# Algorithms And Programming Paradigms Assignment Sample

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## Algorithms And Programming Paradigms Assignment Sample

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## 1. Introduction

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DuWorld Ltd is a software development firm that creates applications for mobile gaming devices. The duty of the research and development arm involves looking into innovative methods that might assist the organization. The algorithms of use and how may be applied to produce more software is one of the areas of research you have been assigned. Influence on software development since efficient software can lead to better battery life and the capacity to perform more with the limited resources available on mobile devices. More investigations into how to make more efficient and secure software have been assigned to the research and development team at "DotNet Ltd." that was charged with investigating paradigms as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various programming language approaches. A comprehensive framework or foundation that underpins the architecture of a learning algorithm is characterized as a computational framework or algorithm design methodology. A computational framework is a higher-level generalization than an algorithm, even though an algorithm is a higher-level generalization than a computer algorithm. A methodology is a system for solving a problem or accomplishing a task. Type of Programming is a method of resolving a problem using computer code. Skills and methodologies that are accessible to us while subscribing to a certain approach. There are also several software applications and yet all necessitate some kind of philosophy or technique to be developed, and these scientific methods are respected as paradigms.

## 2. SCENARIO 1

### 2.1 The process of using an algorithm to build an application

An algorithm can always be presented in various ways. In addition, some are very casual, but many are highly formal and intellectual, while yet others are all very visual. An algorithm is a set of instructions for synchronizing a DVD player to a television. An algorithm is a direct example of a mathematical equation like R2 (Abdel-Basset, et al 2018). The form is not particularly necessary as long as it is legal for you to define and check the plan's rationale. In order to solve an issue, first should create a methodology (a plan). This can develop an equation into a software application using a software package when having it. There are five essential points in our algorithms development cycle. Knowing Aunt Kay enjoys unique and imaginative merchandise.

#### 2.1.1 Examples of uses

Financial firms have employed algorithms in areas such as interest margins, stock trading, investment management, and a variety of other automation technologies. Algorithmic trading, often known as aglow trading, is a method of determining the length of time, price, and quantity of stock orders, among other things. Algo trading, also known as high-frequency trading or black-box trading, is the practice of using computer algorithms to purchase and sell assets at a faster rate than people can.

#### 2.1.2 The algorithms with the brute force method

A Brute Force Algorithm is perhaps the most basic solution to these problems, and then the first solution that immediately springs to mind when we encounter the problem. Fundamentally, that is the same as incrementing through all of the feasible alternatives. For illustrate, suppose there is a 4-digit PIN lock (Alzubi, et al 2018). A pattern is evaluated to all fragments of a text via brute-force string matching. Until a violation is discovered, appearance comparisons between segment and sequence are undertaken. To minimize unnecessary comparing, brute-force searching frequently employs dynamic adjustments upon incompatibility.

Figure 1: Algorithms with the brute force method

(Source: www.researchgate.net)

The brute force technique is calculating the entire time of all clear vision and tactics and then selecting the least expensive. This is costly since clever algorithms may eliminate a large number of options. An optimization technique for computing a function that can also be described in a set amount of spatial and temporal scales also in a well-defined technical language. The shift from one state toward the next may not always be dependable; certain algorithms, known as neural network models, consider random input.

#### 2.1.3 Implementation

After you have established everything up, it is time to start putting your algorithm into operation. The following is a brief overview of the problems that your layout algorithm should solve: Determine measurements for all graph components and network topologies for all connections (subject to arrangement qualities the structure is documented with) and annotation the designing graph correspondingly, representation of the input graph (sometimes with preexisting dimensions). Depending on making a difference how many categories a configuration algorithm has, it has always had one entrance class that descends from 'AbstractLayoutProvider' and performs the algorithm's single most important method:
“void layout(ElkNode layoutGraph, IElkProgressMonitor progressMonitor);”

There seem to be two additional approaches that your algorithms can do that but is not essential to use:

• “void initialize(String parameter);”
• “void dispose();”

### 2.2 Encryption/Decryption and Compression/Decompression

An application development firm that creates products for smartphone and tablet entertainment platforms. A "battery management system (BMS)" is now mandatory for each smart technology that provides a replaceable battery (Belcastro, et al 2019). A "battery management system (BMS)" manages the performance of the system, protects that against aberrant behavior, and interfaces with rechargeable batteries applications. With handheld devices has increased at an even more rate over the past several decades. Smartphones are already equipped of doing a variety of demanding jobs. At about the same time, tablet PCs are gaining some traction, with Apple's iPad leading the charge. Furthermore, many electronics are becoming omnipresent and integrating into the surroundings around us, and smart device is on the verge of becoming a reality. While more and more technologies appear and become even more widespread, the requirements we impose on them grow too though.

Encryption is the act of changing plain language that is "unhidden" into enigmatic information that is "hidden" in order to retrieve personal from computer criminals. On the opposing end of the cycle, cryptic text must be deciphered in language that can be understood. the underlying flow of generally used symmetric cryptographic techniques, as well as an assessment based on the symmetric encryption algorithms employed in the investigations in this subsection. Symmetric encryption use only one key for encryption and decryption data, complying to the proper interpretation as to just how basic encryption operates (Carpentier, et al 2019). Although synchronous encryption techniques are faster than conventional encryptions, the data can always be deciphered again until the sender exchanges the encrypted message with the reception. As a result, organizations will also have to figure out yet how to safely maintain and disseminate a huge number of features. As a result, hundreds of companies have adopted asymmetrical schemes to encrypt sensitive data for the efficiency of its use.

Figure 2: Encryption-Decryption Flow

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net)

Considering the nature of data compression, any compression algorithm will also not work unless a source of unwinding is also supplied. When considering compression techniques in general, the term "compression" actually refers to both compression and decompression. Normally, decompression technologies are employed to minimize the dimensionality of the data sans destroying information. Because all of the conceivable bytes grow more prevalent, this might enhance their randomness and create files that appear more random (Carpentier, et al 2019). By performing the compressed procedures backward, the conventional methods can sometimes be added to create mimicking. Whenever the decompress process is straightforward or can be easily deduced from the compression stroke, it is sometimes not crucial to investigate the compression algorithms. Furthermore, as a consumer, you must therefore ensure that you are comfortable with both decompression and uncompressed approaches.

Figure 2: Compressor and decompressor

(Source: https://www.sciencedirect.net)

### 2.3 An algorithm's performance in Big O notation

The Big-O notation, in basic definition, expresses what well your algorithm achieves when the data required gets exponentially. Throughout this session, we'll go beyond the four commonly frequent Big-O transcriptions: “O(1), O(n), O(n²), and O(log n)”. These Os indicate for Order Of, consequently, O(n) translates for Organization Of n, whereby n is the incoming data size. Let's take a good look at many of these transcriptions one after the other.

O(1) — Constant Runtime Complexity
Considering your technique takes this very same sequence of procedures regardless of the number of the data input, the O(1) shorthand signifies that it has a continuous operational difficulty. Take a look at the source file below to render it so much more understandable.

Figure 3: O(1) code snip

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

The sequence though is a simple example of an O(1) notation technique. The function that takes an array and presents the array's first entry (Drugan, et al 2019). Just because its task is to showcase the very first entry of the database, it just doesn't matter however many components there would be in the array; the above operation would always run in a continuous timeframe. And then have a look at some other O(1) computational complexity algorithms.

Figure 4: O(1) code snip time complexity

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

The procedure in the code example above takes an aggregate and assigns the fourth member of the arrays to a variable called the "third index." The procedure must always execute in a constant runtime, irrespective of the quality of the input array because its sole duty is to assign the array's third element variable value. Now, if can compare the algorithm's computational burden in O(1) notation against the quantity of the input data, we obtain the required graph.

Figure 5: O(1) algorithm runtime complexity

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

As the input data becomes larger, the algorithm's runtime complexity remains constant.

O(n) - Linear Runtime Complexity
The O(n) notation specifies that your algorithm's operational complexity is proportional to the number of something like the input data. Whenever the size of either the input data is quadrupled, the runtime performance of your technique is doubled too though. Let's just have a look somewhere at the code sample below and see how we can make it much more customer (García, et al 2018). Now could now plot the temporal complexity against the size of the input data following sources.

Figure 6: O(n) code snip

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

The complexity of our method increases with both the breadth of the input array inside this source file above. Our procedure will only require two processes to perform if the input arrangement only has two members. The process will take 100 procedures to run if somehow the array has 100 members. In other circumstances, as the value of the input array grows, the cost of our procedure effect increases.

Figure 7: O(n) algorithm runtime complexity

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

The computation complexity and the size of the input information have a direct proportionality. The greater the number of elements inside this input array, hence more operations our algorithms ought to do.

The O(n2) indicator signifies that your algorithm's operational complexity is proportional to the cube of the input vector. Let's pretend your array's computational complexity is three. The algorithm's runtime complexity will rise by eight. Evaluate the following code snippet as a sample of an algorithm with O(n2) performance.

Figure 8: O(n²) code snip

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

The outstanding demonstration of an algorithm with O(n2) notation is nested looping. Because of loop iterates over each component of an array twice, that would be the case. The feedback signal has an O(n) complexity, meanwhile, the transfer function has an O(n) complexity (n). When we add the complexity of the medial and lateral loops collectively, we should get the difficulty of O(n2) (Giesl et al 2019). If users plot the graphs, you'll obtain the required representation for something like an O(n2) algorithm.

Figure 9: O(n²) algorithm runtime complexity

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

O(log n) - Logarithmic Runtime Complexity
That this next runtime difficulty we also have to be aware of is O(log n). Because when size of the input information is quadrupled, this notation suggests that perhaps the runtime efficiency of your approach will increase by only one. As an illustration, take a gander at the code sample following.

Figure 10: O(log n) code snip

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

The following sequence is the binary search algorithm, which also has an O computational complexity (log n). The linear search must always automatically reduce the size of the output data in halves to get the maximum values, but instead of iterating through each component of a collection with the for iteration.

Figure 10: O(log n) algorithm runtime complexity

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

As even the input volume increased bigger and wider, the algorithm with O(log n) nomenclature is so much more extensible than O(n) and O(n2).

#### 2.3.1 Identifying a Code's Big-O Notation

Let us just try to figure out the running complexity of a code now that we've learned about just the multiple kinds of Big-O notation. Whenever seeking to measure the runtime complexity of a program, we must consider these two scenarios: the best scenario circumstance but the worst-case situation.

Figure 11: Big-O Notation code snip

(Source: https://towardsdatascience.net)

Designers have progressive evolutionary algorithms (nested loops each array's components with a for iteration) and a quantum algorithm is proposed inside the source file above (recursively splitting the array).

## 3. SCENARIO 2

### 3.1 Explanation of programming paradigms, procedural, object-oriented, and Event-driven.

A paradigm is a method for overcoming a problem or accomplishing a goal. The programming paradigm is a means of tackling a problem using readily available tools and techniques while adhering to a strategic strategy. There are various software programs that are excellent, but they all require some other type of technique or approach, and so this scientific process is known as paradigms.

(Source: https://www.learncomputerscienceonline.net)

Procedural programming is founded on the idea that programming is made up of a series of instructions that must be followed in order to work. They spent a lot of effort on breaking down programmers into specific groupings of directives that chemotherapy employs, which appear to be similar to functions (Jaiswal, 2019). Procedures have access to and control over large data variables, as well as the ability to store network data that is not accessible outside of the component's range.

Figure 12: Code snip of Procedural programming

(Source: https://levelup.gitconnected.net)

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is an object-oriented programming framework. It's used to break down a computer program into useful software blueprints (known as classes) that may be used to create individual instances of objects. Java, C++, Java, and Python are examples of object-oriented scripting languages. A class is a general framework for creating more specific, concrete objects. Broad groupings having common qualities, such as Car or Dog, are commonly referred to as classes. These classes define specific properties, such as color, that an instance of this category will retain, but not the value of those attributes for a single object.

The concentrate of tournament entertainment is on events. Eventually, the network's flows are characterized by circumstances. Until far, we have talked with sequential or simultaneous execution strategies, but an asynchronous model is one that incorporates the principle of event-driven development. An activity loop that is continually watching for new incoming events is required for tournament programming (Lubasch, et al 2020). The success of occurrence programming is dependent on the occurrence of certain circumstances. Once an event loops, it is up to the events to decide what to do or how in what timeframe to go for it.

Figure 13: Flowchart of Event-driven programming

(Source: https://www.tutorialspoint.net)

### 3.2 Compare and contrast each paradigm, procedural, object-oriented and event-driven

A procedural approach is a way of thinking about how to solve a problem. I begin with only a, then b, and then c. There is a well-defined structure in place, and the data flow is quite consistent. Object-oriented design is all about getting at the variables and creating objects to explain them. For example, an emulator for a movie line queue. There are still people, a line, and a circulation desk. Consequently, you make items that are based on those characters. Have a random situation that has to be handled; an application that uses is the way to go. Both procedural and object-oriented frameworks can have programming code.
As a result, this is not a coherent paradigm on its own. For illustration, you are procedural based on existing knowledge might well be confronted with an occasion that has run out of paper. Alternately, the object-oriented computer can contain an object to manage when electricity passes a single pass in line (Singh, 2021). Events have become more complementary to other characteristics.
Would there be a correlation between traditional and object-oriented programmers? No, you choose to have a paradigm that allows you to deal with the problem the most economically based on the problem at hand.
Programming and its program code are understood as a collection of stages in procedural programming. Government agencies, on the other hand, bother to explain the product without respect to the processes used to fully automate it, instead followed by a description or denotation of the intended outcome. Namespaces, inheriting, replacements, computer applications to interfaces, and other ideas of instrument programming are used to organize code. Object-oriented algorithms are often consistent with the law.
Despite the reality that Java is predominantly an object-oriented language, we have so far only used it to write overall implementation until just now. Object Oriented Programming languages like C++, C#, and Java improve on this by remaining operational. A list or set of guidelines instructing a program what to do piece by piece and how to operate through one code toward the next is referred to as structured programming. A presentation of statements, functions, and procedures in a cohesive manner.

### 3.3 Evaluate the source code in terms

#### 3.3.1 Data types and Methods

A data type is a property that instructs a software system on how to comprehend the value of a piece of information. Understanding data types ensure that information is handled in the appropriate format but that each value of the building is as predicted. Those information kinds should not be confounded with the two kinds of information known as service data, entity information, and event data especially when combined. Many of the most powerful tools available to contemporary organizations is data (Rahwan, et al 2018). You can start understanding your customer' p

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