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This report deals with the contemporary perspective on consumption. It also deals with the individual decision-making and involvement process. It tells that every individual thinks carefully before taking decisions in any field. These decisions are more focused and taken promptly saving time and energy. Decision making involves mental and intellectual process, it is continuous and dynamic and it is also pervasive function. The report tells that in order to understand the consumers it is important to know about the perpetual process. The perpetual process involves five steps and they are ‘exposure to stimuli’, ‘sensory receptors’, ‘attention’, ‘interpretation’ and ‘response’. It discusses about the consumers present in society and the future trends followed by the consumers of tourism. The consumers of tourism nowadays are more aware of their requirements and needs, they like to take personal challenges, they prefer to do sustainable development and save the environment. Although the tourist consumers want to go away far from their everyday life, they try to keep connected with the use of technology. They like to get well with the local people, their tradition, culture and foods.
Contemporary Perspective on consumption
The different views of the consumers have great effect on the marketing strategies made by the marketers. The consumers buy products and services for their personal and professional requirements. Hence consumption of goods leads to the increase in economy and the businessman are benefitted from the consumption of products. It is very economical for the marketers. The marketers provide the customers with their basic needs like clothes, food and shelter and in return they charge money (Wu and Yang, 2018). The consumers also buy different products in order to maintain their social status in the society. This tends to build capitalism where they always try to hold the superior position in the society. The consumers not only purchases products and services to fulfil their basic needs but sometimes they try to fulfil their desire. A customer while buying a pair of shoes can buy it with fewer amounts and it signifies that he is fulfilling his basic need. But if he is spending more than required it signifies that he is spending money to maintain his social status. This shows that the consumer is conscious of his social status and his class and to maintain his status he can buy anything.
Individual Decision-Making and Involvement
Before performance or doing task individuals have the tendency to reason and raise questions. This thinking and analysis helps to take decision. When a single person makes a certain decision it is known as ‘individual decision-making’. It has various advantages and disadvantages. Individual decision making takes very less amount of time, it is taken promptly (Klein and Sharma, 2022). When they make decisions they are bound to take responsibilities about that matter and are answerable for taking any incorrect decision. It saves money, time and energy as it taken quickly. The decisions taken individually are more focused and logical. There are different characteristics of Decision-making:
In order to make the decisions more balanced, the decisions are taken based on logic and reasoning (Klein and Sharma, 2022). Knowledge, experience and intelligence is important as well as the inner consciousness should not be ignored. Hence it is a ‘mental and intellectual process’.
Continuous and dynamic
For the purpose of routine and special tasks decisions need to be taken continuously about different varieties of matter.
It is a Pervasive Function
It is used in different kind of organisations be it business or non-business (Klein and Sharma, 2022). Decision-making is used in business and marketing context including tourism.
Importance of Perceptual Processes in understanding individual consumers
When a person is recognizing and answering to stimuli, he goes through a series of steps this is known as perpetual process. There are five such steps, they are:
Exposure to stimuli
The business organisation makes use of the five sensory receptors (“sight, sound, smell, texture and taste”) to receive the stimuli and to convey message to the consumer. Therefore the sensory receptors help in interaction (Haque and Jan, 2019).
The sensory receptor ‘eyes’ converts light into images and helps to think about marketing and business and focus our attention. The other receptor ‘sound’ is utilized in everyday chores as well as in marketing. It is passed on through spotify adverts or radio in order to get a message (Haque and Jan, 2019). In case of marketing in restaurants smell plays an important role to attract the customers. ‘Taste’ decides whether a person likes the restaurant or not and if he will revisit the shop or not. The objects which can be physically touched depend on the texture.
There is multiple numbers of stimuli a person comes in contact with but it depends upon the consumer on which stimuli he will focus (Mahr, Stead and Odekerken-Schröder, 2019). People tend to focus on the stimuli that are advantageous.
In this step the consumers share their experience and the stimulus takes on an prearranged shape (Mahr, Stead and Odekerken-Schröder, 2019). Earlier the stimulus was seen as meaningless and now it thought to be taken from ‘Gestalt Framework’.
The consumers adapt to the sensory receptors due to prolonged exposure. Therefore the responses of the consumers vary with time (Mahr, Stead and Odekerken-Schröder, 2019).
Consumers in society
There are some factors that affect the behaviour of the consumer. They are:
These are the factors that depend upon the thinking, attitude and views of a consumer (Gunarathne, Kaluarachchilage and Rajasooriya, 2020). For example, a consumer who opts the sustainable use of products will go to the business that supports environment change.
The personal factors are sexual category, work, upbringing, ethos and financial stability of the consumer (Gunarathne, Kaluarachchilage and Rajasooriya, 2020). The shopping type of old people differs from that of young generation people. For example, old people will like to visit the stores physically rather than ordering online. While the young generation people will definitely go for online shopping.
The friends, family are groups related to the consumers are known as the social influences. It also refers to the conditions of the consumers and the education they have received (Mehta, Saxena and Purohit, 2020). The choice of products of different people belonging to different class and culture is different. This shows that the consumer behaviour change with the societal issues.
It is very important to know about the behaviour of the consumers because this helps the businessman to know more about their target customers and they can construct their products and services accordingly (Mehta, Saxena and Purohit, 2020). The main significance of knowing consumer behaviour are:
The marketers are able to know what products they prefer and what they think about their brand, how the consumers respond to the marketing strategies and the pricing strategy is also important (Mehta, Saxena and Purohit, 2020). The marketers are also able to know about the ways the consumer likes to pay their money, the requirements and the shopping behaviour is also known to the marketers
Future Trends in Consumer Behaviour
The behaviour of the consumers of tourism is changing with the advent of technology. The future trends are:
The consumers take proper information about the place they want to visit and then they will select the best tourist options (Ulker-Demirel and Ciftci, 2020). They take effective decision and are ready to pay any sum if they like the spot for unique experience.
Sustainable holiday’s preferred
The consumers are aware of the environment and so they like to spend sustainable holidays (Ulker-Demirel and Ciftci, 2020). They prefer areas which are less occupied by people and so tourists now like to visit the rural places and it is becoming a trend.
Wanting personal challenge
The consumers now like to visit places that will give them experience to focus on real life and grow in life (Ulker-Demirel and Ciftci, 2020). They try to meditate in places far from the crowd in order to connect with the inner self.
Consumers and technology
Although people like to visit places far from the madding crowd but still they fear to miss out stuffs happening around them and social media (Tomi?, Lekovi? and Tadi?, 2019). The latest technologies are helping people to stay connected even after going too far off places.
Local culture and tradition
The tourists like to know about the tradition and culture of the people living in the tourists spot (Tomi?, Lekovi? and Tadi?, 2019). They like to know about the history of the places and experience eating local foods.
To conclude it may be noted that the report mainly deals with the behaviour patterns of the consumer. It tells the behaviour of the consumers depends on three factors like, psychological, personal and social. It tells that all these factors determine the choices of consumers. The behaviour patterns of the consumers are changing in this present world. The choices of the consumers are developing, now they have proper knowledge and guidance about the tourists spot and they prefer to take a guide with them. They make full use of the technology and keep themselves connected with the outer world even when they are on vacation. Although they like the culture and tradition of the local people but they do not want to miss out the happenings in their own world.
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