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Economics Policy Research Assignment Sample

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Economics Policy Research Assignment Sample

Part A


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Conditional cash transfer is one of the most important topics in recent days. The main target of this program aims to reduce the level of poverty. In order to achieve a goal this program takes the help of different welfare programs, which are, based on the condition of the receiver and his/her action. Hence, with the help of this welfare program, the fund, which is allocated by the government or a charity directly, goes to the people who fulfil all the criteria. Generally, this program helps in the admission of poor students in different "public schools”, nowadays this conditional cash also helps to provide vaccination to poor people. Ultimately, the CCT also provides capital to a huge portion of a country or a city that deals with poverty-oriented problems. Some development activities organized by the government or a charity are also known as the CCT programs. In normal cases, The CCT programs are focusing on the medical department for different purposes like vaccination, operation, or the proper health checkups. There are different kinds of national-level programs available for the medical services available in any developing country. In this whole assignment, the CCT Programs and their role in t5he field of healthcare and the field of the education system are critically analyzed. 

Importance of the CCT programs in the Health Sector

It has been seen CCT programs are very beneficial for improving health care sectors of any country and in this section, an overview of recent schemes of CCT programs and its benefits will be considered. In general, the "Conditional cash transfer" is of two types. One is a long-term CCT program and the other one is a short-term CCT program. Generally, the short-term CCT program is based on the health program of children and pregnant women. There is a huge amount of evidence present in the society, which helps to increase the health service in the developing country and helps to decrease the poverty-oriented problems in the society. As per the evidence from Vieira-Meyer et al. (2019), CCT helps to improve the quality of PHC or “Public Health System” service effectively. For some evidence, it is clearly shown that the developing country Honduras's health care system for children between the ages of 0-4 years is increasing very fast (Barrientos and D, 2008). From the data, it is very much clear that the percentage of the healthcare system grows from 35 percent to 65 percent within 3-4 years.

According to different articles, it is very much clear that CCT programs were established in the year "1990.”. According to Théodore et al.(2019), in Mexico CCT has been found to be very effective in generating awareness about the nutrition, helped, and found to be potential to improve the socio-economic status.CCT programs also deal with the health care of pregnant women of India and this is evident by the research article by Gupta et al. (2018). As per the findings, other than in India different developing countries like Honduras, the government and different charities are working on the health care of the poor people through CCT program. They are trying to provide help to all the economically weak persons who are unable to get the proper health care system. Experimental and no experimental studies are based on poverty-related issues within a developing country. The reflection of the applicable CCT programs is showing us the result of the program. 

CCT programs are also based on community-oriented targeting. In the early days, the criteria were only offering the capital to children or pregnant women but nowadays the capital is equally distributed among everyone except for a particular gender type. This is much more beneficial for the CCT programs because they can achieve their target and remove the poverty-oriented problems from the country (Ghosh, 2011). For the development of a country, they must decrease the problems associated with poverty as if some people are not getting proper health care otherwise it will put a full stop to their development. 

Different schemes based on the CCT programs are one of the biggest contributors to "human development and also in social protection". In a developing country, the Cash transfer procedure also helps to promote the health care system by providing a huge amount of capital to the poor people. In a developing country the CCT program is increasing the rate of utilization of the healthcare system which increases the facility availability, "growth monitoring visits' ', immunization of a child within a proper time and the complete process should be followed. Providing proper treatment and vitamins supply in the poor society is also their primary goal.

An Case study on Covid-19 and the effect of CCT program in TOGO

In this section, the Cobid-19 impact on CCT program in Togo will be discussed here. Togo is a developing country of Arica and their social and public health care system is still under process in that country. As per the findings of Tossou (2021), the CCT program gave this country economic support and social protection by improving the condition of the people who are surviving under very bad economic conditions and by providing them the proper health care benefits. During the pandemic condition when the other developing countries were taking care of their own country, Togo and other underdeveloped countries survived this phrase with the help of CCT programs. Otherwise, it would had been very difficult for them to survive protect the people from this pandemic situation.

The experiment was done in 44 different districts of that particular country to examine the health care system of that country. The whole experiment was done under the direction of the "United Nations Office for Project Services”. There are different types of models present in the society by which this type of experiment can be done but in this case, the ESR model was used to understand the CCT program and its role in this country during the pandemic situation (Hulme et al. 2014). During the pandemic situation, the government of Africa took the initiative to permit the research team for the proper analysis of the strategies, which were implemented, in the country.

The effect of CCT program during the pandemic was very beneficial at the time of pandemic as it helped to fulfil the needs of every household of Togo. CCT systems in Togo also provide the health insurance system during the pandemic situation in Togo. In the year 2020 WHO found that the mortality rate is very much high in countries like Togo because of the lack of a proper health care system. The less use of different health policies forces the country towards the end because the mortality rate was increasing day by day. With the help of the “Conditional cash transfer”, these developing countries were able to build a proper health care system. This provided the completely poor community a hope and a proper health care system (Brito-Pons et al.2019). During the pandemic situation the countries, which is in the developing process or whose income level is low or middle got a huge threat, even the pharmacy companies also got a downfall during the pandemic. Overall, the completely health care system broke down and the death rate got a boost. Therefore, it can be stated that without the help of Cash transfer; countries like Togo could not reconstruct the healthcare system and provide a distinct service to the economically backward people. 

The administrative sector of the country chose different policies and plans to reduce the economic shock, caused by the pandemic situation. The policymakers of that country took the help of a cash transfer mechanism and the name of this mechanism was “Novissi.” The whole management system and the cash transfer system helped the people who lost their jobs during the pandemic situation and became economically weak. This is one of the reasons of why some people or some families were not able to get the proper treatment and the proper insurance during this pandemic (Cottoet al. 2018). Nearly 61% of people did the self-medication process without proper health care support. This is not a proper way to treat a disease. Different kinds of issues like the non-availability of doctors in economically weak countries or developing countries are one of the main reasons behind the poor healthcare system. An increase in the rate of non-communicable diseases affected the poor people who were maintaining a distance from the regular check-up. 

In order to access the health care system in Togo, for the improvement and proper service of the health care system within different districts of Togo this “Conditional Cash Transfer” system played an important role. At the time of pandemic, the neediest people got the advantage of this programand got treatment at the right time. People who were not able to do their proper checks up in this pandemic situation got the advantage of the CCT program and were admitted in different hospitals for proper treatment and health care. Other than that, students who were not able to get an education due to poverty got admission to different schools (Briaux et al. 2020).After getting the result of the experiment and the positive feedback from the people, now the government and different charities are making proper plans to extend the "Conditional Cash Transfer" and its policy to cover a huge amount of needy families who are still unable to get the benefits from this policy. These steps help the developing countries like Togo to reduce the rate of poverty and provide the proper health care to all. This is showing how these CCT programs are providing the countries to grow economically and develop loan-free countries.

Therefore, it can be stated that CCT programs gave a high rate of success in increasing household things in health care utilization. Different factors like the life insurance, "household education system," and residential place; everything was affected by the policies taken by the policy makers and by the CCT programs.

Role of CCT in child health care and nutrition

The role of CCT does not restrict to support education, managing poverty but it also takes care of nutrition, which is very necessary to maintain a good health. The authorities work on the proper nutrition of the child and their development. In a developing country where there is a lack of sources, it is very much difficult for them to take care of children and look after their improper development. The poor people of the country who are spending their days under poverty cannot provide proper nutrition to their children and the proper growth of the child never happens (Ellis et al. 2009). To resolve this problem it is very much important for a developing country to make possible rules and policies for the children who are suffering from malnutrition. The evidence of the experiments is showing that the cash transfer program is able to improve the status of a child by providing proper nutrition. It helps to gain a proper height and proper weight in a child, which is very much needed for the proper metabolic activity in the child (Raghunathan et al. 2017).Hence, if a child gets proper nutrition from their food it will help them to gain proper health, which is also, comes under the secondary aim for different CCT programs. Different cash transfer policies help the country to make a proper financial structure within the country, which will help the poor children to get proper nutrition, and proper food supplements for their physiological and psychological growth system. From the detailed analysis of the experiment, it is very much clear that Conditional cash transfer is removing the problems of poverty but in the medical sector, it is also helping a developing country by taking proper policies, which are effective for the health care of the financially weak families. For example, the CCT programs are helping the children to develop by improving their mental ability, memory skills, and different language learning skills. From the studies, it is shown that Developing countries like Mexico and Brazil are facing a problem of the high mortality rate of infants due to low body weight. After proper implementation of the "Conditional Cash transfer" system in these countries, it shows a huge reduction in the death of the infants because it helps the pregnant woman from the starting stage up to the 1 year of the infant child’s age. This is a proper social protective approach by the CCT programs. Nowadays, governments of developing countries are implementing the strategies of CCT to achieve the goal, which is associated with the improvement of poor families through "interventions in health, nutrition, and education." Proper monitoring by the government or different organizations helps to find out which kind of problems like lack of health care services or lack of nutritional supplementations are present within the poor society. Therefore, the leader can take proper strategies for the implementation of the conditional cash strategies (Pattenden, 2011). Different kinds of CCTs help the parents of a child as an incentive so they can invest the capital behind the proper nourishment of their child. The proper development and the proper nutrition supply to the children will help to grow an individual without any problem, which is economically beneficial for their family also.

For example Mexico, a developing country implemented some policies associated with CCT in 1997 to eliminate of "integrational transmission of poverty" from the society. Now in 2022 the rate of child death due to the low weight, Child death during delivery, and death due to malnutrition are very lower than 10 years ago which is also showing that Mexico successfully adopted the strategies of Conditional Cash Transfer. The strategies were implemented in rural areas mainly and in two ways. First, the "underserved" families were selected before the application of the strategy and after that, families with low income were selected as criteria that will get the benefits of the CCT strategy. Some families applied for the benefits but after proper scrutiny, the neediest families were selected for these strategies. Once the family got enrollment they got all the benefits from the CCT, which helped the whole country to remove poverty and convert itself into a developing country. 

Discussion on data collection for “Conditional cash transfer” system

It can be stated that CT not only helps in improving socio-economic status of a country but is also helps in improving the nutritional status as well. It can be stated that the impact of conditional cash transfer in the field of medical health care and service in different developed countries is very important. All the data were selected based on the realistic impact of the cash transfer system in regular life or daily life. As an outsource the help of “Google scholar” is taken (Sandefu, 2018).After collecting the data from different resources all, the data are arranged systematically to understand the proper role and the policies of the CCT Program. Experimental cluster study, experiment on an individual level, "mix method theory", qualitative analysis is the methods that were used in conducting the completely experimental methods. After analyzing different shreds of evidence, it was very much clear about the topic that how these policies are improving the health care-oriented services in a developing country but the deeper analysis needs more shreds of evidence. More evidence will provide different examples of the impact of these systems, which will clear the concept. From the immunization reports, and the illness report it is very much difficult to get the concept of the cash transfer system and its impact. The childhood mortality rate in different developing countries shows the condition of the poor people who are unable to get proper health care service (Sandberg, 2018). This is also a secondary source, which helps to reanalyze the impact of the CCT on society. Overall, the data, which were collected during the experiment, were authentic and showed the proper outcome of the CCT strategies from the health care services. 

The total outcome of those experiments and the reviews help to get an idea about the research. From the critical analysis and the survey, which is done on this topic, a positive outcome comes from the developing countries. There are huge amounts of developing countries present in the whole world and not everyone can understand the whole impact of the CCT system all over the world. For more understanding, more studies and research are required. 


There are different kinds of experiments occurring all over the world. The topic is how the provisional monetary support, which is generally known as the “Conditional cash transfer”, is helping a developing country to take care of children and women. According to some authors, the conditional cash transfer method is a collective policy that supports the fact that removing poverty and problems associated with poverty will help the country to make proper growth. Improvement of the preventive service is one of the main targets of the CCT programs. The economically weaker section of a country is sometimes deprived of different kinds of facilities due to economic problems. The government and different NGOs are taking the initiative to apply this conditional cash transfer system in different low-income countries, which is under development process. For example, countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia are the most common who are taking advantage of the Cash transfer system. Some countries are still facing different kinds of issues like the high mortality rate for low weight, malnutrition effect, and children without proper development shows that these countries are deprived of the proper health care system. According to WHO these countries need the proper leadership who will make the decisions about the proper implementation of the cash transfer system to reduce these poverty-oriented problems. Overall, the Application of the "Conditional Cash Transfer" in rural areas or developing countries will help to improve the condition of the people by providing different kinds of facilities like educational support, health care service, health insurance, etc.

Part B

Metropolitan governance Model challenges 

Metropolitan governance is considered a useful process by which the government, as well as non-government bodies, works collaboratively to resolve common problems of metropolitan areas. This model is the approach with which the government and non-government organisations use various tools, instruments and mechanisms to make urban areas more governable (Armitage et al. 2017). Other than that, the policies undertaken play a major role in determining the productivity as well as economic growth of that area. The areas where the population is more than 41% of the total population and also contribute 60% of the GDP, metropolises are applied to those areas only (Metropolis, 2022). There are various challenges to this model that include gender inequality, social variability, and negative effect on the environment. Some of the environmental challenges faced in urban areas despite implementing the MG model are pollution, floods caused by heavy rain floods due to a decrease in rainfall, poor transportation facilities and lack of affordable as well as decent accommodation for all people (Metropolis, 2022). Moreover, as mentioned earlier gender inequality is a major concern in urban areas and that cannot be solved by this MG model. In this section, the challenges of the MG model are analysed and discussed.

Gender inequality

Gender inequality is one of the major problems in the urban areas of the UK. Hence, the government of the UK is facing some challenges in the Metropolitan governance Model. Regarding this issue, there are three major perspectives such as accessibility of economy, politics and services (Zhou et al. 2020). Gender inequality refers to discrimination against women in different aspects of society. There are several reasons for the inequality, those are, and urban planning is not gender-sensitive, limited accessibility for the women in the urban areas. There are several other factors such as the lack of safety for the women in the city area (Behamet al. 2019). There are some job opportunities in which the access of women is very limited, for this reason, the women are economically poorer than men. Hence, equality of gender is very important in the urban area for the UK government

Environmental problems

The environmental problems associated with urban areas are floods due to heavy rain and environmental pollution. There is a lack of regulation of the waste products in the cities of the country. That led to over aided load in the sewage system in the city. The overloaded sewage leads to the accumulation of water in the urban areas. Moreover, water logging is associated with heavy rain (D'Amato and Akdis, 2020). The waterlogged caused the flood in the city and this flood hampers the daily life, agriculture, transport, and lifestyle of the country's people. Another environmental problem in urban areas is environmental pollution (Silva et al. 2017). There is a training to use higher technology in the urban areas that lead to air pollution; soil pollution and water pollution has been done. The metropolitan governance model does not mitigate the raised problems of the environment. 

Social injustice

In urban areas, social injustice is the major issue. Several people do not have proper accommodations. There are huge social differences that can be seen in the urban area of the UK. Thus, social hierarchy can play a major challenge for the government of the UK. People in some areas are unable to have proper food every day. Hence, they are suffering from malnutrition (Cummins, 2018). The society of the UK is divided into some economic classes. Therefore, social injustice can be seen among people of low economic class. Sometimes, these people are failed to get some of the government facilities. Somehow these facilities are limited to the people of the upper economic class. Hence, this hierarchy of class is can be one of the challenges faced by the UK government meant in terms of the metropolitan governance model.

Funding related issues

Funding is the most important part to develop the territorial structure of the country. The government has to implement some schemes in order to maintain the development of the urban areas. Several government plans and schemes play an important for developing the Metropolitan governance Model (Shaw and Tewdwr-Jones, 2017). However, these schemes and models need a lot of money. Different government sectors demand a lot of money to be maintained. Hence, the lack of funds in the government is the major issue in Metropolitan governance Model. The government should maintain the government funds for the development of the Metropolitan governance Model. 

Lack of engagement among citizens

In metropolitan areas, the government is usually selected via elections and here, engagement of the citizens is very crucial to ensure the proper implementation of policies (Moore-Cherry and Tomaney, 2019). However, lack of citizen engagement is a major problem in urban areas despite implementing the MG model that creates barriers to the uplifment of urban areas. 

Challenges faced by the metropolitan cities 

Possible risks 

Possible solutions 

Gender inequality 

Increment of domestic and sexual violence towards women, lack

k of chances to get an education, less pay to women for the same amount of work

Ensuring education to women by implementing policies

Taking legal steps against sexual as well as domestic violence 

Environmental problems

Pollution, climate change causing flood or drought

Following SDG or “Sustainable Development Goals” to reduce the environmental impacts (SDG, 2019). In this regard, the government has to make some policies to be mandatory and take legal steps against those who do not follow these policies. 

Social injustice 

Economic inequality, poor hygiene, poor lifestyle, hunger

In SDG some of the primary goals are to eradicate hunger and poverty. However, despite policies, they cannot get implemented due to various reasons and to solve this issue the government has to invite companies to improve their chances of employment. This can not only ensure employment but also eradicate poverty and hunger from society.

Funding related issues

Government is unable to raise funds that create barriers to the upliftment of metropolitan cities. 

the Government has to take innovative strategies to attract sponsors and in exchange for a good return on investment

Lack of engagement among citizens,

It is a major challenge in the metropolitan cities despite implementing the MG model. This significantly enhances the risks of external attack from the enemies and the economy does not flourish expectedly. Moreover, a lack of citizen engagement significantly reduces the chances of social upliftment and elimination of major problems in the society.

In this regard, the government needs to take initiatives such as the provision of incentives, resources, employment to improve the citizen engagement

“What can we learn from the literature about improving participatory governance of such cities?”

The metropolitan model is very important for the development of the country. The country's prospects depend upon the facilities the citizens of that country are enjoying. The facilities as if they are getting houses, proper foods, recreation facilities. The children are getting proper parks or not for the recreation facilities. The medical facilities the citizens of the country are getting or not. These factors can make the government achieve a metropolitan model. However, there are many drawbacks to implementing these strategies. These loopholes have to be rectified by implementing various strategic models.

The various models can be implemented by the city of Karachi to make the development of the metropolitan governing model. According to Pinto et al. (2020), the respective country can approach various strategic models which can be fruitful for the development of the models of the government.

The Weak Mayor-Council Structure

According to Giffinger and Suitner (2013), this type of administration is one of the most modern industrial-technological eras. In this type of system, the Mayor recommends different legislations and makes some policies regarding the planning of the framework of the city. In this case, both the Mayor and the3 council decide how to frame the backbone of this policy, investment. Thus, it will help both legitimacy of the political issues and the performance of the personal.

The Strong Mayor culture

This is the most authoritative way to approach the model for the framework of the metropolitan model. In this system, the mayor controls the whole administration policies and looks after the government planning (LabGovandCo-city protocol 2020). In this approach, the mayor looks after how the money is being distributed to the whole section and how their work is executed well. Further, the mayor also looks after the raw materials which are required for making this project. Thus there will be no involvement of the third parties in this case.

The commission system

A strong commission should be organized over these types of affairs. In this type of affairs, the commission looks after the whole program and how it is executed. It will take care of all the demands required for making the project. Sometimes there is an internal dispute due to various reasons, this problem can be rectified by fulfilling all the demands (Foster 2017). This has to be done by the commission authorities. However, it is a very efficient method in the small cities, but in the large cities where the problem is huge, it is very tough to solve the problem.

The Council Management system

In this approach, the council committee is divided into small bodies and departments. Each department has to look after by the specific allotted people. Those allotted people will target the particular task and try to execute the task in a very efficient way. In this approach, the workload is minimal as the distribution of the work was given to specific people. There are the departments that will look for the planning of the city (Carlisle and Gruby 2017). They will make the project with the help of the engineer. They will choose land for that project and start to work on that project. The next department is done where they will look for the raw materials required for the project to be built up. These departments will take care of the necessary raw material needed for the project. The next department will be the problem-solving skill department (Slack 2019). In these departments, they will look after the immediate problem they are facing during the project making. They will find the problem and try to solve the problem with the help of experts. In this way, the whole planning commission works in making the metropolitan governing model.

The international model of the approach to governance

A city like Johannesburg has adopted policies like the international model of approach. Countries like Karachi can implement this model because it is a materialistic approach and it can be implemented in both the small city and the large city (Ahluwalia I 2017). Here each member of the political governing body is responsible for the framework. In some cases it is seen especially in Karachi where there is the major political issues are there, this model is very much a holistic approach style where the track record of each step is maintained and audited. Thus, there is no chance of the money laundering and the project will not be stopped.


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