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The cultural background of a patient can have a significant influence on health treatment, and clinicians must be aware of this. Communication between doctors and patients is crucial, and literacy and language limitations can play a role. Being culturally aware, though, isn't only about providing an interpreter for people who need one. Many components of communication are nonverbal, and culture has a significant impact on medical relations (Marcelin et al., 2019).
Purpose and Rationale of the research
The purpose of this research is to identify and understand the impact of the culture of the patients on the healthcare service. It is important to recognise the cultural background of the patient in order to provide satisfactory healthcare services to the patients. Patients' ethnic heritage might influence everything from eye contact to who to address in the exam room. In recent years, cultural competency and patient-centeredness have been widely touted as ways to improve healthcare delivery. However, as they've grown in popularity and recognition, there's been a lot of confusion about what they mean and how to utilize them in different situations. Cultural competency is sometimes dismissed by proponents of patient-centeredness as just one facet of patient-centred care, while proponents of cultural competence frequently say the opposite.
Description of research methods
In order to understand the cultural background of the patients and realise its impact on the healthcare service, the qualitative, secondary data can be collected from some relevant research papers of the authors.
According to the authors (Okuyama et al., 2018), technically, health is a cultural notion since our health is influenced by our life experiences and the cultural class to which we belong.
It is also known that almost 49% of UK healthcare organisations are suffering from this issue in their healthcare systems (Shahin et al., 2019).
The following are some of the things that cultures help define:
Various chronic illnesses carry meanings that are additionally metaphoric beyond the sentence of death, such as faith tests, punishment, or contamination o.f the patients along with the family based on the personal culture of him or her (Shahin et al., 2019). The family and the patient equally get to bear several restrictions of the illness itself including the social stigma related to it. All societies have different types of rituals and these need attention for satisfying the customers. Its significance is seen in helping to back their memory and most importantly bringing back the memories of the family. In this context, the racial groups include non-Hispanic white, Asian American, Pacific Islander, African American/Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic. Disaggregating the various cultures within the non-Hispanic white category in order to expose the various features that are seen as a single homogeneous group. This can be used as an illustration of the inadequacy of such aggregated categories.
Some countries, like Scotland, Ireland, Italy, Greece, and others all fall under the non-Hispanic white group. Now, the application of such agglomerated groups in research or as practice guidelines is deceptive. In this respect, one study can be considered of the enrollment of senior patients in hospitals, use of ethnicity found that each of the four major racial or ethnic groups around The World had a reasonable similar distribution of enrollment. After considering the percentage among his panic black and non-Hispanic white, these are 37% and 42% respectively. These unfamiliar and odd figures display an important progression over the previous 10 years and it is also seen that non-Hispanic white patients were made up nearly 85% of hospice patients. After analysing the fact it is in that the satisfaction level among the patients with care and quality of care by group were not found in the research. According to Curtis et al., (2009I study, conducted in California, the quality of patient care for ethnic groups of color at the end of life and it continues to lag behind that of non-Hispanic white patients. If the purpose of palliative and hospice care is to provide high-quality care for all patients and each patient needs to be handled individually rather than as part of a group to achieve this goal.
The professional clinicians need to identify the distinctive history of each patient, details of generation, and environmental background of the patient in a holistic fashion. These are completely culturally based, but not stereotypical. It does not use predetermined means or results from a different culture to achieve the aim of quality treatment for all (Hansen, Braslow and Rohrbaugh, 2018). Thus, without a scientifically grounded evaluation, evidence-based palliative care or end-of-life care methods from one culture cannot be automatically "replicated" in another culture. It is foolish and destructive to assume that ideas and values are interchangeably valid and important across cultures. Patients from all walks of life tend to gain three basic needs as follows:
From the above concept, it can be said that actually of the alignment cannot be changed and it generally comes from the person and the cultural background of the family of the world view. In this respect to life circumstances also carry the essence of the capacity of one person for going through the chronic illness experience. In order to understand the core principles which the US society employs for developing the social systems for supporting 3 individual universal requirements of independence, autonomy, self-Reliance and bringing happiness for the patients. It can be assumed that these can access the patients for better comprehension to palliative care. Consequently, the validity of care and different types of end of life practices in the United States and across the world may be understood from the aspects of independence and autonomy of the patients. Also, it can be commented that different types of cultures involve the values which make the way the individual life of the patients and must be understood from the perspective of community welfare costs and benefits. Life is a kind of challenge, and humans always tries to do their best to make the most of it while accepting and human can not alter it.
The advancement of Technology has broad lots of innovation in the health care sector and it may be prescribed in death-denying Nations as well. For example, it is seen that the United States has already tried to extend the life and frequently go beyond about the patients and with their families. It is also seen that the other cultures are more than accepting and they consist of the knowledge of life in peace, where the date is unavoidable. Such a kind of mindset has taken on the patients for mentioning how the patient and he is all our family accept death (Marcelinet al., 2019). They are also ready to see what can come in next. This type of white spread emphasises patients and their families keep the strings and this kindly gains from their belief in the quality of life. From the research, it is seen that around 80% of Americans of the United States give importance to their spirituality and chronically ill patients preferred to keep believing that everything can be cured through this belief.
As per the UK healthcare reports, it is also known that, they also believe in the cultural diversity, which can create major issues in the treatment of them.
From the previous quality of life studies, it can be seen that it used to involve spirituality as a core concept. However, at the same time, it demonstrates the scientific communities lack of acknowledgement. In actuality, the primary scales were not modified until the mid-1990s. 28 And unreasonable separation impact the quality of care in this context and also can support which may be offered to relief existential has not been treating the individuals and family within the context of the spiritual origin. Consequently, hospitalisation in acute care settings across the globe may frequently generate barriers to the incorporation of necessary rituals. These rituals as a devotional and physician ties for those who are suffering and dying. The inclusion of extended family networks to ensure self and family continuity, and the expression of various grief expression modes.
In any situation, the inability to communicate properly may be highly restrictive and distressing. In a hospital context, when individuals feel apprehensive and vulnerable even in the happiest of circumstances, such as the delivery of a child, that stress is exacerbated, and that constraint has enormous ramifications on patient safety, health outcomes, and health inequalities (Houghton et al., 2020). In any situation, the inability to communicate properly may be highly restrictive and distressing. In a hospital context, when individuals feel apprehensive and vulnerable even in the happiest of circumstances, such as the delivery of a child, that stress is exacerbated, and that constraint has enormous ramifications on patient safety, health outcomes, and health inequalities (Okuyama et al., 2018). It is easy to forget how much of a barrier language and culture can be until you're in a situation where you don't speak English well. If they don't understand English, even booking an appointment might be difficult.
Due to the multicultural atmosphere in the UK healthcare institutions, some issues also have been identified regarding the different types of language. It also can create problems in communicating with the patients. To get the complete knowledge about the patient’s history, proper communication is necessary.
According to a 2015 CRICO Strategies Benchmarking Report, Malpractice Risks in Communication Failures, one-third of national malpractice claims involve a communication breakdown. This broad concept is laced with linguistic misunderstandings. Between 2009 and 2013, 55 percent of the 23,658 instances of miscommunication between physicians and patients were investigated. This, together with breakdowns in communication between two or more healthcare providers, account for 12% of the instances, indicating that provider miscommunication is a significant contributor to the problem. Due to irreparable patient harm caused by communication failures, there were 7,149 cases with a total cost of $1.7 billion. The culture was mentioned by 17 percent more people in the group.
Health literacy necessitates communication and common knowledge among families, patients, healthcare workers, and providers. The health literacy of the cultural group has an impact on the production and substance of the health care technique (Palumbo et al., 2019). In this context, an example can be considered that some individuals think that having a family dentist is important, while others prefer to use home remedies and traditional ways for oral health care (Ottosen, Mani and Fratta, 2019). Your cultural values have an impact on how you choose health care providers, treatments, and medications.
In addition, communication styles differ by culture. When it comes to physical health, health information, care providers, healthcare practices, and interventions, they are quite precise about the terminology and terminologies they use.
This research will follow the positivism philosophy, by which it will be able to gather all the factual and real data about the cultural impact of the patients on UK healthcare institutions. Moreover, to analyse different concepts and ideas about the treatment procedure in UK healthcare system, this is necessary. To develop the proper knowledge on the “impact of patient’s culture on UK healthcare”, this philosophy is highly helpful.
Among the different types of research design, descriptive research design will be chosen for this research. To gather quantitative data on the evidence of the research and also to describe the issue of “patient’s culture” on the UK healthcare system, this design will be highly appropriate. This design will also be effective for providing an exact solution to the identified issue. As the other research designs such as exploratory and explanatory research designs will not be applicable for this research.
Between the two types of research approaches, deductive approach will be chosen for this research. It will help to collect the quantitative data and also it will help to give focus on the existing theory, which is based on the issue of patient’s culture on the UK healthcare organisations. On the other side, the inductive research will not be selected, as the development of the research topic is not required for this current research.
Data collection method
To collect adequate data on the UK healthcare system, both the primary and secondary data need to use. To collect the quantitative data on the “patient’s culture”, a survey method needs to be done on the UK healthcare practitioners. To gain knowledge about the influence of “patient’s culture” on UK healthcare, secondary data also can be collected from the journals and articles based on “impact of patient’s culture on UK healthcare”.
The survey results and graphs will be collected based on the survey questions. According to the response of the participants, the results will be recorded in this method.
After getting the primary and secondary data from survey and journals and articles, all the data will be evaluated to fulfil the aim and objectives of the research. This evaluation is also important for complete the research proposal successfully. At the end of this research, the findings will be analysed to get an exact solution. The evaluation will also help to give focus on the authentication of the gathered data on the research topic.
Hence, culture refers to a group of people's literacy and features, most notably their religious beliefs and faith, food, language, social customs, and so on. As a result, it may be described as the formation of group identity as a result of a distinctive social structure. However, many times patients fail to get the proper healthcare because of the culture they come from. For such, doctors would be able to communicate with their patients more effectively if they are aware of their beliefs, cultural differences, and habit.
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