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It has long been known that connected cars are often referred to as "rolling computers" or "smartphones" to emphasise how much digitalization has already been incorporated into current autos. However, because of technological advancements, the hazards associated with digitization have now spread to the world of automobiles. Hacker attacks on automobiles, as well as data abuse, are expected as a result, especially when considering the vast amount of vehicle data that is directly or indirectly tied to the individuals who drive connected cars.
The car itself should not be the only consideration when it comes to security and data protection in connected vehicles, just as it should not be the sole consideration when it comes to security and data protection in conventional information-technology end devices. Due to the increased use of connected vehicles, hostile attacks on vehicular cloud computing and the misuse of information are being anticipated. This is especially true given the vast amount of data collected from connected vehicles that is either explicitly or implicitly linked to the drivers' connected cars.
From cutting-edge navigation systems that use topographic map data to ensure the most efficient use of fuel or electrical energy while driving to vehicle-to-vehicle communication, which allows vehicles to communicate their speed and direction to other vehicles, new information technology applications are being introduced into the automobile. Connectivity is also transforming the entertainment functions in automobiles and assisting in the continued development of vehicle technology for self-driving applications.
Vehicles will depend largely on cutting-edge cloud-based technology to do all the essential duties in order to make all of these services accessible. Included among them are the ability to communicate with and receive data from the Internet, bidirectional secure data and information exchange between a vehicle and the cloud, and safe access to highly scalable data storage, processing, and analysis capabilities. As a result, information technology security is becoming more important in this field.
When it comes to security and privacy protection in autonomous vehicles, the automobile itself should not be the main concern, just as it should not be the only deciding element when it comes to protection and privacy protection in traditional information-technology end products. To provide an overview, analysis, and solution-oriented grasp of this specific topic, the proposed project will conduct an in-depth investigation. Our research will result in a more extensive and scholarly presentation of the problem at the conclusion of a successful investigation.
When we take a step back and look at the complete system that surrounds the connected automobile, we quickly discover that data processing occurs not only within the automotive, as well as in cloud services and, increasingly, in edge services. As a result, vehicle security has departed the automotive industry and is now affecting cloud as well as edge computing as well.
However, according to cybersecurity experts at Palo Alto Networks, if the automotive industry does not prioritise the integration of secure cloud technology for connected vehicles as one of its top goals, the lives of motorists, passengers, and other road users might be put at danger (Masood et al., 2020). The same might happen if the security and integrity of data stored in vehicles, vehicle-related data, and cloud storage are not maintained. If the systems, data in the car, and data in the cloud are hacked, the results might be disastrous for the driver.
IT security experts predict that the car sector will spend extensively in cloud environments for safe mobility in 2018, because of these ramifications. Car manufacturers are being compelled to incorporate sophisticated security measures due to the possibility of data loss and security concerns from consumers, as well as from insurance companies and government agencies, in terms of data protection and regulatory compliance in the cloud. Only in this manner can the full potential of the cloud be realised without causing significant delays in corporate operations.
For the time being, security technologies for the automobile sector are not being created for cloud-based settings. In highly dynamic virtual settings, the requirement to safeguard cloud access from anywhere, at any time, and from any device overwhelms the standard network perimeter security meant for traditional data centres. To exploit the full potential of the cloud in 2018 and beyond, the manufacturer Palo Alto Networks proposes that the standards for connected automobile security products be reviewed and realigned.
Using an integrated safety platform, it may be possible to reduce or eliminate safety concerns for the connected car. Cloud security measures that are robust and well-designed give extensive network visibility. Security administration is simplified with multi-factor authentication and policy automation; other capabilities of the platform, such as cloud-based storage, are available to make the future of cars and the cloud even more safe. We rapidly realise that data processing takes place not just inside the connected vehicle, but also in cloud services and, increasingly, in edge services, when we take a step back and look at the whole system that surrounds the connected automobile.
Therefore, vehicle security has moved out from the automotive sector and is now influencing cloud and edge computing, among other areas of computing technology. Many ideas and standards for connected automobiles have already been produced, and they have ramifications for cloud computing as well as other industries (Goumidi et al., 2019). Recently, the European Network for Information Security (ENISA) published a study on "Cyber Security of Smart Cars."
The information trail that networked vehicles unknowingly leave behind is not only of immense interest to hackers because of their Internet connections, but it is also readily accessible to them because of their interconnection (Yan et al., 2012). Cars that are linked to the internet are networked with a broad variety of objects, including people, other vehicles, houses, workplaces, retail establishments, and smart city infrastructure, among other things.
The automobile sector is on the approach of undergoing a significant transformation. Their goods are becoming more software-based, their consumers have higher expectations for the purchase and running processes, and people are putting a larger focus on environmentally friendly and mobility-promoting products and services, among other things. An enormous change is required on the part of the automobile makers (Ahmed et al., 2019). Designing, developing, and manufacturing their goods and services will need them to change their methods of operation. Businesses must rethink how they connect with and engage with consumers across a variety of various platforms and channels.
Furthermore, they must collaborate with governments to guarantee that the essential infrastructure is in place across the board. The issue for businesses is to grow swiftly while still maintaining a financially sustainable business model to be able to make the required expenditures to advance their operations (Nkenyereye et al., 2016). When it comes to driving change and developing a sustainable business model for the future, cloud computing presents an excellent opportunity for the automobile sector. Automobile manufacturers have already started to rethink their design and production methods, as well as redesigning the complete customer experience for the benefit of their customers.
To do this, the capacity to store and analyse data that allows for the evaluation of vehicle technology and safety is of critical significance. The introduction of cloud computing has the potential to lower the cost of data storage while also speeding up the development and manufacture of automobiles (Sharma & Kaur, 2015). Because most firms want worldwide coverage, scalability is an important consideration. It is possible to obtain an exponential degree of performance by using the cloud. The cloud offers more data storage at a reduced cost, as well as speedier access to new technical capabilities as they become available.
It is possible that these advantages may result in more distinct goods and services. When it comes to self-driving cars, data is essential. Automobile manufacturers will be unable to compete with new rivals unless they adopt a "digital native" strategy that includes cloud computing (Hussain et al., 2012). Because of the large amount of data necessary for autonomous driving, a cloud-based method is essential.
As a result, the tools for supporting the sophisticated software necessary for the operation and safety of the vehicles can only be evaluated and improved on a constant basis via this process. Data may also be used for the development of new services, such as enhanced security measures or enhanced experiences both inside and outside of cars.
Traffic pattern data not only offers complete information on urban mobility, but it can also be utilised to generate new service offerings in cities and municipalities, as well as for research and development. In the future, data from the car industry, public transportation, and other mobility technology businesses will be used to inform how we design our cities, towns, parks, and agricultural land now and into the future.
Because of the complexity of services and the fact that they are used across industries, the cloud will be essential to their development. The term "lift and shift" is often used to describe the process of moving to the cloud. It is required to radically rethink and modify the engineering, working techniques, and operational processes in the organisation, however, to reap the full advantages of cloud computing services. When using the cloud, you can develop a scalable technological landscape that can be swiftly extended with the aid of additional partners and vendors.
For example, the development of specified DevOps skills is becoming more critical than the management of IT infrastructure resources. Implementing cloud computing demands a shift in perspective and transformation within the organisation. However, even if this does not have to occur on the first day, a clear description and cooperation across all disciplines is required. Despite all the compelling arguments for why the cloud is the wave of the future, there are still some misconceptions.
It is critical to debunk these illusions to fully appreciate the commercial, operational, and economic advantages of cloud computing. Decision makers who are aware of this will reap the most benefits from their decision to migrate their operations to the cloud. Customers have a real worry about safety, and this is something that should be addressed. Traditionally, automobile manufacturers have protected their local technology infrastructure and, as a result, built confidence among their customers.
However, as several chief security officers have sadly discovered, on-site data centres may easily be attacked from a distance. Manual procedures and insider threats are a substantial source of danger. In many cases, manufacturers do not currently have the necessary expertise to establish safe cloud infrastructures. However, cloud service providers such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft, and Google Cloud devote billions of dollars each year to guarantee that their solutions are safe and include the best-in-class security features such as data encryption and masking, amongst other features.
The amount of confidence that people have in a cloud solution is determined by the richness of experience that has been gathered through the implementation of security elements in the cloud foundations. Companies may make their cloud environments more secure than on-premises systems by defining relevant criteria, implementing a secure DevSecOps operating model, and training and hiring the required expertise. The ability to gain experience is essential for long-term security.
The ultimate objective must be to build up cloud environments in a safe manner and to collaborate with cloud providers to continually enhance security measures in the face of constantly changing risks. Controlling data access is crucial for several reasons, including preserving people's data and privacy, sustaining consumer confidence, and preventing rivals from gaining access to product innovation. For this reason, conversations among decision-makers at the highest levels of government are dominated by the issues of data sovereignty, data residency, and data sovereignty.
Many conversations concerning data residency are driven by private persons who are concerned about their privacy. When it comes to controlling data residency in the cloud, the problem is crucial for resellers, suppliers, and partners, among other parties. Leading cloud providers, on the other hand, are capable of meeting data residency standards.
Retailers, suppliers, and partners could choose which data centre region their business-critical data and applications are kept in, as well as how and when they may be migrated across data centres. Cloud computing expenses that are prohibitively expensive are a misconception. Instead, the cloud serves as a catalyst for broad corporate change, with the advantages of using the cloud outweighing the costs of implementing new technology. Automobile manufacturers, on the other hand, must take two steps to save money. First and foremost, a new approach to cost control must be implemented.
Rather of continuing to operate under a fixed cost model – which includes depreciation – businesses should transition to a more variable cost model that takes into consideration the changing pricing patterns of cloud service providers. There is also a need for developing a knowledge within the organisation of how consumption impacts costs and how changes in demand might result in lower cost levels in the future. Second, in order to really benefit from cloud computing, it is necessary to decommission obsolete infrastructures that are no longer needed.
Traditional security systems are frequently meant to keep intruders out. In the VC, on the other hand, security systems must work significantly harder to keep attackers at bay due to the increased mobility of service users. If an attacker and their targets share the same physical machine/infrastructure but are assigned to distinct virtual machines (VMs), they can both be at risk. As at this moment, the attackers on traditional systems have an advantage over the attackers. For attackers, the VC's features pose several difficulties. It's like a double-edged sword when it comes to cars' mobility. A specific target vehicle is more difficult for attackers to target because of this.
If a virtual machine is associated with a district, the vehicle's access to that virtual machine can be temporary as the vehicle moves between districts. In addition, because all users in the VC are scattered on virtual machines, attackers need to know where a given target is situated. However, it is feasible to locate other users' co-locations. The memory of CPUs has been caught and compared, and users can co-exist in the same physical machine. Third, the attackers must be at the same physical location as the target user.
To execute this, the attackers must be in the same area as the target vehicles or move in the shadow of the targets at the same speed. Because cohabitation is difficult to create and only lasts for a short time, attacking from this angle is nearly impossible. Finally, the intruders must obtain sensitive data by gaining access to specific rights or by using security tokens to do so. Due of their great degree of mobility, it is difficult to identify automobiles. For starters, the lack of a location context makes it difficult to verify messages with high mobility.
It is difficult to validate, for example, an accident alarm message that is linked to a specific location and a specific occurrence at a certain time. The recipient may also be out of reach due to their high level of motion and the transmission's limited range. The authentication message is likely to be relayed back to a vehicle at the border of an access point, which may then change its access point. Third, it is difficult to update the security token (security key pairs). Some automobiles can sit in a parking lot for years without being started. The security token's updating process will be greatly hampered if it encounters any of these scenarios.
At the conclusion of a well-planned investigation and implementation of the intended approach, we will have a well-formatted dissertation report on the issue under examination, which will include charts and tables, among other things. Aside from tangible outputs such as writing and presentations, there will also be non-tangible deliverables such as the knowledge and experience gained in this sector that will be made available. Aside from that, simulations will be used to illustrate the conclusions of the study. The proposed project is aimed at providing an outlook, study, and solution-oriented comprehension of this exact issue.
We will discuss the security concerns associated with a fresh perspective on VANETs, i.e., bringing VANETs into the cloud environment. Even though some of the approaches can be implemented using established security procedures, there are other unique problems. For example, perpetrators can be physically located on the same remote server as the victim. In addition to the vehicles' great mobility, the communication network is incredibly unpredictable and sporadic.
Our directed security system is intended to provide an effective security architecture that addresses several, but not all the difficulties that VCs face. The investigation of the brand-new region and the development of answers for each specific difficulty will be the focus of future effort. A variety of programs can be developed using virtual machines. A specialised application will be required to investigate and deliver security solutions in the future as part of its work. In the long run, extensive work on security and privacy in virtual environments will result in a complex system that will require a methodical and synthetic approach to build intelligent transportation systems.
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