Human Reproduction and Health-Related Issues Assignment Sample
Introduction: Human Reproduction and Health-Related Issues Assignment Sample
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1. What are the major structures of the male reproductive system? How do these structures relate to their function?
The male reproductive system is situated exterior of the body. These external structures include the penis, scrotum, and testicles.
- Penis: it is divided into three parts,the root, which adheres to the abdominal wall; the body or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped component at the tip of the penis.
Function: The primary functions of the penis are urinary and sexual(erection and ejaculation).
- Scrotum:This is the loose pouch-like skin sac that hangs behind and beneath the penis. It contains the testicles (also known as testes), and also multiple nerves and blood vessels (Clementand Giuliano, 2015).
Function:The scrotum serves as the testes' "climate control system." The testes must be slightly cooler than body temperature for normal sperm development.
- Testicles (testes):These are oval organs about the size of large olives that are located in the scrotum and are held together at either end by a structure known as the spermatic cord.
Function:The testes are in charge of producing testosterone, which is the principal male sex hormone, as well as sperm production (Clementand Giuliano, 2015).
The internal reproductive organs include:
- Urethra: The urethra is the tube that connects the bladder to the outside. It also has the function of ejaculating sperm in males.
- Vas deferens:the vas deferens delivers mature sperm to the urethra.
- Prostate gland:The ejaculate receives extra fluid from the prostate gland. Prostate fluids also aid with sperm nutrition (Kureel et al., 2015).
2. What are the major structures of the female reproductive system? How do these structures relate to their function?
The female reproductive system comprises the following organs:
- Vagina:It is also referred to as the birth canal. The vaginal canal connects the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside.
Function: Duringchildbirth, it broadens to provide a pathway for the delivery of a newborn from the uterus. Menstruation – acts as a passageway for menstrual fluid and tissue to exit the body.
- Uterus: The uterus is divided into two sections: the cervix, the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the corpus, the main body of the uterus.
Function:The uterus is a pear-shaped organ that provides a suitable environment for the developing fetus (Thompson, 2022).
- Ovaries:The ovaries areoval-shaped, small glands found on either side of the uterus.
Function:they produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovaries also play a role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and fertility.
- Fallopian tubes:also called oviduct or uterine tubes, these are narrow tubes that connect to the upper part of the uterus and provide passageways for ova (egg cells) to move from the ovaries to the uterus (Elsharief, et al., 2020).
Function: these tubes facilitate the transport of the sperm cells to the eggs; also ensuring a suitable environment for fertilization.
3. What would be the consequences of failure or errors in the processes of Mitosis and Meiosis?
Errors in the process of mitosis can cause:
- Aneuploidy and Mutations: Errors during mitosis result in the formation of daughter cells with an abnormally large or small number of chromosomes, a condition known as aneuploidy.Mitotic errors have long been reported as the cause of whole-chromosomal aneuploidy, but new evidence has linked chromosome segregation errors to the generation of DNA damage, which seeks to promote structural modifications in chromosomes.
- Chromosome abnormality:When the process is regular, chromosomes attach to string-like spindles and start moving to the centre of each daughter cell. Unless chromosomes fail to associate to these spindles, a daughter cell may have an extra copy of a chromosome or be missing one after the cell divides. Example: Down syndrome
- Effect on organelles: Damaged organelles have a chance to fix and recover between cell divisions during normal mitosis, but not when cell division does not stop. Organelles that are damaged in cells can cause them to die (Levineand Holland,2018).
Errors in the process of meiosis:
- Trisomy and sex chromosomes disorders: If meiosis does not occur normally, a baby may be born with an extra chromosome (trisomy) or a missing chromosome (monosomy). These issues may result in the loss of a pregnancy. Alternatively, they can harm a child's health (Wilkinsand Holliday, 2009).
4. What is meant by fertilization, implantation, pregnancy and childbirth? What can go wrong in each of these stages? Provide and explain one example for each.
Fertilization:The process by which gametes (an egg and sperm) fuse together to form a zygote is known as fertilisation. Each egg and sperm have their own set of chromosomes.
- For example: in the case of males the sperm sample may contain a small number of sperm capable of penetrating the egg membranes. This is frequently associated with a high percentage of sperm that is abnormally shaped. In severe cases, this can lead to a complete failure of fertilization (Monroy, 2020).
- Poor egg quality is caused by a reduction in ovarian reserve and is a common cause of infertility, particularly in women over the age of 35. The quality of the egg depends upon the quality of the embryo.
Implantation:The following fertilisation, the combined cells begin rapidly multiplying and moving through the fallopian tubes to the uterus. This group of rapidly growing cells is called a blastocyst, which attaches or implants itself to the uterine wall. This process is called implantation (Simon& Laufer,2012).
Several factors cause implantation failures like hormonal and metabolic disorders, uterine abnormalities, immunological factors and so on.
- Example: in the case of RIF or Repeated Implantation Failures, majorly arising due to maternal or embryonic causes.
Pregnancy:The condition of carrying an embryo or foetus within the female body. Pregnancy lasts approximately nine months, divided into three trimesters, each lasting about three months (Danielsson, 2022).
- Examples: ectopic pregnancy, miscarriages, molar pregnancy, stillbirth, preterm delivery, etc are all the types of losses one can experience during pregnancy.
Childbirth:Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the termination of a pregnancy in which one or more babies leave the uterus either vaginally or via Caesarean section (John Hopkins Medicine, 2022).
Example: the problems with the umbilical cord being squeezed and the baby cannot breathe. This limits oxygen and the baby needs to be born quickly.
5. What are the pros and cons of male and female condoms?
A female condom is one type of contraceptive method that prevents sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy.
Pros of female condoms
- Can be used by people who are allergic to latex
- Has no effect on a woman's hormones
- Can be used up to 8 hours ahead of time or during sexual foreplay
Cons of female condoms
- They are more expensive, less available, and difficult to access and have more mechanical issues than male condoms.
- Difficulties with insertion and removal
- Difficulties with penetration
- Dissatisfaction with the fit and feel of the condom during intercourse
- If the condom is left in for an extended period, it may cause a urinary tract infection (UTI) (NHS, 2022).
- Condom breakage and slippage(Marfatia, Pandya and Mehta, 2015)
Male condoms- pros
- The condom is available without a prescription. Most other methods of contraception necessarily involve the direct assistance of a health care provider, as well as a prescription.
- The procedure of using a condom is easy and straightforward. Unlike other methods of contraception, such as hormone injections or implanting an IUD, the condom requires no special skills to use.
- Many common sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV, can be avoided by using a condom, which essentially creates a barrier preventing the exchange of bodily fluids.
- When used correctly, they have a high success rate as a contraceptive method. Condoms are therefore a low-cost, widely available method of contraception.
Cons of male condoms
- Regular male condoms may not be suitable for those with latex allergy.
- Intercourse sensitivity is reduced-The barrier created by the latex condom reduces the pleasure experienced during sexual intercourse. (Casey, 2022).
- Excessive friction during sexual activity might rip the condom, resulting in an unintended pregnancy.
6. What are the challenges facing the NHS with the misdiagnosis of Chlamydia and the rise of Mycoplasma Genitalium (MG)?
Misdiagnosis of Chlamydia- complications in women
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) - Chlamydia can extend to the womb, ovaries, and fallopian tubes in women. PID symptoms include discomfort or pain during sex, pain while urination, and bleeding between periods and after intercourse, which are similar to chlamydia symptoms. (NHS, 2022)
PID can lead to a variety of significant issues, including:
- Infertility or difficulties in conceiving
- Pelvic pain (chronic)
- A higher chance of ectopic pregnancy
- Pregnancy complications- untreated Chlamydia during pregnancy can risk the passing of virus to the baby- may develop an eye infection (conjunctivitis) and a lung infection (pneumonia).
Complications in men-
- Inflammation of the testicles- Chlamydia can infect the testicles and epididymis (tubes that deliver sperm from the testicles) in males, causing pain and swelling. This is known as epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis.
- Reactive Arthritis- Chlamydia is the most common cause of sexually acquired reactive arthritis. This occurs when the joints, eyes, or urethra become inflamed, which usually occurs within the first several weeks of chlamydia infection.
Mycoplasma genitalium is a type of genital mycoplasma that is becoming more prevalent as a cause of sexually transmitted illnesses in both men and women. The evidence for M. genitalium causing pelvic inflammatory disorders and infertility is strong, indicating that this bacterium has the capacity to cause ascending infection. The lack of a definite link between M. genitalium and bacterial vaginosis and poor pregnancy outcomes has been documented. The bacteria grows poorly or slowly in culture, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are used exclusively to diagnose M. genitalium infections. Mycoplasma genitalium is a new STI that has been linked to urogenital infections in both men and women all around the world.(Sethi et al., 2012)
7. What are the issues in the provision of In-vitro Fertilization (IVF) in the UK today?
IVF is a fertility procedure in which fertilisation occurs outside of the body. It's appropriate for a wide range of reproductive problems, and it's one of the most widely used and successful treatments available. IVF is normally highly safe, and most people who have it have no health or pregnancy issues. There are, however, some risks to be aware of, including:
- Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome , OHSS (a severe reaction to fertility drugs)- a condition in which the ovaries overreact to IVF medications (NHS, 2022).
- Having a multiple pregnancy or birth (twins, triplets, or more), which can result in major health issues for both the mother and the baby. High blood pressure and pre-eclampsia caused by pregnancy, gestational diabetes, anaemia, and excessive bleeding necessitating a caesarean section
- An ectopic pregnancy- one in which the embryo implants in the fallopian tubes instead of the womb.
- Heat flushes and headaches are side effects of the medications used during treatment.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) fertility guidelines propose who should be eligible for IVF on the NHS in England and Wales.NHS trusts in England and Wales are working together to ensure consistent service. However, the availability of IVF therapy varies across the country and is frequently influenced by local CCG (clinical commissioning groups).
- Women under 40- 3 cycles of IVF
- Women aged 40 to 42- 1 cycle of IVF
- Private treatment- Private treatment costs vary, but one IVF cycle might cost up to £5,000 or more. Medicines, consultations, and testing may incur additional charges.