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Advanced Measurement Systems and Data Analysis Assignment Sample

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Advanced Measurement Systems and Data Analysis Assignment Sample


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Task 1

Identification of the suitable measurement solution

Understanding of the measurements 

A measurement network is a combination of units of measurement as well as the guidelines that link those together. For such specific purposes of scientific research as well as business, performance measures have always been significant, governed, as well as characterized. Also a sensor as well as a transducer has been used to detect changes in temperature and an artifact those who are connected to; however, a detector would then produce the very same data format while a transducer might very well transfer the measuring system into such an electrical impulse. Measurements have been previously taken visually with basic tools or perhaps an electro - optic control signal (Dehra, 2019). 

Such “tools, on the other hand, take a very long time to learn and are inaccurate”. “A coordinate measuring machine (CMM)”, based on the alternatives, has used co - ordinate computation techniques to monitor the part's altitude, thickness, and intensity. The main advantages of this “coordinate measuring machine (CMM)” defines “that it has measured several items which are difficult to measure with the other measuring machine with the high accuracy”. It is difficult to define “the three dimensional coordinates of the proper holes or points from this virtual origin with a proper hand tool including micrometer and caliper”(Falamarzi et al. 2019). Besides, measurement using the virtual points as well as the virtual lines along with “the geometrical tolerances are mainly difficult with the other measuring tools” which have been measured with “3d CMM machines”.

Parts of “coordinate measuring machine (CMM)”

Based on the above picture, “the spherical contract point” is directed based on “the tip of the probe” which has consisted to “the object on the stage” and also “the coordinate values in mainly three dimensions such as (X,Y,Z)” have measured as well as specified. On the other hand, it is primarily also used to assess three-dimensional parts, including such automotive components as well as numerous mechanical components, three-dimensional things, including such rapid prototyping, as well as distinctions between designs. This same basic principle of such a coordinate measuring computer system is to place the components to be trialed within the acceptable limit, accurately measure this same position information of the locations upon that work piece surface, procedure these value systems using measuring operating systems, and use the most appropriate form measuring components, of that kind about round, roller bearings, spherical, and cylinder (Koz?owsKi et al. 2019). The measurement system structured for “measuring different physical quantities in this object” has consisted of the below functional components:

  • A physical quantity detector or perhaps an assigned of properties of particles detectors
  • Measuring device transmitter, wherein the electric criterion of the sensing element is transmogrified into straightforward voltage as well as electric power including such the electric voltage just at outcome of a Bridge rectifier only with bridge subsidiary as an impedance sensing element
  • Signal compressors as well as circuit design that standardize this same transmitted signal from of the measuring device sensing element to the scope of such analog-to-digital converter's input voltage
  • “Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs)” as well as “digital measuring devices” that encompass one; “ADCs” convert analogue converted to digital transmissions
  • Computer with the memory resources and software
  • Generators and actuators of the test signals 

This same system's main controller could really send instructions to components pertaining towards the operation of a measuring methodology or even an establishment of command line for assessment instruments in addition to receiving originally manufactured monitoring data. Recollection resources, impacts of technology, as well as memory devices could all be used by the measuring device system's most important control algorithm.

Consideration of the error sources, traceability and calibration

Error sources

Few sources of the measurement errors such as defective instruments, environmental conditions and the reading as well as using the instrument incorrectly are defined in order to maintain the measurement technicalities. On the other hand, Temp, moisture content, gravitational forces, air currents, reflected light, permanent magnets obliquity, and other natural events all have the potential to cause experimental error. These same outcomes would be erroneous when they're not precise and effective all whilst taking measurements. 

Each measurement has a margin of error, which would be referred to as an inaccuracy. The above error could occur during the process or as a result of a misunderstanding occurred in the experiment. As a result, no technique can provide 100 percent precise measurement. This same differential between both the measured as well as application of quantitative can be characterized as a discrepancy. Nevertheless, by paying more attention to measurement techniques and using increasingly sophisticated methodological approaches, designers can minimize errors and achieve greater esteem that the measured values are getting closer to the actual valuation (Matsudaira et al. 2019).


For such a process or product, “Measurement traceability” is crucial for ensuring guarantees of the sensor's precision to both the consumer as well as the supplier. The importance of measurement traceability in measuring devices cannot be overstated. Assessing a device's accurateness has been one of the keys to understanding its own measurement effectiveness. To guarantee the effectiveness of measurements made, this same indicator must be adjusted against a SI-traceable regard. 

Measuring device traceability is a way to make sure that such an assessment accounts for all uncertainty and accurately represents the component being monitored. This same idea behind this algorithm is to compare a standard measure to a greater measurement benchmark. On the other hand, “measurement traceability” refers to a continuous sequence of similarities linking a device's measured data to a predetermined amount. The discrimination, high accuracy, as well as measurement instrument could be determined by calibrating it to a traceable benchmark. The behavior of storing and analyzing details about what is being completed in manufacturing techniques from the acquiescence of raw materials and components towards the delivery of the products is known as traceability in production methods (Matsudaira et al. 2019).


Calibration is the process of comparing the device's measuring system to a learned and realized (this same standard). This same standard's accuracy could perhaps customarily be 10 times that of the measuring device being evaluated. Often these organizations, nevertheless, 3:1 accuracy proportion appropriate has been considered. The device is guaranteed calibrated that this will directly measure inside the range. This is critical since a perfectly calibrated measuring device would then assist the user in maintaining their framework. This same “primary objective of calibration” is to “reduce measurement errors by guaranteeing that experimental setup is accurate”. “Calibration” is “the process of quantifying and controlling inconsistencies or uncertainty in measurement techniques to a comfortable limit”. The importance of measurement supply chain transparency in units of measure cannot be overstated. Evaluating a device's accurateness has become one of the keys to understanding its measuring device effectiveness. To guarantee the effectiveness of measurements made, the device must be measured against with a SI-traceable regard (Sayed et al. 2019). This same potential as well as possibility to reconsider flow of products all through the design and manufacturing is known as tracking and tracing. Traceability is a combination of the words path as well as capacity, which also indicates the opportunity to monitor things.

Selection consideration

Temperature sensors, leading indicators, as well as water, propane, and electric meters, as well as automobiles speedometers as well as fuel gauges and gaps devices, are examples of measurement equipment that have primarily a monitoring function. “A remote sensing and geographical information framework (WAMS)” is a collection of comprehensive measurement innovation, exchange information, as well as operations and maintenance infrastructural facilities which aids in the recognition and management of massive power schemes' increasingly complicated behavior. Regulation, improved performance, as well as confirmation of all standard specifications have been properly maintained (Sayed et al. 2019). It is much more effective than a series of numbers on a magnitude, and it has achieved more as technicians by enhancing the value of measurement. On the other hand, few factors such as Accuracy, Response, Range, Input, Output, Operation, Stability, sensitivity and reliability have been considered for the measurement devices. This has helped for maintaining the reliability, usability and validity of the measuring devices. 

Understanding of the “Nonlinear least square method”

The least squares analysis is a powerful protocol for picking the optimal fit for just a set of points besides minimizing the number of the signals' compensates and residuals from the plotted curve. To analyze the behavior of outcome variables, least squares analysis of variance has been used. “NLS (Nonlinear Least Squares)” is an optimization algorithm for building regression analysis for sets of data with non - linear functionalities (Zhao et al. 2022). These same coefficients of modeling techniques for these kinds of large datasets are nonlinear. This is one type of the optimization technique which has been used for building “regression models for the data sets” which has contained “nonlinear features”. The models for the datasets are significantly nonlinear in the coefficients. 

Theory behind the NLS regression

  • “Hat symbol (^)” has used for the values which is generated “by the process of fitting the regression model on the data”
  • “y_obs” defines “the vector of the observed values of the dependent variable “y”
  • “Variables in the plain style” are mainly scalars and also it has represented as “the vector or the matrix equivalents”
  • The regression matrix “X” defines “the size (m * n)” which has “m number of the data rows and each row has contained n number of the regression variable”

The below model has continued the coefficient “β_1 and β_2” in the multiplicative relationship and also “the nonlinear in nature”.

Algorithm of Data analysis 

The below equation has represented the equation of the nonlinear model that is mainly trained using the NLS.

This is the equation of the regression model which is “nonlinear in coefficients” where “e” is defined as “residual error of the model”, and named as “the difference between the observed y and the predicted value” (Zhao et al. 2022). 


Based on the above analysis, it has been stated that several suitable measure net solutions have been identified. The measurement system has a “genuine value of this variable” that is evaluated as such a contribution as well as a calculated value as the outcome. On the other hand, it has been discussed that this output could be used in this management system for defining significance for this variable (Swojak et al. 2021). This same perspective of the measurement system is to give the outsider an arithmetical valuation which confirms towards the parameter being evaluated. This measurement system is mainly made up of the number of the blocks and components. It has also been considered that this same process that the performance measures as well as the equipment accomplish can be categorized. It has undertaken four primary operations such as implying, processing software, documentation as well as the regulation. It has also been stated that CMM is frequently used for testing this part and assembly for seeing if it has adhered to this original design purpose (Wei et al. 2020). Besides, CMM is used for checking this dimension of the manufactured components as part of the quality assurance as well as the workflow process of this quality management in order to avoid the manufacturing problems. Based on the above analysis, “coordinate measuring machine (CMM)” is such a type of system that has used a probe” for detecting the discrete points on the physical object's surface and measuring their geometry”. Machinery, spectroscopy, infrared, as well as the white light analyzers are among the many forms of the nanosensors used during these CMM machines. This same machine as a whole own, this same measurement system probe along with the control of the computational framework for correcting the account operating system are also three major aspects of the CMM machine. 

Task 2

Design the Excel for the measurement of the data analysis 

  • The “least square method” is “a statistical procedure” for finding the “best fit for a set of data points” to minimize “the sum of the offsets and residuals of the points from the plotted curve”.

The output of the above analysis has been shown below:


Regression Statistics

Multiple R


R Square


Adjusted R Square


Standard Error




Figure 5: Summary output 

(Source: Influenced by Zhao et al. 2022)







Significance F
















Standard Error

t Stat


Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Lower 95.0%

Upper 95.0%










X Variable 1









Figure 6: ANOVA Test

(Source: Influenced by Zhao et al. 2022)



Predicted Y






















































Figure 7: Residual output

(Source: Influenced by Zhao et al. 2022)

Reference List

Dehra, H., 2019. Acoustic Filters for Sensors and Transducers: Energy Policy Instrument for Monitoring and Evaluating Holy Places and Their Habitants, in book ‘Energy Policy’edited by Dr. Tolga Taner. Energy Policy.

Falamarzi, A., Moridpour, S. and Nazem, M., 2019. A review on existing sensors and devices for inspecting railway infrastructure. Jurnal Kejuruteraan, 31(1), pp.1-10.

Kienitz, S.U., Staats, M., Lohr, L., Irsperger, J., Schmid, M.J., Koch, A.W. and Weiss, J., 2021. Fiber optic pressure measurement on a complex outer winglet model with active flow control actuators. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 332, p.113140.

Koz?owsKi, E., MAzurKiEwicz, D., ?Abi?sKi, T., Prucnal, S. and S?p, J., 2019. Assessment model of cutting tool condition for real-time supervision system. Eksploatacja i Niezawodno??, 21(4).

Mansoorzare, H., Todi, A., Moradian, S. and Abdolvand, R., 2020, September. A Piezo-Capacitive High-Frequency Resonant Accelerometer. In 2020 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Matsudaira, K., Takahashi, H., Hirayama-Shoji, K., Nguyen, T.V., Tsukagoshi, T. and Shimoyama, I., 2019. A MEMS-based measurement system for evaluating the force-length relationship of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes adhered on a substrate. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 29(5), p.055003.

Sayed, S., Hussain, T., Gastli, A. and Benammar, M., 2019. Design and realization of an open?source and modular smart meter. Energy Science & Engineering, 7(4), pp.1405-1422.

Swojak, N., Wieczorowski, M. and Jakubowicz, M., 2021. Assessment of selected metrological properties of laser triangulation sensors. Measurement, 176, p.109190.

Wei, X., Zhuang, L., Li, H., He, C., Wan, H., Hu, N. and Wang, P., 2020. Advances in Multidimensional Cardiac Biosensing Technologies: From Electrophysiology to Mechanical Motion and Contractile Force. Small, 16(50), p.2005828.

Zhao, Z., Jeong, Y.J., Oyunbaatar, N.E., Pujari, R.B., Kanade, P.P., Kim, E.S., Lee, B.K. and Lee, D.W., 2022. Simultaneous measurement of contraction forces and field potentials of cardiomyocytes subjected to ion channel inhibitors. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 358, p.131495.

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