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The research paper has described the methods of delivering bad news. Many organizations have the issue of delivering bad news. Bad news is a daily basis for an organisation and has a huge impact on the organisation in activities as it contains negative performance. This literature review focuses on the importance of improving the process of delivering bad news in an organisation
Bad news consists of some negative facts or information which can be a difficult task for many people and employees to deal with. It is important to be prepared for dealing with that face of facing bad news. Bad news also changes the view of a person drastically and negatively for the future (Brann, Bute, and Scott, 2020). This is the main reason for a change in the way of delivering bad news.
When a receiver gives any bad news it creates emotional behavioural and cognitive deficits in the receiver after getting the news. It impacts emotional balance and also can cause a great trauma to the psychology and mental condition of the receiver. The managers have to deliver bad news as it is a part of their occupation (Karnieli?Miller et al., 2018). They can follow some interrelated phases and activities while delivering the bad news to the employees or other organisational members. Three phases which can be performed while delivering any bad news include preparation, delivery and transition. The three phases have a great benefit for tackling bad news from both side the receiver and the provider of the bad news.
Preparation phase is the face when the user provider can give advance warning to the receiver about the news. A psychological preparation to handle bad news is important because how the employees respond to the bad news can impact the severity of the bad news to the psychology of the people (Karnieli?Miller et al., 2018). Advanced preparation can help the employee or the people make some preparation to deal with the face of tension, worrying and hurt. Advance warning can help in coping with the negative emotions that can result from the forthcoming bad news.
In the face of potentially disastrous news, managing expectations can become a proactive way of preserving organisational legitimacy. Managers usually grant "voice" to beneficiaries to enable them to provide evidence about the performances before the choice is made to provide a sense of fair play before any negative information is delivered (Karnieli?Miller et al., 2018). Calibrating expectation, coalition building, using disclaimers, providing opportunities to the employees for voice, rehearsal are the main areas through which the managers can prepare to deliver the bad news.
The giving of terrible news can cause a significant deal of emotional discomfort for all of those who must convey it. Managers may sometimes practise the presentation of bad news to try and cope with the emotional exhaustion of the circumstance, especially if the news is catastrophic, such as factory shutdowns, layoffs, and dismissal (Brann, Bute, and Scott, 2020). The managers need to be prepare for the delivery of such news to the employees for helping them cope with the sudden catastrophic news.
The delivery phase can be tackled following five different stages including the delivery timing, medium of delivery, face management as well as self-presentation, accounts providing, and honesty and integrity and disclosure practices were among these actions (Brann, Bute, and Scott, 2020). Media delivery that the managers follow can be used to deliver the bad news using e-mails, telephone and face to face conversations.
When people utilised computer-mediated conversation rather than telephone as well as face-to-face communication, they seem to be more realistic and truthful in presenting the bad news. Members expressed a higher level of pleasure with computer-mediated communications. Talking in a serene as well as sympathetic approach is used by administrators to send messages (Karnieli?Miller, Palombo, and Meitar, 2018). Other part of “face management” as well as “self-presentation” is interpersonal sensitivity, which is a display of respect to individuals receiving devastating news.
When delivering bad news, account giving includes a range of activities. When unpleasant information is presented, people seek an explanations. By giving information to alter the receiver's impression of the deliverer's accountability or intentions for the activity, the account might lessen the blame given to the deliverer (Karnieli?Miller, Palombo, and Meitar, 2018).
Managers need to convey the truth as well as give all pertinent details, according to individuals who get bad news (Karnieli?Miller, Palombo, and Meitar, 2018). When individuals are told bad news, they feel deceived to or purposely fooled, they react with the most hatred and indignation.
Most of the activities which accompany the delivering of bad news are referred to as the "transition phase". In the transition period, there are four different negative news handling practices. Public relations, giving an appeal mechanism, caretaking, farewell rituals, and scapegoating are examples of these efforts. The managers can generate a good relationship with the employees and people. Regular communication with the employees and generating a good relationship with them can help the managers help the employees cope with the bad news (Yao, and Ling, 2020). Regular vising with the employees can also help them deal with the problems of bad news. Managers take care of "severance pay" and outplacement when they provide terrible news about terminating employees. In order to assist workers cope with the devastating news, some parting rituals are frequently held in failing companies (Yao, and Ling, 2020). The organizational managers can use these practices to deliver the bad news in an effective manner to the members about any layoffs or any other bad news.
In this research paper, qualitative research method will be used for methodology. Qualitative research is a form of methods that rely on clear and verbal contact to gather information. This strategy considers not just "what" individuals believe, but also "why" (Aspers and Corte, 2019). For collecting data and information about the delivery of bad news, qualitative research method is suitable as it focuses on the information which is clear. Qualitative research method focuses on to gather information and perceptions using in-depth interviews, oral interviews, participant observation, ethnographic observation, focus groups, open-ended surveys, and direct observation are the ways through which the perceptions and relevant information is gathered for the research work. Using the qualitative method the necessary information has been collected regarding the delivery of bad news (Aspers and Corte, 2019). As the reaction and response of people about the delivery process of bad news are very crucial for this research work, qualitative can be suitable as it provides all the perceptions and description of the people.
In this research paper, a semi-structured interviews have been used for the data collection process. A “semi-structured interview” is one where interviewer just asks a few predefined questions and indeed the remainder of the queries are not scheduled ahead of time and are asked during the interview unexpectedly (Magaldi and Berler, 2020). Because “semi-structured interviews” incorporate the benefits of both organised as well as unstructured interviews, these can provide the perfect blend.
Using the semi-structured interviews the interviewers can ask the participants relevant questions regarding the delivery of bad news. The interviewers can identify the perceptions and thoughts of the participants (Magaldi and Berler, 2020). It has also helped in getting real time information what the participants prefer to cope with the delivery of the bad news. It has encouraged back-and-forth conversation between the interviewers and participants. It allows interviewers to learn the answers regarding the delivery process of bad news as well as the reasoning behind the replies. It also enabled the responders to speak freely about difficulties they faced to cope with the bad news.
The targeted population for the interview and collection of data is the employees working in different organization. The employees can provide relevant information about their views on the delivery of bad news. It has provided sufficient information how the managers can help delivering the bad news to the employees. The non-probability random sampling method has been used in this research work. It is conducted out by monitoring, and it is commonly used in qualitative studies (Wu and Thompson, 2020). Non-probability sampling is a statistical approach in which the researcher decides samples depending on the own subjective view but not on random assortment. The non-probability sampling technique is the process in which the researchers depend on their expertise and knowledge for choosing the participants for gathering the most required data and information.
The practises of data collection, storing, and distribution are considered to as ethical problems. Gaining informed decision, preserving data properly, and securing authorization to get or share information are just a few things the researchers maintain. It is critical to follow ethical rules in research for different reasons (Floridi, 2018). Knowledge, integrity, and the elimination of mistake are all goals of studies, and standards help to achieve them. The researchers have followed all the ethical considerations for the research work. The data and information have been collected by getting permission from the employees. The Data protection Act has been maintained by the researchers and also the researchers (Hjerppe, Ruohonen and Leppänen, 2019).
Therefore, it can be concluded that the delivery of bad news can be changed to lessen the impact of the negative impact on the receiver. The research paper has a huge scope for the future as it can help the future researchers get necessary help and support for conducting relevant research on the similar topic.
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