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Whenever the crisis situation takes place then it affects all the economies and the businesses at large. Along with this all the different business sectors face a lot of issues. With the increasing globalisation and interconnectivity among the nations the global hospitality industry has increased to a greater extent. The global hospitality industry is one of the important parts of the global economy. If any of the crisis or disaster takes place then there are higher chances that it would be affecting the global hospitality industry. For instance the global coronavirus pandemic has also affected the global hospitality industry in a number of ways. Pius, et. al. (2020) had stated in their study that due to the pandemic or the crisis situation the tourism sector is facing a lot of issues. For this the case of tourist destinations had been discussed. In which the researcher had explored, the number of tourists visiting the tourist destination has decreased to a greater extent.
Baum, et. al. (2020) had stated that the covid-19 pandemic had changed the way the workers work in the hospitality sector. The business environment for the hospitality industry has been highly changed. The firms operating in this sector had to make major changes in the way they were managing their business operations. Accepting the new normal would not be easy for the hospitality sector workforce. The report had stated that the workforce employed in the global hospitality industry has to face major consequences related to the new normal norm.
Malhotra, (2021) had mentioned in their report that before the pandemic the global hospitality industry was adding great value to the global economy by having effective disposal income. Along with this the different factors related to the technological advancement and modernization was supporting the growth of the global hospitality industry. But it has come to a standstill as a result of the outbreak of the covid-19 pandemic. The widespread of the disease and the trade and travel restrictions had led to major adverse effects on the hospitality industry. For revving the situation and managing the crisis the hospitality sector needs to be effective in applying the best possible strategies. Dube, et. al. (2021) has stated that the covid-19 pandemic had crippled the global restaurant and the hospitality industry. The study had stated that the hospitality industry is highly sensitive to natural hazards such as Covid-19 pandemic. The entire hospitality industry has led to the financial loss for which the companies need to respond effectively.
Sucheran, (2021) had conducted a research study exploring the preliminary impact of the covid-19 pandemic in the hotel firms and the entire hospitality industry of South Africa. The study had highlighted that during the unpredictable pandemic the hotels are facing a lot of issues especially the economic issues. The data was being collected from different hotels operating in South Africa. The data has confirmed that the hotel sector is facing issues related to bankruptcy and some are leading towards final closure. The major issues which are being faced by the hotels during the pandemic are related to the cash flows, guest cancellation, event cancellation, less consumer spending and the travel restrictions. All these factors are having a major economic influence on the firms operating in the hospitality sector of South Africa.
Rogerson and Rogerson, (2020) has stated that South Africa is one of the worst hit nations of the world due to the covid-19 pandemic. As a result of this the tourism sector is highly affected. All the small and the large firms operating in the tourism sector are facing the major adverse effects of the pandemic. Due to the long lasting effect of the pandemic the major conflicts among the stakeholders has increased as the firms are not having profit and are leading towards loss. The National State of Disaster declaration had focused on responding appropriately to the pandemic. Along with this the government and the entire industry is looking forward to responding in such a way that the impact of the pandemic can be reduced in an effective manner. Effective tourism recovery plan is being developed for helping the tourism sector by applying appropriate strategies that can allow them in managing the loss. The rapid response can help the tourism industry of South Africa to recover at the fast rate which is very important. But in contrast to this the changing policy by the government and the low support or the uncaring attitude towards the consequences of the pandemic had led towards adverse effects of the pandemic on the tourism sector.
In support to this Dube, (2021) has also conducted a research study for exploring the implications of the covid-19 pandemic related lockdown on the South Africa tourism sector. The lockdown measure for controlling the pandemic has led to major adverse effects on all the industries including the tourism industry. The data collected had shown that various sectors of the tourism industry had been affected. As a result of this the study had recommended that the government should offer financial aid, reduction in the taxes and should help the industry to recover fast. This would allow the firms to restore their sales and ensure that they attract the customers again in an appropriate manner.
Also the effective vaccination can help the firms in satisfying the customers that they are offering better services to their customers during the post pandemic era. Rogerson and Rogerson, (2021) had stated that due to the covid-19 pandemic the tourism demand has affected to a greater extent. For understanding the impact of the pandemic different industry surveys are being conducted. The pandemic had decreased the tourism demands due to different factors related to the pandemic. The tourism industry of South Africa has to focus on making changes in the strategies which can allow them in attracting the customers and restoring the sales. Also the local residents should be motivated to visit the tourist places of South Africa which can help the local tourism industry recover quickly from the pandemic.
Managing the crisis situations is not an easy task. It is very important to have effective management which can allow the individuals and the teams to manage the crisis situations in an appropriate manner. There are different types of theories and models which can be applied by the businesses for managing the situation in an appropriate manner. Situational crisis communication theory is one of the effective theories which need to be occupied or employed by the firms while managing the changes in an appropriate manner. In the view of Coombs, (2007) when the company faced a crisis situation which is having the potential to affect the company reputation then the situational crisis management theory can help the company.
The crisis is a major threat for the reputation of the company. Due to this reason it is very essential for the firms to focus on having appropriate communication in the firm in the context of crisis management. If the businesses should be applying the situational crisis management theory then it would help the company in reacting towards the crisis management. In the post crisis situation, effective communication among all the stakeholders can help the company in communicating how the firm would be able to repair the reputational loss of the company due to the crisis situation faced by the firm.
The Fink's four stages model of crisis management is an effective model which can be used by the firm in an appropriate manner for managing the crisis in an appropriate manner (Fink, 1967). Steven Fink has stated that the overall crisis situation can be classified into four different stages for managing it in an appropriate manner. The report of Abo-Murad, et. al. (2019) had also stated that it is an effective model which can be used by the businesses while addressing the issues in an appropriate manner. This research has focused on the crisis which is faced by the firms in the hotel industry. The report had highlighted that if the firm’s employee appropriate models then it would help them in addressing the issues in a systematic manner.
The model suggested by Fink has described the crisis life cycle which is having four different stages such as prodromal, acute, chronic and resolution stage (Howell, and Miller, 2006). In the first stage it is important to have better knowledge about the crisis and the crisis manager of the firm should try to prevent the crisis. But if the crisis has taken place then the crisis manager has to focus on preparing the plans for addressing the issue and this takes place in the acute stage. The third one is the chronic stage in which the company should try to estimate the lasting effect of the crisis in an appropriate manner (Pedersen et. al. 2020). Lastly in the resolution stage the initiatives were being taken for addressing the issue and prevention of crisis in future. It can be stated that this offers a systematic approach to solve the issues related to the crisis management so it is an effective manner.
Market, (2020) has stated in their report about the different types of models and theories which can be used for managing the crisis in an appropriate manner. The author had explained about the relational model of crisis management which was given by Tony Jacques in 2007. As per this model the researcher had explained that there are different activities and the processes which are required to be followed by the firms in managing the situation in an appropriate manner.
Jacques has stated that there are four stages such as crisis preparedness, crisis management, crisis incident management and post crisis management (Jaques, 2007). The researcher has stated that there is an interrelationship among all the different activities and the elements related to the change management. This is important for the firms as it would allow them in managing the crisis in an appropriate manner (Teo et. al. 2017). This relationship model focuses on explaining the interdependence among all the stages of crisis management. Along with this it offers detailed knowledge related to crisis prevention and post crisis management in an appropriate manner. In support of this Zafari, et. al. (2020) had stated in their study that during the pandemic time it is very important for all the stakeholders to have better relations among themselves. Along with this the research study has stated that better relationship management among the different businesses can help them in managing the crisis situation in an appropriate manner. Mindful management of the relationship with better trust and the mechanism can help the firm's in managing the crisis in an appropriate manner.
The stakeholders’ theory of the crisis management had suggested that all the stakeholders are having some of the responsibility in managing the crisis in an appropriate manner (Hernantes et. al. 2013). Alpaslan, Mitroff and Sandy Green in 2009 has suggested this theory and has explained that all the stakeholders should understand their role and their collaborative work for crisis management is very important (Alpaslan, et. al. 2009).
In the view of Dobrowolski, (2020) the role of crisis management had changed due to the pandemic. Covid-19 pandemic is an unpredictable event and managing the crisis related to this situation is not an easy task. If the businesses would rely on the risk management and analysis for crisis management then it would not be effective for the firms. The research had gathered both the primary and secondary data collection sources. The data is being collected through the different nations and the study has found that it is important to redefine the role of crisis management. The business should emphasise more on the crisis management relationship model and should convert it into the flexible model which can allow the firms in managing the crisis such as covid-19 pandemic in an appropriate manner.
Le and Giang, (2021) has stated that the hospitality sector is going to experience long lasting impact of pandemic. For this the study had emphasis on stating that how the role of crisis management needs to be redefined for the firms operating in the hotel sector. The study had stated that for all the different phases of the crisis management the firms need to make use of appropriate strategies then only they would be able to manage the crisis in an effective manner. Moreover the report had suggested that better technological advancement can help the hotel sector in fast recovery from the crisis management which is led by the covid-19 pandemic.
Al-Dabbagh, (2020) has stated about the role of the decision makers in crisis management during the pandemic. The study has stated that it is very important for the firms to make effective decisions for crisis management. The most suitable solution for crisis management needs to be selected which can help in managing the crisis appropriately. The study has suggested that during the pandemic time effective training is required to be offered to the decision makers which can help them in increasing the awareness among all the factors related to the crisis. Moreover this would allow them in making effective decisions for managing the crisis properly.
Lai and Wong, (2020) has conducted a research study comparing how the firms operating in the hospitality industry and the crisis management practises have changed from initial stage to the pandemic stages. The data gathered in the research study had suggested that during the initial stages the firms are focusing on prevention of the pandemic and focusing on the pricing and maintenance practises. Along with this the companies were focusing over the government rules and human resources practises. But in contrast to this in the pandemic time the firms have focused on saving costs which can help them in reducing the lost lead by the pandemic. For this reason the majority of the hotel staff has given unpaid leaves so that the company can reduce the losses. So it can be said that the firms had started reacting differently as the pandemic has increased to a greater extent. Along with this the study had suggested that the hotel industry is struggling a lot to manage the crisis as they are highly affected due to the pandemic.
Human resource is one of the most valued resources of the company. It is very important for the firms to have effective human resources which can allow them to manage the different situations faced by the firms in an appropriate manner. Businesses struggle a lot in managing the HRM during the crisis and ensuring that they are supporting the firm in addressing the issues in an effective manner. Malik and Sanders, (2021) has stated that HRM practises are having a major role to play for the firms during the global crisis management. For better explanation of this situation in an appropriate manner the report had focused on the two important crises which took place in the last decade. The researchers had focused on the Global financial crisis and covid-19 pandemic for exploring this concept. The results of the study had suggested that the HRM and the leadership is having the most critical and significant role in the crisis management. The role of the leader and the managers in the firm become more important during the crisis situation. During the pandemic the leaders of different firms are looking forward to making appropriate decisions for the firm. Along with this the entire human resources is working efficiently in the firm to manage the pandemic as it is affecting them as well as the entire firm adversely. So it can be stated that HRM has a major role in crisis management.
Althamneh, (2018) had stated that the HR is having a major role to play for crisis management. For this the researcher had stated that it is very important for the firm to ensure that their human resource is prepared for managing the crisis. In this context the author had suggested that the firm's need to offer better training to their employees is related to crisis management. The HR of the company should be effective in planning the crisis management and should prepare the human resource for the same. If the employees of the company are having appropriate skills and knowledge to manage the crisis situation then it would help the firm in managing the challenges related to the crisis in an appropriate manner. Through this it can be stated that for all the different crises the firms need to work on the improvement of the skills and knowledge of their employees so that it would help them in managing the crisis and reducing the adverse effects of the crisis on the firms.
Farndale, et. al. (2019) had stated that the human resource department of the firm is having a major impact on the performance of the company. Due to this reason whenever the company faces issues, crises and risks then it creates a lot of challenges for the employees of the firms. During the time of crisis if the company is having effective employees then it would allow the company to remain effective and offer the best possible work to the company. Along with this it can help the company in addressing the risks and managing the crisis as well.
In the view of Elsafty and Ragheb, (2020) the human resource department of the company is having a major role to retain the employees for longer time during the pandemic situation. Due to the threat of the disease and many other health related risks and issues the employees are leaving their jobs. Due to this reason it has become essential for the human resource department to keep the employees motivated and retain them for a longer time. The HR of the company needs to emphasise on increasing the satisfaction level of the employees who can help them in retaining the employees and managing their mental wellbeing in an appropriate manner. In support of this Dirani, et. al. (2020) had stated that the role of human resource has changed and become more important during the pandemic. During the time of global crisis it is very important for the firms to have effective leaders and the HR managers which can help the human resource in managing the pandemic in an appropriate manner. Along with this the leader should try to make use of better strategies for working as per the government, organisation and the community at large. The firms should be managed in such a way that all the stakeholders should be satisfied with the job role.
In the view of Ayedee, et. al. (2021) the role of human resource is important during the time of covid-19 pandemic. The firm needs to have strategic human resource management which can help them in using their human resource in an appropriate manner for dealing with the pandemic time properly. For instance if the company would not be having better employees then it would be more difficult for the firm to manage the pandemic. The strategic human resource management would help the company in applying better strategies and making effective decisions for managing the covid-19 pandemic and serving the customers best during the pandemic times.
From the different academic articles and reports stated in the literature review it can be stated that better and detailed research is required in this area. Effective conceptual framework is required to be used. Between the different variables of the research study, an effective analytical tool is required to be used by the researcher. Primary data needs to be gathered in a systematic manner which would allow the researcher to have a high quality research study. Along with this it can be suggested that an effective analytical tool needs to be selected for analysing the data in an appropriate manner. This would allow the researcher to do high quality research. For data collection both the primary and the secondary data collection methods can be used by the researcher. This is the relevant and latest topic for which it can be suggested that the researcher should try to make use of the primary data collection methods. For this survey would be the best as it would allow in gathering a lot of data in an appropriate manner.
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