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Ana is an 8-year-old small girl who is a bright student but has been suffering from dyslexia which causes her poor grades in school. Her English teacher first diagnosed her condition as she was unable to write and read properly and moreover, was continuously making mistakes in the homework and classwork. Most of the mistakes were in writing b and d, 6 and 9 and that caused her to make mistakes in spelling and maths as well. According to Knight (2018), dyslexia is of four types and these are “phonological dyslexia”, “surface dyslexia”, “rapid naming deficit” as well as “double deficit dyslexia”. Other than that the author provided a definition for dyslexia and according to him, it is the inability to read, write, spell and speak and it is most likely to occur due to heredity. As per the findings of Livingston et al. (2018), experiencing dyslexia in childhood can emotionally affect the person in adulthood and it is one of the major causes of depression and anxiety. Other than that, Lohvansuu et al. (2021) stated that parents and teachers play the most crucial role in providing mental support in this phase that helps them to cope with developmental dyslexia. Henceforth, it can be stated that in the case of Ana who has been recently diagnosed with dyslexia and is struggling in her studies must be helped by her teachers. Based on the claims of Hebert et al. (2018), she must be engaged in reading and writing and she must always be appreciated for achieving every milestone in her progress. other than that, Rello and Baeza-Yates, (2017) claimed that the materials that she will be taught must be broken down into smaller chunks so that she can become more motivated to study. Knight, (2021) conducted a study where he compared dyslexic children with non-dyslexic ones using the “Propensity score matching method” and claimed that dyslexic children must be handled with extra care so that they can develop a positive image.
There are different kinds of disabilities are present in this society, despite that the supply of proper education to all is the primary aim of this report. Different governments adopt inclusive education policies, which is very much important to establish equalization in the education system. Different policies are based on the inclusive education system, which is helping the whole world to establish equality in every school. The main barrier they are facing is the issues from the local leaders, as they are not encouraging the others to participate in the different programs. Again, some of the parents complain that the local leaders asked them that they should not allow the students to participate in the cultural events or go to the school.
According to Dirth and Branscombe, (2017), models of disability help in serving various purposes and one of the most important purposes it serves is that it helps to categorise the disability in various levels, determine the causal relationships and at the same time evaluate the needs of these individuals. Moreover, it helps to prevent discrimination toward disabled people in society. Other than that, Retief and Letšosa, (2018), claimed that it is useful in making and implementing various policies that can help disabled people to enjoy some benefits in society. As per Jackson, (2018), after the proper implementation of the inclusive model, different countries adopted different policies for establishing equality in the academic field. Children with different disabilities like dyslexia need special care and also special needs education. The whole report is based on the proper analysis of the roles and the implementation of the policies which were taken by the government for these specially-abled children.
Based on the findings of Levitt, (2017), the “social model of the disability” is a model that helps to change the way disabled people are treated. In this model, the focus is driven on the strength, abilities as well as experiences of disabled people and keeping in mind that society or environment is modified. Other than this model Oliver, (2017), has stated some other models that help to understand the role of mental disability in the field of social construction.
As stated in the book by Dawn, (2021), the people of the society mainly identify disability as a problem. In the present scenario, the disability is not mentioned as a social problem, it is identified as the collection of special conditions to support the people who are facing any kind of disability in their life.
According to the findings of Chavan and Mehta, (2018), the disabled person is identified as a person that must be cured as people consider this condition as a disease.
In this model of disability, the disability analyzed purely on the basis of biological terms. In this model the biological reasons for the disease can be identified (Lama, 2019). In the medical model, management of a certain health problem can be termed as “Cure.” Hence, in this model the medical issues are the main and the only matter of discussion.
This model is related to the social model of disability. This model is also kleinkind as the affirmation model. This model refers to a disability that is related to social identity and thus it is constructed by society. Hence, according to Indrarathne, (2019) the disability sometimes becomes social identity of the person. The person with a disability is being identified by the disability of the person.
This model states that if a person is disabling that means the person is morally responsible for the disability. That means, the reason for the disability of a child is due to the sins of the parents. Sometimes, this model can coexist with the religion of the society to which the disable person belongs (Maxwell, 2019). This concept is stated as “Karma” in India. Hence, according to this model, disability of a person is directly linked with morality of that person or the patents of the person.
Learner X or Ana has been diagnosed with dyslexia and so needs some interventions that will be best suited for her. In this section, a critical discussion will be done on some definitions of inclusion education. However, before that a discussion will be done on some policies and practices that will best support the needs of Ana. In the end, a debate will be done whether the UK should completely adopt inclusion education or there must be some scope of special schools to address the needs of special children.
As per the statement of Atkins, (2016), SEND or “special educational needs and disability” is one of the policies that was introduced under the “Children and Families Act 2014” that must be implemented in the school that deals with children with special needs. It particularly deals with children who have some major learning difficulties like dyslexia and dysgraphia. Ana has been suffering from dyslexia; hence, she needs special care and the codes of ethics of SEND can ensure the fulfilment of these needs. Other than that, Alderson, (2018), stated that the UK has some organisations that particularly deal with dyslexia and they follow some principles. These organisations ensure the best use of data as well as information that helps to identify the specific needs of dyslexic individuals and deliver effective interventions. Other than these organisations that come under SEND policy, another policy is there in the UK that provides equal rights to education to dyslexic individuals (Horridge, 2019). “The Equity act 2010” aims to provide equal opportunities to workers at the workplace who has dyslexia. As per the findings of Shaw, (2018), adults having dyslexia often feel ashamed at the workplace due to their condition. Henceforth, in order to prevent low-esteem faced by these employees, they are brought under “reasonable adjustments”.
According to the article of Armstrong et al. (2011), the concept of inclusion and the inclusion educational policies are well known in the whole world. In the modern aspect, the inclusion education model is very much real and it is opening the future scope for the different students who have special disabilities and difficulties in their life. Based on the findings of Messiou, (2017), in different countries, the concept of inclusive education is based on the economic structure and the political structure of that particular country. Moreover, the authors mainly objectify the proper nature of the inclusive education system in different countries. Kirby, (2017) emphasised the same thing as the difference in the concept of inclusive education systems in different countries is showing the diversity in these concepts in aspects of different countries. The author claimed that the view of different countries, the meaning of inclusive education is completely different from each other. Based on the findings of Moriña (2017), the effectiveness of inclusive education has a close relationship with the management of the students, which shows that the proper meaning of the term is not known to everyone. In addition, the role of inclusion is also helping to the identification of the different discrimination at the national or international level.
Graham, (2020), showed that the concept of inclusion is recognized in the whole world. The concept of inclusion became popular from the time of 1990, internationally. Nowadays the schools are including the policies, which are supporting the inclusive education system, which is making different opportunities for the students who are facing any kind of physical or mental illness or disabilities. The undertaking of policies making the local schools to the international schools ``inclusive” has been observed.Other than that, Dreyer (2017) claimed that there is no barrier in today’s society inthe education system. Moreover, in this article, the concept of inclusion is mainly described as the “journey”.
From the article Hodkinson, (2019) it can be stated that the concept of inclusion became very easy to understand as he explained the proper application of inclusive practice. Moreover, the author described inclusion as the process that helps to create a path for everyone in the education system. In addition, Li and Ruppar (2021) pointed out that with the help of the inclusive study, the students who are not able to complete their higher studies due to physical difficulties can complete their higher studies.According to the findings of Zagona et al (2017), inclusive educational practice is the best practice in the academic field for the development of skills, knowledge as well as abilities in various fields. Ramberg and Watkins (2020) emphasized that the application of these policies creates diversity in the whole education system of different countries. Proper orientation of inclusive education is beneficial for the whole education system and for the schools. Other than that Sharma and Vlcek (2021), stated, “Effective resourcing” is one of the main factors which helps to understand the concept of inclusion and the inclusive education system.
Based on the evaluation of various definitions given by several authors it can be stated that inclusive education or inclusion is certainly good in preventing discrimination towards special children in the society and it is one of the effective ways to provide a fair chance to go to school and learn new things as well as develop new things. Haug, (2017), revealed that inclusive education provides opportunities for children to learn from the same classrooms where other children also learn. However, García-Carrión et al. (2018) argued that it is not very effective if the aim is to solve the problem from the root and help the children to deal with their learning disabilities. This study is consistent with the study of Jørgensen et al. (2021), as the authors claimed that in special schools, children with special needs or disabilities get to enjoy learning and at the same time they get confidence. There is strong evidence in the study of Pinto et al. (2019) that disabled children find difficulties in adjusting with non-disabled children and special schools help these children to help with their behavioural problems, physical disabilities as well as learning disabilities such as dyslexia. Hence, it can be stated that the UK should not exclusive lively adopt full inclusion and there is certainly a need for special schools.
The UK legislation prohibits discrimination on educational grounds. Hence, the law of the UK supports and promotes inclusive education. In the UK legislative system, several laws play a major role to reduce discrimination. However, after 1st October 2010, the “Equality Act '' helped strengthen those laws. Discrimination against the students based on age, gender, race, disability, and pregnancy, maternity and other related grounds is strictly prohibited in the UK.
According to the “Salamanca” statement, after the successful meeting in Salamanca, Spain more than 92 governments and 25 international organizations decided against shifting the traditional policies and the fundamental policies for education and introducing the new policies of the inclusive education. For the proper implementation of inclusive education in the academic field the conference undertook some effective strategies.
“Universal Declaration of Human Rights” of 1948 and the “world conference of 1990” started to establish the policy for education for all (Thomas, 2004). This helped a lot to establish all the policies for everyone, especially for the students who have disabilities and different kinds of difficulties.
According to ZERAAT and MOOSAVI (2019), in 1993, “United Nations Standard rules” established some new policies for the equalization of different opportunities for the persons who are facing different kinds of difficulties. Physical or mentally disabled individuals who are ambitious to do higher studies faced difficulties that create a barrier to achieving their goals. Lindner and Schwa, (2020), imply that by the implementation of this policy, the United Nations developed an inclusive education system that is open to all and everyone can take the education without any kind of problems. The whole action plan of the policy was based on the international policy because the main aim of the policy was to establish the equalization in the academic field at every stage. Moreover, Della Fina et al. (2020) showed the rules directly supported the completely inclusive education system. In rule number 6(8) when a school is not able to deliver the education to all then the inclusive education system, will be applied to that school (Thomas, 2004). Hence, it can be stated that this policy support inclusive education for disabled or special children. The discussion of this rule has been done on this part it can help Ana who has dyslexia to fulfil her right to education. Moreover, according to Stepanova et al. (2018), the quality of education was increased after the application of this policy, which was reflected in the field of the education system. Students with difficulties and disabilities got all the facilities of using the same resource for the education purpose which is used by the normal; students. Hence, it is beneficial for establishing the concept that everyone is equal in this society and everyone has the right to proper education. Nowadays all over the world, the system of inclusive education is accepted as the most used and the most appropriate policy. This policy can fulfil all the criteria of special educational needs.
7-10 June of 1994, the “world conference of the Salamanca” adopted different policies for the shifting of the new educational policies and converting it into the education for all system and education for all was the main theme of this whole conference (Csie, 2020). All the inclusive education policies, which helped a lot in the field of the academic line for the establishment of the equalization, were adopted at the conference (Frederickson and Cline, 2015). It was decided that the governments and the organizations would be guided by the policies for the proper implementation of inclusive education policies. According to Ainscowet al. (2019), the goal was similar to the previous policy the whole contract was trying to include “world’s children in the schools”. Moreover, this indicates the restructuring of the whole education system and particularly the schools for disabled children. This reformation process helps in the formation of the “inclusive school”. In this type of school, the whole education is served to all the students. Gormaz-Lobos et al (2019) claimed that the development of the "Child-cantered pedagogy” is very popular in society and people do not accept any other types of education other than this concept and this is one of the main barriers, which is placing a stone in the path of formation of “Inclusive schools”. Hence, in order to understand the child-centred pedagogy, it is compulsory to understand the psychology of the child without seeing their physical or mental condition (Williams and Beidas, 2019). This will help to establish a completely inclusive education system all over the world. Hence it can be stated that this policy is also appropriate for learner X, Ana.
In 2006, “The Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities”, analyzed the whole situation of the physically disabled person in the society. The environment of society creates a barrier between normal people and disabled people (Ohchr, 2022). From article number 24 it becomes very much clear that the concept of the education system should be equal in society. For that reason, the policies of the inclusive education system are very much necessary and it helps to establish equality within the education system. Other than that, according to Bantekas et al. (2018), these policies help to establish equality within the society. In rule 8(b) a person who is suffering from different difficulties is eligible for all types of access in the educational field. The clinical model is also completely reconstructed after the proper implementation of the policies. In article number 24, the whole policy stated that all the states should recognize the perfect person who is suffering from different disabilities and provide them with all the necessary educational systems. In addition, Winzer and Mazurek, (2017), “The Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities”is mainly focused on the proper application of the policies and recreating a new educational system. Here, everyone is eligible for any kind of study without any kind of barrier. According to Hodkinson, (2019) providing an equal amount of opportunity and services was the main concern of this conventionhas been done.The reduction of the environmental barrier is the result of the proper application of the policies. Moreover, recognizing the disability of the people is also necessary before providing all the opportunities to them. In 2002, the government drafted an action plan named “Inclusion” in the education of children and youth with disabilities (Europa, 2020).According to the draft, each one has the right to an education and children with dyslexia or different kind of disabilities have the right for taking education in the mainstream. Collaboration of different organizations like the rehabilitation council and the national council for teacher’s education helped a lot in the proper implementation of the inclusive education system all over the world.
“The world conference on education for all” which was held in 1990, decided to increase the range of education systems overall the world. The conference was held because children with difficulties were not allowed in mainstream education, which was not perfect for society (Files, 1993). At the conference, inclusive education was chosen for the mainstream application of the education system. “Education for all” was the main target of this conference (Thomas, 2004). The whole action plan which was taken for inclusive education was directly associated with the social and the legal pressure of the society. The development of the action plan was done in different kinds of stages. In addition, the stages helped to implement inclusive education in the school first after that the education policy was applied to the higher education system for the youth. As per Williams and Beidas, (2019), this conference makes the whole education system very much flexible all over the world. This improved the quality of education and created talented students throughout the world.
Here learner X who is Ana has been suffering from dyslexia and it was first noticed by her English teacher in school. However, in the beginning, the lack of awareness caused various difficulties for her in achieving academic excellence despite having a high IQ. According to Richardson, (2021) lack of awareness of the condition is the first barrier for the learner who has some different kinds of disabilities and difficulties.It was the same for Ana as her guardian and also the teachers except for the English teacher and other school faculties are unable to understand the disability of the student, which is the reason they are not able to provide them with the special kind of education according to their demands in the beginning.Based on the findings of Robinson (2018), lack of awareness is the reason some schools or colleges do not have the proper support equipment. On a general scale, most schools do not have facilities but from the previous discussion about the policies, it becomes so much clear that every educational industry must fulfil all the criteria of a person.
Graham, (2020) pointed out that proper application of the process of individualization is another barrier for the students who have some difficulties in their bodies. In different countries, the "blanket approach" is used for specially-abled students. However, Nedungadi et al. (2018) gave some different opinions as in other countries like India the government does not properly measure the ability and the difficulty of a person. Students, who have different disabilities like dyslexia, and ADHD, need special kinds of attention but this is not provided to them due to the lack of individualization process (Thomas, 2004). Some of the untrained teachers of the schools are not able to provide the proper service to the students who are physically or mentally disabled. Von Benzon, (2017) stated that this process is so much important because each child who has any kind of disability or difficulty in their body needs medical and mental support all the time.Moreover, providing a good environment for the physical growth and the mental growth of the child is present under the inclusive education system. In addition, Elftorp (2017) claimed that counselling children with dyslexia could help them to stay motivated and maintain their self-esteem. Moreover, it helps them to stay motivated towards a positive change.After proper counselling, if a student shows some indication of difficulties it is necessary to provide him/her the necessary access to all the things, which are allotted to the other students. As per Kormos and Nijakowska (2017), the inclusive education system is not only establishing the equalization in the education system, it is giving the proper example of an ideal society where each oneis treated in the same pattern. The participation of the local leaders also does not give a proper message to the children, which is the main drawback of the systems. Secondly, the teachers are not properly trained enough to give the proper knowledge to the studentsand it is certainly a major problem for the society. The students sometimes, due to a lack of proper understanding, do not join the class (Zuurmond et al. 2018). Hence, this can be considered one of the major barriers for students with learning difficulties like dyslexia.
Self-confidence and self-esteem are the most important for a learner to learn in the educational institute. A student cannot learn new things without self-confidence. On the other hand, self-esteem helps the students to learn faster. If a student is not confident enough about his or her learning capacity, he or she may not grasp the new concepts as fast as the other students can. Self-esteem and self-confidence is directly linked to the motivation of the student (Katsarou, D., 2018, et. al., 2018). If the study student loses their self-confidence, it would be very difficult for him to generate self-motivation.
Social skills and relationships can be very important for a student. In an educational institution, social development is an important factor along with physical and cognitive development. Social development is not possible without the social skills of the students. Hence, as per Maunsell, (2020) dyslexia can be a problem for the student in terms of poor social skills and relationships and hence, poor social development of the student.
According to the Ontario Government, there are five barriers faced by the students who are having the same difficulties in learning. According to MacCullagh et al. (2017), these barriers include organizational, attitudinal, physical information, and architectural or technological problems. Many students remain absent from school due to a lack of motivation. Dyslexia is one of the special cases that students are facing nowadays.
The UK government has enforced some news related to inclusive education. However, the practice of these laws is the most important. This can be practiced by their teachers and other non-teaching staff of the educational institutes. This practice can be done by raising the voice of the child in terms of their decision-making. The teachers and other non-teaching staff have to be careful about the needs of the child. A child with dyslexia faces several learning problems, the teacher should try to help the child to learn comfortably. Hence, according to Muin et al., (2020) inclusive education is the most necessary for learners with dyslexia. In this type of education, no discrimination can be seen based on age, gender, disability, pregnancy and many other factors. Children with dyslexia are poor in social skills; hence, it is very important for them to maintain communication with other children and teachers. Inclusive education can play important role in this situation. Hence, the teacher should teach disabled children together with other children. The teacher can play an important role in encouraging them to build social relations with disable children.
In the case of dyslexia students, the possible barrier they are facing in the classroom is listening and adapting their capabilities. It is seen that they are unable to adapt to the leanings of the school.
Denton et al. (2021) claimed that there is a huge problem for the children who are suffering from this condition, as they are unable to listen properly to what the teachers are saying. They face the problem while listening to the words of the teacher. They are unable to listen to every word. As a result, they are unable to follow the instructions.
Based on the study by Zuurmond et al. (2018) dyslexic students are mentally weak these children are unable to take proper notes while in the classroom. Furthermore, due to problems in their hearing, they are unable to capture the words that the teacher is dictating Due to the problem in neural muscularity, the coordination between the mind and the ear does not take place properly. Hence these students face problems while taking dictation.
According to the findings of Yadaet al. (2018) many students have the problem of executive function or maintaining the ideas from the particular scenes. These students are not facing the problem of memorizing, and time management. The students are facing these organizational problems. Hence the management is facing a huge problem with the students.
Most of the time these students are unable to spell the new words has been done. Warraitch et al. (2021) stated that their vocals are so poor that sometimes they cannot understand the words. Due to the problem in the neuromuscular junction, their speaking ability is completely lost. Thus, they are unable to spell the words correctly.
Based on the findings of Qvortrup et al. (2018), those students are unable to decode the number and special mathematical symbols. As they are having problems with their vision, they are unable to view the symbols from the blackboard. Meanwhile, at this time their eyes and the brain simultaneously do not properly work.
Students with dyslexia face problems related to self-confidence. Self-confidence and self-esteem are directly related to the motivation for the learning. Self-motivation is the most important for the learners to learn new things in the class (Bjeki?, et. al., 2019). Hence, without self-confidence, the learner loses the motivation to learn and as a result, the ability of learning decreases accordingly. Hence, the teacher should try to motivate the learner to learn more and the teacher should try to encourage the student to maintain self-esteem.
Social development plays a major role in the school along with physical and cognitive development. In the case of students suffering from dyslexia, it becomes very difficult for the student to make social relationships. Hence, a lack of proper social development can be seen in those students (Kalsoom et al., 2020). Inclusive education helps to develop the social relationship of the students with dyslexia. In this type of education the students are encouraged to study together and to maintain a proper social relationship with every student.
According to Pennefather et al. (2018), Physical interventions used effectively are the training in sounding the letter, awareness programs, proper investigation of the students, and making effective ways of teaching the students properly. The best practices involved in improving the efficient way of teaching dyslexia students like Ana are the child's voice and the teaching assistants' technique. These students have to be properly handled with the proper techniques and the methodology.
According to Papadakiset al. (2020) in this approach, the technically skilled person has to be adopted so that they can understand the voice of the students properly. The main problem lies in the case when anyone cannot understand the voice of the students. Moreover, these problems have to be recovered very smoothly. The code of practice has to be implemented by following the EHC guidelines where the students are trained with the proper speech therapies.
It has to remember that the proper recruitment of teaching staff and the teaching assistants should be appointed. Each teacher has to make the proper guidelines and properly monitor the students enthusiastically (Özkanet al. 2021).
As per the code of practice report, the teacher should focus on the growing accountability of the primary and secondary factors which are related to the students.
Using the digital mode of teaching
As per the claims of Grigorenko et al. (2020) the digital model of education is very popular nowadays after the covid 19. However, for dyslexic students, this approach to teaching has to be done very properly. According to Papadakis et al. (2020) using different pictures and slow-motion videos have to be there in teaching those students. It has a basin where they are getting all the information and executing them well. The feedback should be taken from the present on how they are performing well in their studies.
The popular method the “Orton-Gillingham method” can be used to teach dyslexia students. Gonzalez et al. (2021) claimed that the students must be mainly focused on how to read the texts. It generally focuses on the connection between the letters and the sounds of the words. Other than that, Sayeski et al. (2019) also claimed that it takes to develop the habit of the students how they can give more concentration to the words. In this method, the multisensory approach technique has been used where there is the perception of the sound, touch and the movement of word are there.In addition, Ewing et al. (2018) stated brain-bridge problem helps a lot to dyslexic individuals and it is a non-medical technique where the various programs have been set up to ankle connectivity with the lowest part of the brain which has been seen. In this method, various types of cognitive behaviour approach methods are used to treat the children where the main target is to develop a connection.
By focusing more on the inclusive and exclusive approach method, dyslexia students can be properly handled. Camden et al. (2020) claimed that creating a supportive collaboration classroom where the culture has to be developed between the students and the teachers so that the students would feel able to learn and express themselves. After applying the multisensory inputs and activities methods learners can learn the new concepts. The use of story videos helps to stimulate the brain of dyslexia patients properly (Ainscow, 2020). Multisensory combinations, which include activities like reading, and touching an object, will seriously improve the feeling of materials and they will be able to understand what the item is.
Therefore, inclusive education tends to eliminate the differences between the students on the basis of disability such as dyslexia. The student with the disability learns in the same classroom with the other students (Urši? and Pi�orn 2021). Hence, no discrimination can be seen in the classroom. This may definitely help the disable student to maintain social relationships with the other students. Thus, it helps the disable student to maintain self-esteem and self-confidence.
Children are considered the gift of God and even if they have disabilities they must not be mistreated. Hence, education is the right of every child and they must not be treated differently. Equal opportunities must be given to all the children and that is why several countries have taken various policies to ensure these rights. In this essay learner X, Ana was considered who had been suffering from dyslexia for a long and remained undiagnosed till she was 8 years old. Hence, some models of disabilities that can help to understand the barriers of dyslexic individuals were discussed. Many articles and survey papers have shown that these abilities can be achievable by techniques like the close monitoring of that particular student. Sometimes it is seen that in most cases it is unable to identify the problem of the children that they are bearing. The common assessments include the individual intelligence test where the individuals are administered one. Various tools are generally used for the primary evaluation of the children such as the observations, tests, records, inventories, and document analysis is followed. From the findings, it can be evaluated that the most important barrier faced by the learners is that some children cannot understand the proper signals and signs, especially those who are from the blind community. Hence, they fail to adapt the techniques taught by their respective teachers. Modern techniques like the audiotaped method and braille lab signs can be used to help these children in learning effectively. It has to remember that the problem can be solved only by the proper evaluations.
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