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Nutrition, Digestion, Excretion Assignment Sample

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Nutrition, Digestion, Excretion Assignment Sample


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Mrs. Smith 

It is very much necessary to follow a proper diet plan for maintaining good health. Proper nutrition and a diet plan help to improve a person’s health condition and reduce the risk of a different kind of disease. A huge amount of benefits is present in a proper routine, whichis completely regulated by a proper nutrition chart. Some of the benefits of a proper diet plan are, It helps to reduce the blood pressure, helps to decrease the high cholesterol, improves the immune system to fight against different kinds of diseases, improves the recovery rate from injury, boost up the energy level of a person.

A proper nutrition plan helps to give the body different nutrition. Different kinds of vitamins and the necessary minerals are very much important for the metabolic activity of the body was observed. Suppose one person is suffering from a deficiency of fibres to reduce the deficiency effect (Kalantar-Zadeh and Moore, 2020). Fruits are mandatory for that person. For protein meat, fish, and egg white different types of foods are required. Hope this little discussion on the importance of nutrition is able to clear the concept of the importance of a proper diet plan in regular life. 

There are different types of minerals, vitamins, and nutritive food available but it is important to understand the function of different nutrition groups and their role in our body. Calories are the first type of nutrition group that helps to achieve proper body weight. On normal days when someone goes to the gym and starts to work out Muscle tissue burns and it takes amino acids from the blood for energy purposes. If a person wants to recover from this state and wants to get the “anti-catabolic” state then he/she should take calories. 

In the next nutrition group, Carbohydrates are the most important. Every normal day works like studying, swimming, breathing, and training. Each activity requires carbohydrates. But taking a huge amount of carbohydrates is not beneficial for the body (Dwivedi et al. 2019). Because the carbohydrate takes a huge time to convert into glucose and for that reason, it is absorbed in very less amount5 by the human body. Adding a little number of carbohydrates to the diet list will help to maintain the nutrition level in the body.

Unlike the other group, protein is one of the main groups in the diet plan. The role of the protein is very much easy. The consuming the protein, it starts to produce” nitrogenous tissues”. This acts as the bricks of the human tissue have been done. There is a limit on the protein that can be absorbed by a proper meal and the amount is near about 30-45 grams. If a person takes a huge amount of the tissue cannot utilize protein then it, as a result, it increases fat storage. However, the protein, which is beneficial for the human body, should contain a huge amount of essential nutrients (Klein, 2019). Protein is also used as a supplement in the gym industry, which helps to grow muscle tissue.

Fats are also important in the diet list because, in regular life, one person cannot depend on proteins and carbohydrates for their whole life. That is the reason fat takes a little space in the diet list. Avoiding saturated fats is necessary because it causes cancer. 

According to your prescription, it is very much clear that you have different diseases and problems in your body. Like heart palpitations, hormone fluctuations, tight muscles, and high cholesterol are present in your body. As it is clearly mentioned in the description of why nutrition is important for the human body, you can correlate that the problems you are facing can be solved by the proper nutrition and diet plan. It is also mentioned in the prescription that you are suffering from a cold, which shows that your immunity power is very low. If you follow a proper diet plan and intake all the essential, nutrients then it will boost your immunity, which will fight against the antigens (Yang, et al. 2018). For the proper recovery, you have to follow the diet strictly and proper medication because all the symptoms you have can only be recovered by the action of the medicine and the proper diet planning. 


Protein is one type of the essential nutrient, which is available within the animal products. It helps to build muscle mass. It is also available within different products like nuts.Proetins are also helpful to reconstruct the tissues within the body. Different kinds of amino acids are the backbone of the proteins. Some essential amino acids is not formed within the body which is taken by consuming huge amount of proteins.


“5.94 g of protein from 1 cup cooked oatmeal,

2.6 gram of protein from two bananas

1 cup of milk provide 8 grams of protein, 1 teaspoon of cinnamon provide 0.26 gram of protein”


“1 Cup of low-fat plain yogurt provides 12.86 gram of protein,

2-3 tablespoon of cheese gives 2 grams of protein, 

½ cup of peach halves contain 0.77 gram of protein.”


“8.4 gram of protein is present in 1 cup of skim mi8lk, 

One bowl of corn flakes gives 1.85 gram of protein 

1 banana gives 1 gram of protein”


“From the chicken stir fry 37 grams of proteins are served

1 bowl of brown rice gives 1.83 gram of protein

 1 cup of concord grape juice gives 1 gram of protein”


Carbohydrates are one of the main three nutrients present within food.Carbohydrate generally contains same ratio of Hydrogen and oxygen as water within it. There are mainly three types of carbohydrates are present within it. They are Sugars, starches and fibres. Carbohydrates are mainly foundin different kinds of grains like bread, noodles, pasta etc.


“54 gram of carbohydrates from 2 bananas

1 teaspoon of cinnamon provide 2.1 gram of carbohydrate”


“This 1 cup of yogurt provides 17.25 gram of carbohydrate,

8.11 gram of carbohydrate is served by half of the peaches.”


“1 bowl of corn flakes gives 36 gram of carbohydrate,

 29 grams of carbs are present in one banana.”


“In one chicken stir fry 18 grams of carbohydrate is present

 17.05 gram of carbohydrates, which is stable amount 

 From 1 cup of concord grape juice 19 grams of carbohydrate is served.”


Lipid is one kind of organic compound, which is insoluble within the water. They are made up of fats, waxes, oils, hormones etc. Fatty acids are the main components of the lipid molecules. “Triglycerides” are the main type of the lipid molecules.


“1 cup milk gives 8 grams of fats,

No fat is present in 1 teaspoon of cinnamon”


“Total 3.8 gram of fat is served from 1 cup of low-fat yogurt,

From the cheese 10 grams of fat can be gained

 0.21 gram of fat is served by the ½ cup of peaches,”


1 cup of skim milk provide 0.6 gram of non-fat, 

2.4 gram of reducing fat, no fat is present in banana”


“Chicken stir fry also provides 12 grams of fat among which 2.4 grams is saturated fat and 8.6 gram is unsaturated fat.

1 bowl of carbohydrates provide 0.65 gram of fat”

Task 2

Different organs associated with the Digestive system and their role



The beginning part of the digestive system is the mouth. The salivary glands, which are present in the mouth, start to digest the food. 


Salivary glands which are present in the salivary gland produce saliva (Ovi,2020). This saliva contains different kinds of enzymes that mix with the food and start to break down it. 



Esophagus is present in the middle portion of the chest in the human body. The area where it bis located is known as “Mediastinum”.


After receiving the food from the mouth and the lower esophagus, position allows the start to re4lax and helps the food to intake. The “Sphincter” then stops the food to go back to the Esophagus.

Small intestine


The small intestine is located in the lower abdominal cavity of the stomach.


Small intestine is composed of mainly three things “duodenum, jejunum, and ileum” and the total organ helps to break down the food with the help of enzymes that are released by the pancreas (Marônek, 2020). In addition, the bile, which is released from the liver, helps to break down the food. “Peristalsis” is also present in this organ and put its role in the mixing procedure of the food with the digestive juice.



Generally, the pancreas is present behind the stomach and in front of the spine. 


Pancreas secret different kinds of enzymes in the duodenum, which help to break down the protein, fats, and carbohydratesis done. Pancreas also produces insulin in the blood which helps to maintain the blood sugar.



Liver is present in the right-hand position of the abdominal cavity; this organ is present under the diaphragm.


Liver acts as the factory of the enzymes (Marônek, 2021). The liver takes the materials from the intestine and helps to break down some different kinds of vitamins. 



On the right side of the abdomen colon is present. A transverse colon is present across the whole abdomen.


Colon helps to remove the water and different kinds of nutrients from the food. Electrolytes are also removed from the partially digested food. 



Rectum is present at the end of the large intestine and it ends at the anus. The rectum also follows the sigmoid colon.


Rectum mainly works as the collector who collects stool from the colon (Marônek,2020). After the collection of the stool, the brain controls the release of the stool. 



Anus is the gastrointestinal tract and it exists in the body. The anus is the last portion of the colon.


Anusn is 2 inches long and consists of “pelvic floor muscle” and “two anal sphincters.” This portion helps to excrete the stool from the body. This is the last portion of the digestive system and the muscle associated with this portion is control the release of the stool from the body. 

Explanation of the Digestive system

Some organs of the human body are associated with the digestive system. The role of these organs is completely associated with the food taking to the excretion of the waste product from our body. Mouth, pharynx, Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine is the different organs whicgh are associated with the whole Digestive system. The whole digestive system isd mainly based on the gastrointestinal tract. The digestion process changed a complex food into simpler forms, which is easy to digest. Different kinds of enzymes do the completely enzymatic reaction within the GI tract. The completely digestive process is occurred within the 30 feet long GI tract. 

Task 3


The first step of cellular respiration is Glycolysis. It indicates “glucose splitting”. In this cellular respiration system, enzymes split a glucose molecule and produce two molecules of pyruvate, which is known as pyruvic acid. For the starting of the glycolysis process energy is mandatory. The energy is used for the separation of the glucose molecule (Hu, 2022). 2 ATPs are used and this stage is known as the “investment stage”. With the progress of time, energy is released from the process. At the end of the glycolysis process, Two ATP molecule is released. NADH is used in this phase.

TCA cycle

TCA cycle is made up of different stages. At the beginning of the stage, citrate is converted into the isocitrate with the help of “Citrate synthetase.” With the help of “Isocitrate dehydrogenase” isocitrate converts into “alpha-ketoglutarate.” In the next step this product is converted into “Succinyl coenzyme” by the help of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme. After that the product is converted into succinate (Hu, 2022). With the progress in this cycle succinate “fumarate” is produced by the succinate dehydrogenase. In the next step, fumarate converts into malate by “Fumarase.” Before the last step this malate converts into oxaloacetate, and in the last step this OAA with the help of “Acetyl Co-A” enzyme converts into citrate. 

Oxidative phosphorylation

 At the end of the metabolic pathway “oxidative phosphorylation” process takes place. In this step from the glucose molecule, 36 ATP is produced. The energy, which came from the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 and ubiquinol, helps to pump the protons from the mitochondrial axis. The transport chain involves the transfer of electrons from NADH to FADH2n TO ubiquinone. When the process starts the electrons remain in the higher state but with the progress, the electronics lose their energy and reach a lower state as a result of energy loss the protons are pumped from the matrix of the mitochondria to the inter-membrane space of the mitochondria. Oxygen is present at the end of the electron transport chain. Without the help of this oxygen the whole electron transport chain cannot work properly (Ross et al.  2018). At the end of this electronic transport chain, ATP is produced in the body which acts as the energy source of the body.

In this way, these three steps help to produce energy from one molecule of glucose.


Anderson, C.A. and Nguyen, H.A., 2018, March. Nutrition education in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease and end?stage renal disease.In Seminars in Dialysis (Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 115-121).

Dwivedi, V.P., Banerjee, A., Das, I., Saha, A., Dutta, M., Bhardwaj, B., Biswas, S. and Chattopadhyay, D., 2019. Diet and nutrition: An important risk factor in leprosy. Microbial pathogenesis137, p.103714.

Hu, J., 2022, January. Cell Respiration—Energy Production of Cells.In 2021 International Conference on Culture, Design and Social Development (CDSD 2021) (pp. 77-80).Atlantis Press.

Kalantar-Zadeh, K. and Moore, L.W., 2020. Precision nutrition and personalized diet plan for kidney health and kidney disease management. Journal of Renal Nutrition30(5), pp.365-367.

Klein, J., 2019. Utilization of mobile nutrition applications by patients with chronic kidney disease. Journal of Renal Nutrition29(1), pp.e5-e7.

Lucas, S., Chen, G., Aras, S. and Wang, J., 2018. Serine catabolism is essential to maintain mitochondrial respiration in mammalian cells. Life science alliance1(2).

Marônek, M., Link, R., Monteleone, G., Gardlík, R. and Stolfi, C., 2020. Viruses in cancers of the digestive system: active contributors or idle bystanders?. International Journal of Molecular Sciences21(21), p.8133.

Micha?us, I. and Rusi?ska, A., 2018. Rare, genetically conditioned forms of rickets: Differential diagnosis and advances in diagnostics and treatment.Clinical Genetics, 94(1), pp.103-114.

Ovi, F., 2020.Effect of pre-pelleting whole corn inclusion on growth performance, processing yield, meat quality, gut microbiome, and digestive organ development at different grow-out phases of broilers and humans.

Ross, G., Emelyanova, L., Rizvi, F., Downey, F.X., Tajik, J. and Jahangir, A., 2018. Cellular Respiration is Reduced in Ventricular Fibroblasts from Human Failing Heart under Statin Therapy. The FASEB Journal32, pp.lb604-lb604.

Rozenberg, S., Al-Daghri, N., Aubertin-Leheudre, M., Brandi, M.L., Cano, A., Collins, P., Cooper, C., Genazzani, A.R., Hillard, T., Kanis, J.A. and Kaufman, J.M., 2020. Is there a role for menopausal hormone therapy in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis?.Osteoporosis International, 31(12), pp.2271-2286.

Skwarek, A., Pachucki, J., Bednarczuk, T., ?urecka, Z., Popow, M., Kondracka, A. and Bartoszewicz, Z., 2018. Milk-alkali syndrome (MAS) as a complication of the treatment of hypoparathyroidism—a case study. EndokrynologiaPolska, 69(2), pp.200-204.

Watts, N.B., 2018. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: a clinical review.Journal of women's health, 27(9), pp.1093-1096.

Yang, J., Zhang, Q. and Wang, X., 2018.Role of nutritional support for postoperative recovery of respiratory function in patients with primary lung cancer. Oncology letters16(5), pp.5978-5982.

Yunida, R., Sukardi, P. and Simanjuntak, S.B.I., 2019. Digestive enzyme activities of osteochilusvittatus with Spirulinaplatensis feed supplementation in biofloc system. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education11(3), pp.369-376.

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