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“int k, y, k1, y1 ;
y = y - 4 * k - 18;
k1 = y1 = 0 ;
k1 = k ;
while (k1 > 3)
k1 - -;
y = y + 4;
y1 = y ;
“int k, y, k0, y0 ;
k0 = y0 = 0 ;
k0 = k ;
y = y - 4 * k - 18;
while (k > 3)
k - -;
y = y + 4;
y0= y ;
iii. As per the view of Lai et al. (2018), “Fault Tree Analysis” is systematic deductive approaches to determine the combination of the human errors and components failures which may result in occurrence of the failure system of the undesired system. This unfavorable system failure is mainly defined as the “top event” and also this “fault tree” has represented how this “top event” is caused by this individual and combined with the events of the lower level. This diagram has been used for defining the reliability parameters that are mainly concerned due to system failure (Kuzu et al. 2019). The “Fault Tree Analysis” has been required as the determination of this minimal cut set of the fault tree and this conventional approaches for obtaining this minimal cut set is to define the “disjunctive normal form for this top event of the fault tree”.
This figure has shown an FTA that has represented “the condition of the failure for the unsafe condition “y<0” during the execution of code”. This has represented the evaluation of the calculations and analysis (Kuzu et al. 2019). The equation “y=y-4*k-18” is defined as an event. The basic event is defined as the output or result after the execution of code. OR gate is used for generating the output of the provided code as well as depending on the condition which is defined as a while loop function. In order to create this faulty tree, the value of k and y is defined initially. Then the equation is declared for this implementation. In case the value of k is greater than 3, the k value in the equation is decreased as well as the value of y is increased 4 times of the initial value. Software error is refined into the sub events and computed this probability of this failure based on the contributions (Badida et al. 2019).
i. “Fault tree analysis” is one of the “top down deductive approaches” for analyzing the safety and risk issues. This methodology has been used for determining this probability where this unwanted event has occurred (Cheliyan and Bhattacharyya, 2018). This event is defined as “the failure of the product, process and system”. It has been used for analysis of the high catastrophic events and accessed the probability to mitigate, eliminate and minimize their occurrence. This diagram has represented visually of the events using the logic symbols as well as the event symbols. In order to implement this strategic framework, the logic gates are used for defining the lowest level of occurrences in order to maintain significant failures. This has consisted of the two different elements such as “logic gates” and “events” which has connected the entire events for identifying the “causes of the top desired event” (de Gusmão et al. 2018).
This fault tree has provided the diagrammatic description of such a way in which the system has failed in the specific mode. This is essential for the analysis of the safety system that has provided the comprehensive description of different causes of the system failure. However, when the system failure has occurred due to the component failures, this system is referred to “as the coherent system”. The fault tree where the basic event is represented as the component failure and which contains only OR and logic gates is generally called the “coherent fault tree”. As a result, this system failure mode has mainly been defined as the “concept of the cut set” (Kuzu et al. 2019).
ii.The direct approach is defined using this “minimal cut set”. This analysis is performed based on the fault trees. However, this minimal cut set has been obtained (Hauptmanns, 2018). The “minimal cut set” is generally connected in the fault tree using two popular gates such as OR gate and gate. With the individual set which contains the multiple blocks, these blocks are usually connected with these two logic gates.
In the below figure, value a land value b are placed various times in this fault tree. In case this fault tree is presented in this state, such events have accounted for the multiple times of the events (Kuzu et al. 2019). It has occurred independently and these events are independently defined using this minimal cut set. The identical events have occurred to define the minor blocks of the fault tree (Kang et al. 2019).
iii.This is an easily identified source of the “single points of failure”. “Single point of failure (SPOF)” is a “non redundant component of the system” that has caused the entire system to fail. This system is “antithetical to their goal” of the high availability in the computing network or system (Lai et al. 2018). As per the view of Yazdi and Zarei (2018), the damaged pump would be whining, loud sound however, this loud whining has indicated as a problem. Few problems such as bearing the issues, process issues, coupling related challenges, impeller tear and wear are defined in the failure of the pump. The below figure has shown the single point failure of the pump.
iv. As per the view of Yazdi and Zarei (2018), “Fault tolerance” and “Process control system” are two measurement approaches which are maintaining the software control process in order to improve the system design approaches.
Badida, P., Balasubramaniam, Y. and Jayaprakash, J., 2019. Risk evaluation of oil and natural gas pipelines due to natural hazards using fuzzy fault tree analysis. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 66, pp.284-292.
Cheliyan, A.S. and Bhattacharyya, S.K., 2018. Fuzzy fault tree analysis of oil and gas leakage in subsea production systems. Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science, 3(1), pp.38-48.
de Gusmão, A.P.H., Silva, M.M., Poleto, T., e Silva, L.C. and Costa, A.P.C.S., 2018. Cybersecurity risk analysis model using fault tree analysis and fuzzy decision theory. International Journal of Information Management, 43, pp.248-260.
Hauptmanns, U., 2018. Fault tree analysis for process plants. In Engineering risk and hazard assessment (pp. 21-60). CRC Press.
Kang, J., Sun, L. and Soares, C.G., 2019. Fault Tree Analysis of floating offshore wind turbines. Renewable energy, 133, pp.1455-1467.
Kuzu, A.C., Akyuz, E. and Arslan, O., 2019. Application of fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) to maritime industry: a risk analysing of ship mooring operation. Ocean Engineering, 179, pp.128-134.
Lai, F.S., Sujeet, S. and Fan, L.T., 2018. Fuzzy fault tree analysis: Theory and application. In Engineering risk and hazard assessment (pp. 117-138). CRC Press.
Yazdi, M. and Zarei, E., 2018. Uncertainty handling in the safety risk analysis: an integrated approach based on fuzzy fault tree analysis. Journal of failure analysis and prevention, 18(2), pp.392-404.
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