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Sleep is one of the basic criteria of living and if the normal amount of sleep is not fulfilled it will impart adverse effects on the human body. Moreover, in the case of patients who are hospitalized proper sleep is essential for their healing. However, various factors are responsible for disrupting the sleep quality of the patients. The disruption in the sleep of the patients leads to either worsening of their health conditions or the situation of their being provided medicines to help them sleep. In both these cases, the patients suffer from health issues and it also delays their healing process at the hospital (Alonso et al. 2021). In order to reduce the number of disruptions caused to these patients while sleeping some steps are required to be implemented that do not include taking medicines.
Various research has been performed on the disruptions caused to the sleep of patients who are hospitalized. The factors affecting the sleep of the patients also have been identified in these researches. However, most of the previous studies incorporated the usage of drugs for reducing the disruptions in the sleep of these patients and aiding them to sleep better. However, taking drugs also possess some critical impacts on the patients and therefore it should not be performed. The disruptions on the other hand are required to be addressed to improve the health condition of the patients as well as speed up their healing process. However, previous research did not combine the methods for solving these issues of sleep disruptions occurring in hospitalized patients (Amano et al. 2021). Therefore, this research will incorporate the ideas of solving the disruptions caused to the sleep of hospitalized patients without the usage of drugs.
The aim of this research is to understand the impacts of the sleep disturbances caused to hospitalized patients and to find non-pharmacological ways of improving their sleep quality.
The objectives that will be aimed to be fulfilled through this research are:
There are some questions that will be answered after the successful completion of this research, and these questions are:
RQ1: What are the non-pharmacological ways of improving the sleep quality of hospitalized patients?
RQ2: How can the sleep disruptions of hospitalized patients be solved without the implementation of drugs?
The issue of this research is the identification of the ways or the approaches that can be implemented for the reduction of the sleep disruptions of the patients. This issue is very prominent with respect to the rising number of patients suffering from issues affecting their sleep while being in the hospitals.
The main reason responsible for the issue is there are various factors that cause sleep disruptions in patients while they are at the hospital (Arnetz et al. 2021). These include environmental, psychological, and various other factors. However, till now these issues were mostly used to be solved with the implementation of drugs to the patients that induce sleep to the patients. The adverse effects caused by these drugs are being taken into consideration and the alternative approaches that do not include the usage of drugs are being prioritized. This research is aimed at finding ways of increasing the amount of sleep among hospitalized patients by preventing the factors disrupting their sleep at the hospital. A proper understanding of the responsible factors is also necessary for being able to find the proper ways of reducing sleep disruptions.
The results of this research will reduce the disruptions caused to the sleep of hospitalized patients. Moreover, the application of drugs for preventing sleep disruptions to the patients will also be prevented.
The research sheds light on various techniques that can be implemented to prevent the sleep disruptions caused to hospitalized patients. Moreover, the factors affecting the sleep of hospitalized patients will also be shed light on in this research.
Identification of factors responsible for causing disruptions in the sleep of patients at hospitals
There are various types of factors responsible for affecting the sleep of patients who are hospitalized. Some of these factors are discussed below:
There is various environmental factors that are responsible for impacting the sleep of the patients during the night. Among these, the biggest disruptive factor was found to be various noises disturbing the sleep of the patients (Chen & Liu, 2021). These noises can be both from inside or outside the ward of the hospital where the patients are staying. The voices of the nurses talking with each other or with other patients, the noise made by other patients, the sound of the phones ringing in the wards, and many more are included in the factor of noise that disrupts the sleep of the patients. On the other hand, various other environmental factors are also responsible for disrupting the sleep of the patients. These include the temperature of the rooms, the conditions of the bed, and many more (Cheng et al. 2022). If the temperature of the rooms or the ward is not comfortable then the sleep of the patients gets disrupted. Along with these, the comfort level of the beds is also considered to be a factor responsible for disrupting the sleep of the patients.
Various psychological factors are also responsible for disrupting the sleep of the patients at the hospitals. These include some factors that are also similar to the environmental factors such as the factors of noise being present in the ward, the uncomfortable room temperature, and the uncomfortable bedding of the patients. These conditions cause irritation to the patients and therefore lead to the patients. This irritation disrupts the sleep of the patients (Crisan et al. 2021). Moreover, Anxiety is considered to be one of the psychological factors that cause disruption in the sleep of the patients. Anxiety is caused to patients due to various factors such as worries about their health issues, financial conditions, and many more.
The physiological factors that affect the sleep of the patients include the Circadian Rhythm of the patients that might be disturbed due to the mismatch with the schedule of the hospital for various activities. On the other hand, age is another physiological factor that affects the sleep of the patients. The increase in the age of the patients increases the difficulties oriented with sleeping.
Adverse Effects of sleep disruption on patients
There are both short and long-term impacts of sleep disruption among patients. Among the short term impacts of sleep disruption among the patients include the building up of stress and hypertension (Kock et al. 2021). On the other hand, the long term issues that might be suffered by the patients from the disruption in their sleep include health issues such as CVD, issues related to the bodyweight of the patients, dyslipidemia, and issues occurring to the metabolism, and many more. On the other hand, a proper amount of sleep aids in the healing procedure of the patients, therefore, an insufficient amount of sleep disrupts the healing procedure of the patients making their condition even worse than before. Therefore, the proper sleeping time must be provided to the patients.
There are various mitigation techniques for resolving the issues-oriented with the sleep disruption of the patients. Some of these are discussed below:
The environmental factors such as noise in the ward that disrupt the sleep of the patients must be taken into consideration and strict provisions must be implemented within the ward to restrict these noises (Devani et al. 2021). Usage of mobile phones by the staff at night must be prevented. The talking of the staff at the time of providing care to other patients while other patients are sleeping must be done carefully so as not to disrupt their sleep. Moreover, the lighting conditions and the temperature of the room must be also suitable to provide the comfort required for sleeping for the patients.
The psychological factors that are oriented with the environmental factors such as the irritation caused due to the environmental factors can be solved by solving the environmental issues. On the other hand, providing proper talking sessions and taking care of the mental health of the patient must solve the other psychological issues such as anxiety.
The physiological factors such as the issues occurring due to the changes in the circadian rhythm can be solved by matching them with the hospital routine from the data gathered about the patient (Ditmer et al. 2022). However, the issues such as increases in age cannot be solved, yet some measures can be taken to provide comfort to the elderly people that will induce them to sleep such as comfortable bedding, and many more.
Solving sleep-related issues with the help of drugs is the simplest solution, as it does not include the control of any other factor. On the other hand, various factors are required to be controlled to solve the issues of sleeping disruption in patients. These include environmental control, psychological control, physiological control and many more.
The controlling of these factors is difficult as it includes the controlling of people or the structure of an organization (Italia et al. 2021). Such as in order to reduce the noise in the environment completely each of the patients will be required to be provided with separate noise-proof rooms, which is not possible every time as the seats are limited and providing individual rooms is costlier for many patients. Moreover, the psychological issues can only be tried to reduce yet cannot be solved fully. A similar condition is with the physiological issues such as ageing, as this cannot be prevented, these can be just tried to comfort with some measures.
The methods that have been incorporated for selecting the articles for the literature review of the research include searching from various sources such as Pub Med, and many more including the keywords related to the research (Jung & Oh, 2020). The exclusion and inclusion criteria have also been implemented at the time of looking for the articles in the literature review. The articles that are not relevant or very old have been rejected. Only the previewed articles have been chosen to maintain the authenticity of the data.
This chapter of the research proposal provides ideas about the techniques that will be used in the research work for meeting the research objectives. The techniques will be chosen for every purpose and their proper justifications are provided in this chapter for proper understanding of them.
There are different research philosophies to suit the type of research work. Mainly these are of three types, Positivism, Interpretivism, and Realism (Kasela et al. 2021). Each of these philosophies is incorporated with different paths to be followed for proceeding with the research work. In this research, positivism philosophy will be applied to collect the appropriate quantitative data related to the context of reducing sedative drug usage by reducing sleep disturbances. Selection and application of the positivism philosophy will be authentic based on the requirements of accessing facts and observational data. Reliability is associated with the quantitative data, which will be effective to collect value-based data.
The Deductive approach of doing research will be followed in this research to underline certain options to reduce sleep disturbances. According to the principles of this approach of research, the existing theories oriented toward the disruptions in the sleep of the patients will be studied and then hypotheses will be formed to find out the ways of preventing these issues without the application of medication (Kettlewell et al. 2021). Selection and application of the deductive research approach can be helpful to examine the existing theories and concepts in the case of reduction of sedative drug usage based on the elimination of sleep disturbances.
Research sampling Strategy
In this case, the research will follow random sampling strategy for the collection of primary data through the survey process. Moreover, for secondary data, qualitative strategy will be applied to support the qualitative information related to this context. Random sampling technique will be helpful to consider the patients hospitalized for the survey process.
This research includes the statistics of the patients suffering from sleep disruptions being at the hospitals. On the other hand, in order to find out the preventive measures to minimize sleep disruptions without the implementation of the medicines qualitative data is also required (Krupa et al. 2021). Therefore, suitable techniques for collecting and analyzing both these types of data will be incorporated into the research.
The data collection of the research includes both Quantitative as well as Qualitative processes of data collection through using mixed method which conduct both primary and secondary data collection process. For primary quantitative research, survey will be conducted through the consideration of 51 participants such as hospitalized patient with sleep disturbances based on the requirements. The qualitative data will be collected from secondary sources by searching relevant websites and online sources such as Pub Med, Google Scholar, and many more (Sanghera et al. 2020). On the other hand, the Quantitative data will been collected through the process of surveys.
The terms that can be related to the topic of the research will be searched (Ta?ski, 2021). Such as Sleep disorders, patients, disrupted sleeping, prevention, and many more.
The search strategy will been performed by keeping the date of the articles being searched customized to only looking for articles that have been published within the last five years (Vlad et al. 2022). Moreover, the peer-reviewed articles will only be chosen from Pub Med, Google Scholar, and ProQuest related databases.
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
|Inclusion Criteria||Exclusion Criteria|
Table 1: Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
(Souce: Vlad et al. 2022)
The data of the research will be analyzed using suitable quantitative as well as qualitative analysis methods through the case study analysis based on the selected articles (Vlad et al. 2022). These methods of analysis will be applied according to the type of data collected.
The ethical guidelines for doing research work will be maintained throughout the research work (Vlad et al. 2022). The identities of the participants of the survey will be kept secret to avoid copyright issues and the guidelines of the data protection act will also be followed.
Data Summary Table
|Data type||Chosen method|
|Research sampling strategy||Random|
|Data analysis||Qualitative and quantitative|
|Data collection||Mixed both primary and secondary|
Table 2: Data summary Table
(Source: Ta?ski, 2021)
The findings of this research will be implemented for reducing the disruptions in the sleeping patterns of the patients (Vlad et al. 2022). This will reduce the sleeping disruptions and reduce the requirements of using drugs for reducing the sleeping issues of the patients.
The disruption in the sleep of the patients, while being at the hospital causes serious concern among the medical practitioners as well as the patients. Therefore, this issue is required to be solved. However, the existing method of implementing drugs to help patients sleep is also inflicting adverse effects. Therefore, alternative ways of preventing sleep disruptions will be identified in the research to aid the patients in getting undisrupted sleep.
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