that are close ended in which the participants can respond with a Yes or No answer (Wygant et al., 2022).

Online Interview

With the ongoing pandemic, the online interview is among the popular option for research since it allows for wider accessibility (Cleland et al., 2020). It can involve video chat, online surveys and many more.

Phone Interview

Phone Interview is another type of interview that is another easy way to effectively gather the responses and also attain the data without relying on expanding a large number of resources (Azad et al., 2021).

Basic Questions Types in Topics

In the case of setting questions for the interview, the interviewer or the researcher engaged in the interview has to rely on various types of questions relevant to the subject matter at hand and for studying the topic or the subject more comprehensively. As mentioned earlier in this presentation about the open-ended questions as well as the close-ended questions and it can be observed that depending on the topic, the open-ended questions, as well as the close-ended questions can be utilised for comprehensive research (Jenner and Myers, 2019). There is a critical requirement for the creation of questions that are clear, simple, short and easy that are easy for the interviewee to understand.

The setting of questions also depends on the type of research interview that is being adopted by the researcher. In the case of choosing the telephonic or phone interview, the question is required to be easy, fast and also small in terms of the number of questions. For example, Unstructured interviews are the interviews where there are a lot of questions that are asked with expecting an open-ended answer from the respondent since these questions cannot be answered simply by yes or no (Weller et al., 2018). However, the creation of a question cannot be an only open-ended question only since, depending on the subject, new insights can also be attained via close-ended questions.

Question Sequence

Before engaging in asking about any type of controversial matter like conclusions or feelings, there is a b need to ask about the facts related to the subject. The utilisation of fact-based questions that are interspersed throughout the whole interview is important for forming an effective relationship with the interviewee and the subject matter and also due to the limited time for the interview. The interviewer or the researcher must make sure that there is a necessity to ask questions about the present before asking questions about the future or the past. The questions must be free from any biases since if the interviewee feels any type of biasedness from the way of asking the questions or the question itself, then it can discourage the respondents from giving his/her insights. Therefore, the question must be very neutral and free from biasedness (Agarwal, 2019). Furthermore, the last question of the interview must be well thought out since that last question may provide any type of important or extra information or insights.


The wording of the question must be open-ended so that the interviewee can have the opportunity to express their opinion in a descriptive way by answering the questions. The questions must be diligently worded. As mentioned earlier as well that the wording of the question must be neutral, and the question must avoid any kind of question-wording that may influence the answers, such as judgmental wording or suggestive and many more. One question must be asked at a time to give the respondents enough time to think. The question must respect the time of the respondents by ending the interview on time. The clarity in the wording of the questions is very necessary since it can help the respondents to understand the question much more simply and clearly (Park and Kwon, 2021). There is a requirement of carefully asking the Why questions since these types of questions can result in inferring a cause-and-effect relationship that might not really exist. These types of questions might also result in causing the respondents to feel defensive such as their justification to the why question, and might inhibit the responses of the respondents to future questions as well as present questions.

Overseeing the Interview

Overseeing the interview involves ensuring all the necessary stages that are taken are going as per the plan, and any uncertainties in the research might need to be overcome effectively and efficiently. It involves choosing the right method of research that involves considering various options depending on the subject matter, and it is also discussed in the presentation as well. In addition to that, the development of the procedure of the interview and questions of the interview is also managed while overseeing the interview. The questions immensely vary by the research type, and many researchers immensely rely on asking questions that are open-ended. Creation of the schedule for the interview that the researcher wants to ask is very important (Braathen, 2022). Furthermore, facilitating the interview is also a very vital part of overseeing the interview in which using any resources that is vital for the research can be used for facilitating the research. Finally, analysing the results from the interview take place in the reviewing notes and the interview recording as well as the transcripts relating to the research.


This presentation has come to a conclusion, and it has attempted to discuss the significance of the effective research interview for making the overall research much more comprehensive. This presentation involves a discussion on the various aspects of the research interview, including the research types; Focus Groups, Unstructured Interviews, Structured Interviews, Online Interviews, Phone Interviews and many more are discussed. In addition to that, Basic Questions Types in Topics, Question Sequence, Question-Wording, and Overseeing the Interview plays a major role in influencing the overall research interview.

Task 2

“Corporate Manslaughter” now applies to a wide variety of businesses, as this essay illustrates. In April, the majority of the law went into effect. The legislation has been in the works for a long time, and it is a reaction to the common fear that “corporate murdering” would be beyond the reach of the law. In “England”, “Wales”, and Northern Ireland”, as well as Scotland, the Act creates a new crime of corporate manslaughter and corporate murder. Contrary to popular belief, this legislation is not limited to corporations, as its title would lead one to believe. The Act covers various organisations, from corporations and municipalities to the NHS and certain government agencies. According to some experts, the new law is little more than a symbolic gesture that won’t have a significant effect. In contrast, others worry that the legislation will increase the burden on businesses during the economic crisis. This paper was selected because it aims to assess how the law will likely operate in reality and the background to the Act and the principal sections.

Source 2: “Hadjikyprianou, G.C. (2016). Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007: A ‘Cadmean Victory’ or a Worthwhile Reform?. SSRN Electronic Journal, 10(10). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2742207.”

This study was chosen because it investigates whether the Act achieves its primary purpose of removing the procedural flaws of the “identification doctrine,” making it easier to hold huge companies responsible for incidents involving the death of individuals. It asserts that it is questionable if this purpose has been attained and whether the criteria established by the Act would be more successful than the previous “identification doctrine.” In particular, it demonstrates that, notwithstanding the lengthy consultation process preceding its adoption, the significance of the Act may be limited to the symbolic form of a statutory “corporate manslaughter” offence. The article closes by querying if the “symbolic” significance of the Act may overcome its stated flaws or whether the Act can be described as a “Cadmean Win” over the problematic “identification doctrine” — an equivalent victory.

Source 3: “Roper, V. (2009). Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007. In Practice, 31(5), pp.248–248. doi:10.1136/inpract.31.5.248.”

“Corporate Homicide and Corporate Manslaughter Act of 2007” was discussed a decade after the first prosecution. As far as the criminal’s size and type, the subsequent collapse of the firm, the method of the workplace murder, and the acceptable amount are concerned, this first conviction appears to be “typical.” The review of later case law gives fresh insights, and a fair judgement of the statute’s merits and weaknesses is presented. The authors reveal that there is less of a disparity in the case of numbers than previously thought, as explained in this explanation. For the most part, indictments and convictions have been hampered by a complicated enforcement environment rather than a lack of evidence that top executives were involved. A reassessment of this important but sometimes misunderstood piece of legislation is recommended in this article, which argues that it is unfair to call the Act a failure. That is why this article has been chosen for this study.

Source 4: “Field, S. (2019). The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 and Human Rights, Part I: has universal legal protection of the right to life been advanced?”

The author of this article mentions that State authorities are required to examine suspicious deaths and deaths in detention following “Article 2” of the “Human Rights Act of 1998”. A legislative offence of corporate manslaughter was considered a long-overdue opportunity for Parliament to facilitate the efficient prosecution of corporate criminals in 2008 when the “Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act (CMCHA) 2007” was adopted. It is mentioned by the author that initially, the goal of this new law was to deliver justice to the families and loved ones of victims of horrific crimes or those who died in jail while serving as an effective deterrence. The CMCHA has been around for a decade, and because this article explores how well it has met expectations and served as a tool for advancing human rights, I have decided to include it in this work.

Source 5: “Roper, V. (2018). The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 – A Ten Year Review. Journal of Criminal Law. 82. 48. 10.1177/0022018317752937.”

As a result of this research, the readers have new insights into the future of corporate manslaughter, including how people can make the law even more effective. The author has also examined whether the criticisms made 10 years ago have proven to be well founded, and he has questioned whether the Act has met its stated goals. The author has also examined the judicial precepts in this area. It has proven easier to prosecute under the new statutory corporate manslaughter charge than under the old common law offence, and the average fine is more significant, too. It also applies to more giant corporations and micro- and small-sized ones. It’s a sad compromise, on the other hand, as there will be fewer cases prosecuted and inconsistent punishment, as well as an ongoing lack of personal accountability for defendants, as a result of the Act, as per the author’s findings.

Source 6: “Fuller, M.B. (2017). The Impact of the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Law on U.K. Companies.”

This work points out that the criminal justice system is a dynamic and ever-changing system that requires continuous assessment to ensure its effectiveness. By the “International Bill of Human Rights”, companies are obligated to respect and preserve the rights of all people. The United Kingdom has upheld international human rights principles in economic organisations at the forefront of European states. The 2007 “Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act” is evaluated in this study. First, an introduction to the criminal justice system and the underlying ideologies that guide it follows. After that, the history of corporate manslaughter lawsuits in the United Kingdom is explored, as is the method through which the CMCHA was established. In the second chapter, the project proposal’s specified research goals dictate the content of the literature review. As a result, the legislation is detailed, with particular attention paid to the Act’s provisions relating to the duty of care, criminality, and punishment. As a result, an evaluation of the law’s impact on individuals, corporations, and criminal justice reform will also be provided. Specific recommendations for implementing the rules in a progressive criminal justice system are included at the end of this article. This article is an essential document on the subject matter for these reasons.

Source 7: “Madden, J.M. and K Oldham Smith (2017). Electrical safety and the law. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, Ny: Routledge.”

In the chapter named “The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007” of the book, it is observable that the “Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act” came into force on 6 April 2008. The authors talk about the offences covered by the Act: corporate manslaughter in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and corporate homicide in Scotland. Before this Act was introduced, companies could be prosecuted for gross negligence manslaughter, but only if a senior manager or director of the company, known as a “directing mind”, could also be charged for the offence. The authors point out that this concept of the “directing mind” and the need to prove its involvement made it difficult for corporate manslaughter prosecutions to succeed. The police conduct corporate manslaughter and homicide investigations of work-related deaths, usually under the Work-Related Death Protocol for liaison between the police and other enforcing authorities. However, where there is a prosecution under the Act, there will also be a prosecution brought under health and safety legislation by the appropriate enforcing administration, such as the Health and Safety Executive. The work offers important insights about these things, which is very valuable.

Source 8: “Gobert, J., (2008). The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007–Thirteen years in the making but was it worth the wait?. The Modern Law Review71(3), pp.413-433.”

It is apparent from this work that despite a gestation period of over thirteen years, the 2007 Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act remains a disappointment. It is regressive in that, like the discredited identification notion that preceded it, it allows the focus to be transferred from systemic to individual guilt and is thus confined in scope, constricted in potential defendants. As a result, the Act may not be able to avoid the kind of risk management decisions that can lead to the death of innocent workers, customers, and public members. In addition, the Act’s requirement for DPP permission to prosecute a corporate manslaughter case puts it at risk of being politicised. The symbolism of the 2007 Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act may offset its analytical limitations, states the author, thus making essential comments on this subject matter. These are some of the reasons which have driven me to select this article.

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