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Proper educational system is highly essential for children’s growth. It helps a country to enhance talents for future that can have significant impact on the growth of the country. Therefore, Indian educational system has developed curriculum for its 5-7 years old students to provide them quality mathematical education. Follow up of this curriculum has guided the institutions across the India to improve mathematical as well as cognitive skills. Comparison of Indian mathematical educational with other countries has shown the effectiveness of it and government is planning to improve further improvement of the education. Different stakeholders such as students, teachers and states purpose to provide a well-developed curriculum has been analysed in this study.
The main objective of facilitating formal education for each individual child in the past few decades has changed the mark of improving steps of the literacy level of India. In the early days, the absence of any kind of formal learning has been considered the main reason for the lower literacy rate in India. This particular phenomenon has been seen as the ore reason for the less effectiveness of the educational structure as the objective of learning of that time is based on adopting the required skills for survival purposes. However, the discoveries and innovative technologies have started the early concept of education, and the requirement of forming an effective and formal study educational structure has been felt by the governing bodies in order to enhance the literacy rate of a developing country like India. It has been observed that if the authority wants to witness a radical change in the growth line of the society, education needs to be put in more valuable standard than the other comparative ones. Based on this requirement, the study has aimed to assess the curriculum of mathematics that is prepared for the students of 5 to 7 age groups in India.
In accordance with the focused objective of the formal educational need, the study has an intention to evaluate the curriculum of primary standard students, specifically of the students who belong to the age group between 5 years to 7 years. The current study will evaluate the requirement for the development of the mathematical curriculum in terms of offering the scope of necessary cognitive development for the students of the preferred age group (Afandi, 2018). In the present day, the curriculum of mathematics is prepared based on the new guidelines shared by the “National Council of Education, Research and Training (NCERT)” (Stipek and Johnson, 2021). Therefore, the entire discussion of this study will be conducted by creating a link with the NCERT guidelines for measuring a parameter while developing a curriculum based on the constructed syllabus of the subject like mathematics.
Following this basic reason, a formal educational structure has been developed that can offer equal rights to all children of each stratum of the society of having a school-based formal education (Cushing, 2019). Based on the above discussion, it can be further stated that the curriculum developed by the new formal educators has found that all the children have the basic requirement of understanding mathematics from the starting period of academic life (Dolapcioglu and Do?anay, 2022). Prior to the academic life of a child, it has been noticed that the children need to focus on the development of reasoning and problem-solving skills as cognitive development is a necessity based on the observing skill that a child generally built to learn different things. Based on this, it can be stated that the teachers are able to achieve the core aim of making familiar with the curriculum of mathematics (Ashraf, 2020). Mathematics can help children to grow other skills to make concepts and procedures for understanding different situations and problem-solving (Setyaningsih et al. 2020). Through this curriculum, the students will be able to develop their reasoning ability alongside the teachers being able to avail coherent methods and skills that are aligned with “piecemeal” to support the other domains of mathematics.
It has been seen that for a better understanding of other subjects like geography, economics and environmental science, one needs the basic concepts of mathematics (Erath et al. 2021). On the other hand, mathematics also allows the children to assess the attained data from the everyday actions that the child observes to make critical thinking while developing proper problem-solving skills. Allowing this particular skill of proper observation in the cognitive learning period, a primary student might be able to polish their reasoning skill. The educational institutions’ authorities to provide appropriate mathematical knowledge to the students of group 5-7 years students are using curriculum document (Mishra et al. 2022). To these students, descriptive type’s mathematical questions are provided to analyse their learning. This analysing process is highly appropriate to the students of these age group as it aids to find out their mathematical strengths and weaknesses, their cognitive abilities (Kundu, 2018).
The core aim of the curriculum based on the suggested guideline of NCERT regarding the subject of mathematics has a general-purpose. The main focus of the mathematics curriculum for the academic standard of the 5 to 7 years old age group is to develop “useful capabilities” (Nag, 2022). The capabilities of the student's muse render around the “numeracy–numbers”, measurements, number operations, percentages and decimals. The sublime aim behind developing such a curriculum is the enhancement of the child’s resources for thinking and reasoning mathematically which contributes to the persuasion of logical calculation in order to handle abstraction (Banerjee and Seshaiyer, 2019). Based on the curriculum it has been intended that the student will be able to achieve the below-mentioned skills:
The curriculum for the age group of 5 to 7 years of children mostly contains the basic tactics of problem-solving. Based on the learning capability of each age group, the curriculum of mathematics generally integrates several other important elements of learning objectives in support of being progressive. For instance, “analogy”, “quantification”, “abstraction”, “reduction to a similar situation”, and “guess-and-verify of exercises” have been seen to be included in the curriculum as the syllabus of mathematics includes such chapters as well (Gilligan-Lee et al. 2022). The content of the syllabus is also be seen to include the elements like the process of “heuristics”, where the student learns about the “rule of thumb” rather than knowing the subject of mathematics as an “exact science”.
Based on these objectives, the content of the curriculum integrates the identification of “number pattern from 10 to 20”, “the common rules of addition and subtractions”, “group counting”, and a former practice chapter has been added to the syllabus where the students will get a pre-concept of “multiplication and division” (Banerjee and Seshaiyer, 2019). Moreover, the syllabus incorporates a part of geometry where the concepts of geometry have been formulated for the students. Practical-based subjects are more reliable to include in the curriculum (Karim, A. and Hussain, 2019). In order to make the children familiar with the different patterns and shapes of the object that one can find in their surroundings. Alongside that, in order to clear the concept of shapes, and motion, the curriculum includes the description of different objects basis on shapes and other observable properties.
The main objective of the educational organisation is to focus on building proper reasoning and problem-solving skill of the students who belong to the age group of 5 to 7 years. In accordance with the core objective of facilitating education, the educational organisations focus on four main skill development activities such as “reasoning skills”, “problem-solving skills”, “mental math and estimation skills”, and “visualisation skills” (Goos et al. 2020). In order to offer the proper scope of problem-solving skills for the students, the teachers facilitate such kinds of activities where the students are required to apply their own strategies for finding a proper solution to the provided problems. Children need to learn different aspects that are useful for practical life (Shigli et al. 2020). In such cases, the “numicon approach” is often seen to be applied by the teacher as this particular approach helps the students to see through the number and the connection the numbers are shared (Onnivello et al. 2019). This approach also appeals to the necessary cognitive development of the students in the 5 to 7 years old age group.
In order to enhance the reasoning skill of the students, the educational organisation has integrated curriculums like playing card games based on small mathematical problems. This helps the students to learn about the changing number patterns and about different forms of numbers (Chalkiadaki, 2018). The students are often told to observe and assess the provided problems, through which the teachers will be able to analyse the individual behaviour of the student focusing on individual behaviourism in the context of different stimuli. The concept of learning through design is one of the effective content that is useful for children (Williams et al. 2019). The application of “behaviourism theory” appeals to the teachers to focus on individual cognitive development. The students can gain the skill of forming different approaches for different kinds of problems (Campbell et al. 2020). For witnessing an improvisation of the visual skills of the students, educational organisations often prefer the integration of open communication while going through specific chapter-based learning procedures in the class. The usefulness of reasoning skills is effective for students to learn new things and adopt practical situations faster (Novia et al. 2018). Especially when the elements of geometry are taught, the teachers use different 2D and 3D shapes for making the concept more familiar to the students by helping the visualisation process. The visual representation of the shapes helps the students to conjecture the actual formation of a shape and its size as well. Besides that, the practice of “mental mathematics” help the students to combine connotative strategies that allow them to develop strong number sense along with flexible thinking.
It has been seen in the above figure that the percentage of attaining good grades in mathematics among the students of 5 to 7 years is comparatively lower. This phenomenon states that most students are either unable to gain complete concepts or may develop a feeling of fear as the subject matter seems to be more complex for the students.
Based on the above discussion, the organisations of India stage and structure the curriculum by approaching the students’ learning by demonstrating the basic concepts related to numerical and its forms (Statista.com, 2018). The curriculum was further built based on the observed behaviourism of different individuals. Moreover, prior to the learning, fair communication is being made among the students so that the students can get a supportive circumstance to learn and grow simultaneously.
The development of the curriculum of mathematics is generally composed by incorporating basic elements such as number recognition, number pattern, addition, subtraction, and shape and size recognition. The elements like these are required reasoning, visualising and problem-solving skills (Dolapcioglu and Do?anay, 2022). Focussing on these necessities, the professionals of the educational organisation generally focus on the cognitive learning development of the students who are aged between 5 years to 7 years. For this reason, the teachers usually prefer the implementation of behaviourism theory alongside the “numicon approach” as well to offer proper ground for learning mathematics.
Each curriculum based on the individual subject requires a proper staging strategy and an effective pattern for development and implementation. It has been observed that in a certain stage of cognitive development, children belonging to the age group of 5 to 7 years are immensely curious and like to make discoveries. This aid for creativity and self-exposure helps to get a better concept of different elements of mathematics (Aithal, and Aithal, 2020).
In order to increase the effectiveness of the learnt elements of mathematics, most organisations follow and implement some “pedagogical approaches” within the developed curriculum based on the requirement of attainable objectives of formal education (Ashraf, 2020). It has been previously stated that the curriculum regarding mathematics re required to be focused on the objectives like visualisation skill improvement along with reasonability that appeals to the development of students’ thinking skills. In the stages of the cognitive development stage of a student, the learners generally like to learn the concept of mathematics from “whole to part” rather than another way around (Kalyani, 2020). Desire of learning skills among the students can make improvisation in learning and “character-based literacy” are useful for develop skills (Nurtanto et al. 2020) In such cases, the students become more curious about the subject if the teachers have made the purpose of learning prior to involving the students in the curriculum.
The students are required to provide formal instruction regarding the taught element of the subject. In order to approach the visual learned, especially for the attainment and assessment of the provided problem, if the teachers are able to represent the word problem through cartoons or any other visual paintings, proper assessment of the problem becomes easier for the learners (Karim and Hussain, 2019).
The teachers further focus on the improvement of the thinking skill of the learners as this appeal to the students’ reasoning capability. Most of the time, the ambition of the curriculum includes the basic principles of mathematics in order to help the teachers to achieve the sublime aim mentioned previously. The curriculum includes a variety of methods and thinking skill-developing aspects that contribute to enhancing the conceptualisation of different other domains of mathematics (Nag Chowdhuri, 2022). Therefore, the students are required to involve in a transparent communicative structure where the students are able to clear their doubts by questioning the teachers (Rastogi, 2019). Different examples while teaching a particular element of mathematics and applying an “active learning approach” are also seen as beneficial one. The practice of different shape recognition also helps the students to develop the proper concept of applying mathematical reasoning in daily life problem-solving approaches.
UK educational System
In UK educational system, the age group of 5-7 is defined as the base. During this time, students start building confidence with numbers and developed counting-calculation skills (Cushing, 2019). They have learned about 2D and 3D shapes, counting forward and backward to 100, and subtraction up to 20. Moreover, during this time they introduced the basic concept of division and multiplication (home.oxfordowl.co.uk, 2022). The main reason behind all of these is to make them understand how to solve situation problems with practical understanding. However, the focus of this system is to teach children how they can explore more and talk about math, which ultimately supports their development process.
USA educational System
In USA educational system, the mathematical curriculum ad activity depends and varies on different age groups. However, the main point is to make learning mathematics easier and real situations based that ultimately going to help in individual development (Chalkiadaki, 2018). To bring the focus on learning mathematics, they have set different standards for each group, such as for 5-7 years they have planned a set of topics that is appropriate for this age group will enhance the growth (timss.org, 2022). The learning process, approach, or instructional material for every step, has a different "specific curriculum framework", which helps children to understand mathematics easily. It starts with the basics of "number", "geometry", and "Measurement, and Data", which can help children to understand real-life situations and make them find solutions on their own.
The educational process in the UK
In UK educational system, the most important thing is the process that they follow to make 5-7 years children learn mathematics. The objective of the process is to combine fun and lightness, so students can easily grab the basic ideas of mathematics (home.oxfordowl.co.uk, 2022). For example, to encourage the counting process children are instructed to count any object around them, or playing dice games helps, asking them questions about the shape of objects, and even drawing, diagrams are used to make them understand basic addition and subtraction.
The educational process in the USA
As it is the base, it needs to be well-learned; therefore, they should have a clear idea that will help them understand complex mathematical problems. During this age, they are introduced to the concept of number, place value, addition, subtraction, solving number sentences, and with that, they came to learn about the basics of geometry, how “Parallel and perpendicular lines” look, etc (timss.org, 2022). The most important thing they start learning is about the measurement and data, it helps them understand real-life problems. To make children learn things better they use diagrams, charts, and even real objects, so the process can be fun and interesting at the same time.
Math is one of the important ways which simply helps to generate "mathematical thinking" in kids. This process starts from the very beginning of any educational structure, so that can contribute to a child's overall development. Not only in India but also in the UK and USA educational systems, mathematics plays a significant role. They have their model, which they follow in teaching math.
In order to assess the development of the student’s attainable skills, the teachers or the professionals of the educational organisation generally implement several strategies. The main strategies that are usually applied for the assessment of the development of students’ improvement include the strategies like “Student Growth Percentile Model (SGP)” and “gain score model”.
The other one, the comparison between students’ growth percentile helps the teachers to identify the specific students who get the ability to improve and those who have been unable to attain the required development at the same time (Dennie et al. 2019). Based on the attained score of different individuals, a particular examination helps the teachers to identify the students who need more support for attaining good scores and to clear the concepts of mathematical calculation.
It can be stated by analysing the above statements that the teacher will find a scope to address the less improved students which will contribute to the improvement of all kinds of students. Usually success in the exam is the process of measuring educational system (Kalyani, 2020). This implementation of different assessment processes contributes to the further development of the respective curriculum in order to enhance the learning experience of every learner.
Previously it has been stated that the majority of the students score lesser in mathematics in comparison to the other subjects. The main reason has been found that the development of the feeling of fear for this particular subject among the students of 5 to 7 years. Therefore, it can be stated that the current curriculum that is suggested by the NCERT requires some improvement and enhancement of the strategies as the students’ scores are still recorded as lesser or average for mathematics than other subjects’ scores (Afandi, 2018). On the other hand, it is observed that the other stakeholder's like parents and learners, also work on the development of the student’s skills as well. Apart from the government-suggested curriculum practices, the parents are also required to be attentive to the learning requirement of the particular students who are getting consecutively lesser marks in mathematics by practising elements that are taught in the classrooms.
It has been observed that the choice of the particular curriculum and activities are considered by the proper evaluation of the cire requirement of a student’s learning who belongs within the age group of 5 to 7 years (Dennie et al. 2019). As it has been found that students of such ages are naturally curious, promoting a questioning approach is one of the min parts of the curriculum to support the quarrying mind of the child. On the other hand, as different elemental approaches to mathematics confuse some of the students, the visual representations are available to get proper conceptualisation of certain elements of mathematics like shapes and sizes (Nurtanto et al. 2020).
The main purpose of developing a structured curriculum based on any subject matter is to provide the scope for the learner to learn and get clear concepts of the respective subject matter. Students can appear in different practices that can make learners to gain an identity (Ahn, 2019). In order to construct a child of 5 to 7 years old as a learner, the former step that the teacher and the other stakeholders are required is an improvisation of self-efficiency of the child.
In accordance with the suggested guideline of (DSEL) Department Of School Education And Literacy, every child has a right to claim and get free and compulsory education as it has been encrypted in the document “Article 21-A” of the Indian constitution (dsel.education.gov.in, 2022). NCERT suggested a curriculum based on the syllabus of mathematics helps to achieve the adjective of making education available for all kinds of students as the curriculum includes activities that can be helpful for every learner to support the primary objective of the right to education.
It has been observed that every individual has different learning needs based on which the capability of learning is assessed of individual students (Rastogi, 2019). Based on this, the teachers need to focus on the individual learning needs and according to the assessment, the teacher is required to proceed further with the adaptively of proper teaching strategy (Dolapcioglu and Do?anay, 2022). According to the variety of different cognitive learning processes, the teachers are seen to use different teaching approaches. For instance, visual learners are provided with different learning approaches that include visual learning such as the representation of 3D objects, playing card games and more. On the other side, the intelligence of the students has been built up by incorporating the numicon approach.
It has been analysed that the governing bodies who are responsible for the formation of suitable curriculum and syllabus for the students 5 to 7 years old are required to be more attentive to the effectiveness of the current suggested curriculum, especially in mathematics. Along with that the teachers and the parents are also required to be more focused on the proper practising and implementation of the curriculum during the teaching process (Hyun et al. 2020). As important stakeholders, the students also need to be properly attentive in the class in order to clarification of any raised doubts while learning numerical patterns and forms as well.
According to the Gain Score Model, the student’s grade is measured in comparison with the final grade the student has earned in the present year. For instance, to assess the improvement of an individual, the teacher will have the grade of the previous examination of the particular student and it will be compared to the final examination grade (Yavuz and Kutlu, 2019). In such cases, if the final tear grade seems to be comparatively increased than the prior one, it is determined that the student has been able to improve the concept of mathemtics and able to gain problem-solving and reasoning capability as required for the particular cognitive learning stage.
To facilitate this right of education, the governing body has suggested different curricula for different grades based on the learning capability of each age group. In a general sense, it has been seen that at the age of 5 to 7 years old, the students are required to grow their reasoning and problem-solving skills. This helps the student to attain the estimation skill that contributes to the development and enhancement of the skill regarding social connectivity while being good in proper assessment of problems a child can be confronted with in daily life (Setyaningsih et al. 2019). The development and implementation of the suggested curriculum of mathematics are often recognised as beneficial one as the child can also be involved in other curricular activities like singing, and reading that contribute to the development of social and communication skills.
It has been seen in different studies that the child has a basic requirement of resolving the quarries that are generally raised in mind after being confronted with a different phenomenon. In order to achieve this objective, the child often started asking questions and if the questions are avoided at the time of asking, the student or the child will lose the intention of learning and knowing much by exploring things on their own (Shigli et al. 2020). Therefore, the child has the requirement to resolve the quarry as soon as it evolves in their mind. For facilitating such a thing, a child needs to be included in a certain kind of learning curriculum. Similarly, mathematics is considered one of the crucial subjects, which have immense importance to learning and applying the learning objectives in daily life (Stipek and Johnson, 2021). Focusing on these particular objectives, the development of a mathematics curriculum seemed to be beneficial.
The main purpose of imposition of such kind of assessment process is to assess the effectiveness of the currently implied curriculum. Based on this, it can be stated that the teachers are required to offer a proper guide to the students based on the capabilities of learning and attainment of each student. The main purpose of the teachers is to offer academic help to the students as the students are always in requirement of being guided for achieving success in their academic careers. The other responsibilities of the teacher also include the showing proper path to the learn in attaining several skills that will help the students in facing different phenomena in actual life (Yavuz and Kutlu, 2019). More than that, teachers also offer the scope of developing different extracurricular activities as well which are considered to be crucial ones to develop the social and communication skill of the student.
Based on this assessment of the purpose of teachers, it can be stated that the mathematical curriculum serves these purposes as it helps the teachers to offer a proper scope of learning and clarify evaluated doubts of the students regarding different elements of mathematics (Rastogi, 2019). On the other hand, using the behaviourism theory, the teachers are actually helping the students to attain reasonability and visualising skills along with estimation skills of the student as well.
The main purpose of facilitating former studies of the children of a state is to increase the literacy rate of the respective state. On the other hand, proper knowledge of the basic concepts related to the elements of mathematics helps the students to become concepts of problem-solving skills. This is beneficial for the government as the governing body has the ability to incorporate such brilliant skills in the improvement of corporate excellence (Nag Chowdhuri, 2022). The attainment of corporate excellence will be helpful for increasing the GBP of the state. This will be a crucial achievement as the state will be able to create global advantages by enhancing its financial resources as well. In order to achieve such objectives, a state always wants to increase the literacy rate for better incorporation of the student to build a better future.
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