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Development And Recovery Of The Sri Lanka Assignment Sample

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Development And Recovery Of The Sri Lanka Assignment Sample

Slide 1: Introduction

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  • Since the independence of Sri Lanka, in 1946, the government has established the root of the ethnic conflict.
  • This conflict lasted for three decades and is recognised as the “longest-running civil war in Asia”.
  • In July 1983, an erratic revolution group was formed against the “Government of Sri Lanka” by the “Velupillai Prabhakaran” and named “Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam” (LTTE).

Nations such as Canada, Europe, Australia, the US, and India become united and labelled the movement of the LTTE as terrorism which make the consequences more difficult. LTTE was formed to make an independent Tamil society from the violent persecution of the government. The government of the Europe make an announcement of the “banned terrorist” tagged with the LTTE due to the activities that killed the Sri Lankan army. The attack made by the members of the LTTE lead to the demolish of the operations for the “country’s commercial airliners”.

Slide 2: About LTTE group

  • The Tamil population of Sri Lanka also recognised this group as the “Tamil Tiger”.
  • According to Ganguly, (2018) the demand of the LTTE group was to form an independent state for the “Tamil minority”.
  • LTTE was formed to protest the violent activities constructed by the government and to save the “Tamil population”.

The demand was to let Tamils free and live on a free island. The conflict of the civil war becomes more pathetic when it was explored that the LTTE and the “Government of Sri Lanka” killed around seventy thousand people. Besides killing a huge number of populations, different violations such as extortion, abduction, and the use of child soldiers happened in Sri Lanka during this period. LTTE was an organisation constructed by the “Sri Lankan Tamils”. The primary objective of LTTE was to build an independent socialist Tamil state named “Tamil Eelam” in the Northern and Eastern regions of Sri Lanka. It was an organised military association to showcase the demands with a political attachment. Different conspiracy theories state that the LTTE association was involved in terrorist activities in Sri Lanka.

Slide 3: Issues from the history

  • Sri Lanka get independence from British rule in 1948 and the establishment of the LTTE happened in 1976 by “Velupillai Prabhakaran”.
  • Prabhakaran made an armed force to fight against the “Sri Lankan Government”.
  • Ceylon included populations of three classifications Sinhalese in 82%, Tamil in 9.4%, and “Sri Lanka Moor” in 7.9% (cfr.org, 2022).

The riot lasted for two months and consequences a declaration of emergency period. The “Ethnic conflict” was also recognised as “Ceylon” in Sri Lanka. During this riot, most of the victims were Tamils and affected their property. The island-wide “ethnic riots” were conducted in 1958 to target the Tamil minority. LTTE began negotiations in 1985 with “the Sri Lankan government”. Regardless, numerous negotiations could not conclude, and every time it resulted in violence and created disagreements between both parties.

Slide 4: Construction of civil war

  • According to Jani, (2022), the primary reason behind the construction of the civil war in Sri Lanka is the conducted riot in 1958.
  • In 1972, Sinhalese transformed the nation's name from Ceylon and assembled the primary religion as Buddhism.
  • US estimated of “7,721 killed and 18,479 wounded” with the ratio of 1:3 due to the Civil War.

Ethnic tension started to grow in the areas of Sri Lanka due to the construction of the rebellion force by Prabhakaran. Prabhakaran made a “separate women's military structure,” and started the campaign in eastern and northern Sri Lanka including the homeland of Tamil. The campaigns constructed by the group included most of the Tamil residents. The conflict arose in 1983, as LTTE made an attack on the army convoy and killed 13 soldiers which led to a riot that consequence in the killing of 2500 Tamils.

Slide 5: Contd.

  • According to Dissanayake (2021), LTTE was one of the “most brutal terrorist groups” which included sea capabilities operations.
  • The suicide carders of the groups were trained to attack brutally the military.
  • The trained members of LTTE were able to carry bombs and made bombing attacks.

The notion of “Tamil Eelam” replied to the discriminatory policies of the “Government of Sri Lanka” after its independence. The demand was to extend the religious separation to form a geographic-based separation. The demand converted into a riot on 1983, and it was the start of the civil war. The government declared to make demolish the LTTE group which consequences in the Sri Lanka Navy facing challenges of different kinds. In order to destroy the rebellions, the navy designed an 18-foot arrow boat that can make the attack the LTTE simultaneously.

Slide 6: An Origin Story

  • Religion has its significance in the riots and movements of the Sinhalese.
  • The linguistics and religious division among the Tamils made the arrival of the Tamils on the island of Sri Lanka.
  • CIA suggested that the “Sinhalese community” felt terrorised by the Tamil party's worth partly due to the British biases toward Tamils in the “British occupation period” (hir.harvard.edu, 2022).

The communities of Tamil also existed in the other British colonies such as India, Singapore, and South Africa, the “Sri Lankan Tamils” get the benefits from the more extended “commercial network” and the different other opportunities. The LTTE leader Prabhakarn declared that “a struggle for Eelam is a needed of the Tamil people”. This statement made the LTTE member as the ideology to combat the war to get what are they demanded for.

Slide 7: Effects of Civil War

  • Tamils from Sri Lanka get the benefits of learning the English language in school more than in other areas.
  • The “women migrants” from Sri Lanka shifts to the “Western Asian countries” majorly to become the domestic workers.
  • According to Venugopal, (2018), the biased activities of Britishers made the Sinhalese more oppresses and isolated.

Despite the activities of the British rule in Sri Lanka, after the independence, Tamils in Sri Lanka get provoked into conflict. Sri Lankans also received the opportunities of “civil service and professional” than “Sinhalese counterparts”. As the British left the island of Sri Lanka, Tamil dominance conveyed with the transformed dramatically.

Slide 8: The War

  • According to Fazil and Fowsar, (2020), some Tamils reacted to these discriminating approaches with the idea of “Tamil Eelam”.
  • The idea made the separation of the country: Sinhalese in “Southern, Western, and central”.
  • The LTTE group finally conducted the approach and the conflict transformed into a “civil war”.

The war between the LTT and the “Government of Sri Lanka” officially began in July 1983 with the riots. The riots developed by the LTTE become convertible into a war and made the consequences of killing a large number of people and militaries. The war lasted for three decades and in 2009, the “Sri Lankan government” made an announcement of killing the LTTE leader.

Slide 9: “Social Conflict Theory”

  • According to Siregar, (2022), a social conflict theory produces arguments on the available discrimination placed in society.
  • The “German philosopher, Karl Marx” was the originator of “social conflict theory”.
  • The inequality in society made and the constructed discrimination in religion, language, or activities can make social conflict.

This theory shows the paradigm in the social issues in Sri Lanka to create modifications in society. The primary components of the idea forward the society in the structure of different factors such as gender, age, class, race, and group considerations that are connected with inequality in the community.

Slide 10: Contd.

  • Fatke and Freitag, (2019), state that after the independence of Sri Lanka from the colonial British period the “social conflict theory” applied.
  • British biases made the root of the conflict among the Tamils living in different regions.
  • The ruling period of the British in Sri Lanka delivered support to the Tamils in different terms that make the other Tamils feel more discriminated against.

Due to the behaviour of the British and showcasing favour to the Tamils living on the island of Sri Lanka, other residents believed that they are facing discrimination which resulted in conflict. The discrimination with the Tamils made the minority feels that they are result of the religious discrimination and demanded equal value and independent of the “Sinhalese Buddhist”. The Elem made the fighters to realise the civilians getting better allowance due to the discrimination of the religion.

Slide 11: India’s Role in the Conflict

  • RAW was delivering support to LTTE for arms and training carders since 1970 (cfr.org, 2022).
  • Since 1980, the growing terrorist movements made RAW withdraw its support.
  • In 1897, India constructed an agreement with the “Government of Sri Lanka” to ship peacekeeping battalions to the island (cfr.org, 2022).

The army force sent by the Indian government could not deliver any major impact on the civil war in Sri Lanka. Rather LTTE started to fight with the Indian army at that time. The trade between the two nations had not been impacted by the conflict at any time.

Slide 12: Contd.

  • van der Vlist, (2020), states that the conflict resulted in the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, the Indian Prime Minister for the deployment of the “peacekeeping force”.
  • The concern of India remained due to the stir protests and tension in the population of Tamil.
  • The “Foreign ministry of India” voiced concern over the protection of “civilians in Sri Lanka”.

Colombo confirmed to devolve some superiority to the areas and assemble Tamil as an authorised state language. However, no administration has fully executed the conditions which make the civil war continue. The application of the “peacekeeping force” made the Tamils more determined to process with war against the Sri Lankan government to retrieve the pride and establishment of their demands.

Slide 13: “Critical Race theory”

  • Valan?i?nas, (2021), states that different cultural environments explore different traumatic legacies of the different regions.
  • Sinhalese has the intention to become Buddhist and Tamils have the desire to become Hindu.
  • The language policy developed by the government made the phenomenon in Sri Lanka and led to civil war.

Sri Lanka is placed on the “southern coast of Tamil Nadu” and is recognised as majoritarianism. The Sinhalese used to charge their intention overall countryside overlooking the “Tamils, Muslims and Christians”. This civilisation's discrimination caused the civil war. The rule developed by the British to educate the Buddhist and provide different cultural aspects results in making Tamils feel more discriminated.

Slide 14: The US Role in the Conflict

  • The US played one of the significant roles in the conflict in Sri Lanka.
  • The US delivered $3.6 billion to Sri Lanka from the generation of its freedom in 1948.
  • Harff and Gurr, (2018), moreover, the supply of aid in the format of food and arms made the “Government of Sri Lanka” help to fight the LTTE.

The violation of “human rights” in Sri Lanka made the supply of the militant stopped by the USA in 2007. The LTTE campaigns are to be noted on the terrorist list by the US. In 2006, national authorities charged and arrested eight suspects in New York with endeavouring to bribe U.S. administrators to withdraw the LTTE from the terrorist list.

Slide 15: Impact of the “Critical Race theory”

  • An internal conflict which leads to war or armed movement and results in casualties is called conflict.
  • Due to the support of the US and India, the “government of Sri Lanka” made more movements supporting the discrimination caused by the conflicts.
  • Tamil is encountered specifically in the Northern and Eastern portions of the nation (grin, 2022).

The society of Sri Lanka is known for its multicultural aspect. Due to the majority of the Sinhalese Buddhists and the other regions being formed as the minority, the dominant behaviour of the Sinhalese showcased the community race. Discrimination was the significant aspect with the Tamils to develop the controversial movement of the LTTE establishment and the help received from India. Later Indian “peace-keeping force” killed many of the LTTE members and made the issues into bigger level.

Slide 16: Strengths and Weakness of the theories

  • Ladson-Billings, (2021), states that the “critical race theory (CST)” describes the violation against the scholars.
  • CST represents the discrimination in educational policy during the British colonial period.
  • The “Black livers matter protest” comes into action due to the government’s actions during the civil war.

In a nutshell, this distinction in society created the displacement of the Sinhala by the dominance of the political presentation. The language difference between the Tamilians in Sri Lanka started with the Sinhalese. The Ministry of Sri Lanka has incorporated different policies to control the civil war in Sri Lanka. After 2009, the government tried control to stop spreading the violation with such policies however; they failed to incorporate the promise to the Tamils. Tamils had incorporated responses to the notion of Eelam which is against the social theory.

Slide 17: Contd.

  • According to Siregar, (2022), different types of discrimination in a society constructed the “social conflict”.
  • Ethnic agreement on the island may be the legend of a more confident future (hir.harvard.edu, 2022).
  • Kühne, (2020), states that social conflict represents the issues in society and the prime issues are here education, language, and region.

The beginning of the war from a riot has not been incorporated into the theory. The structural issues in the government's decision of taking action based on the activities of the Tamils created a more unified citizenry. The discrimination of society has been represented in the theory. LTTE overpowered other abundant Eelam classes like the “Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization” (TELO) to evolve the “sole representative of the Tamils.” This separation made resulted in social issues.

Slide 18: Development in Sri Lanka post-civil war

  • Since the peace negotiation failed in Sri Lanka, the government posted the military to observe the movement of the LTTE (ijlass.org, 2022).
  • According to Kanagarathnam, (2019), reconciliation is the best method that guarantees that the past violence will not make return.
  • According to Selvarajah et al. (2020), government showcased a great leadership that impacts the development from the post war situation.

Government opens rehabilitation process for the LTTE combatants so they can reduce the war intention and live their life as a socialised person. The “Government of the Sri Lanka” announced the rehab program for the LTTE members to deliver peace in the country. After the rehab process job availabilities are open for everyone to make the social and economic development in the nation. Due to the spending on controlling the LTTE issues and mismanagement, the economic condition of Sri Lanka reaches a collapsable situation. The government faced issues like deficits, devalued currency, and pressure of enormous debt. The cost of rearranging the damaged areas and delivering safety for the citizens without discrimination was the ideal scenario for the “Government of Sri Lanka”. The government was concerned about delivering food and water to the farmers and fishers.

Slide 19: Contd.

  • Government further introduced the resettlement process for 462 families.
  • Around “295,139 people” who lost their home during the civil war were moved into the welfare canters.
  • The resettlement process for the Muslims and religious people made by the government was one of the indicating decisions for the development of Sri Lank (Yusoff et al. 2018).

Around 1.3 million mines were recognised and destroyed for the safety of people in different areas. With the application of different procedures “Government of Sri Lanka” successfully managed to make the reconstruction after the civil war. Later government also becomes successful in recovering some lands to build house for the homeless people. The financial issues started in Sri Lanka after they received independence from Britain in 1948. The government led to more crises with the civil war started. “Sri Lankan government” is still facing the allegation of human rights activities against the minorities. Consequently, Sri Lanka has become successful in demolishing religious discrimination.

Slide 20: Conclusion

  • In a nutshell, the civil war in Sri Lanka was constructed due to the discrimination offered by Ceylon.
  • Sinhalese offered religious discrimination to the Hindus, Muslims, and Christan as they belonged to the majority.
  • The Ethnic conflict resulted in the killing of an enormous number of people and the leader of LTTE died in 2009.

The conflict ended in 2009 with the official announcement made by the government of killing the LTTE leader. Sri Lanka maintains a lengthy and bloodstained record of ethnic strains in the history of civil war. The procedure of resettling the resident was one of the costing projects for the government. However, it was the primary way to bring peace back to Sri Lanka. The “minority Tamils” celebrated the “war-end anniversary” by remembering their relatives who died during the civil war.

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