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There can be many instances of person-centered theories and among which Roger's theory have been chosen to observe and assess my own life experience. Theoretical understanding along with proper application of these theories in relation to my personal experience has also been included in this essay. These person-centered theories have been helpful in different aspects of personal development. Process of my personal development through concepts of selected theories has also been included in this essay.
Based on Roger's theory, I asked myself to what extent I can talk about myself when compared to external factors. I have found that most of my past life experiences have changed me in such a way that I have always thought about my self-worth. This finding has also pointed out that I am less comfortable with ambiguity. Relationships with family members, peers at school and my husband have all shown me little to no level of love and attention. This has forced me to avoid myself and pursue my self-worth from perspectives of other individuals. My past life experiences have also forced me to see emotions as weaknesses.
Theoretical understanding of Roger's theory
A model which has been introduced by Roger has been helpful in identifying and explaining behavioral changes in individuals along with the level of their self-motivation to be a "fully functioning person". This model has also been observed to be useful in transforming a rigid or fixated individual into an individual who has achieved internal fluidity (Joseph, 2020). This model has been seen to include seven different stages. These stages can help a therapist identify resistance to change and defensiveness of a client and take steps accordingly. With advancing stages, rigidness of client can be reduced and at last self-expression of a client can be seen.
Six conditions of Roger’s
Carl Roger has depicted that there have been six conditions that exist and can help in occurrence of constructive personality change within an individual. These conditions have been developed by making client and counselor relationships as a base (Willmott et al. 2018). First condition of Roger has defined is that there should be a psychological bond between client and counselor to be established. This connection between counselor and client can help both counselor and client. This can help clients in being more open-minded and thus can help clients to share feelings more freely with counselors. On other hand, this can help counselors in being more accurate in providing best possible solution to clients.
Second condition of Roger defines mental condition of a client. This condition helps counselors in observing and identifying whether a client is in a vulnerable state or in an anxious state. Thus this condition can be helpful in properly assessing the mental condition of a client and thus can also help in providing appropriate solutions.
Roger's third condition can help in defining the mental condition of a counselor. This condition can be seen to define counselors as being congruent. Being congruent can help a counselor to be in the same boat with a client. This approach can also help a counselor in gathering proper information from a client.
Fourth condition of Roger depicts that a counselor is empathetic to a client. This condition has been helpful in establishing a common ground between a client and a counselor. Being empathetic towards a client can help the counselor in gathering appropriate information from respective client.
Based on fifth condition of Roger, it can be seen that a counselor should focus on positive aspects of the client by being unconditional. Having an unconditional focus can help counselors to be more attentive and thus can further help in properly assessing a client's condition.
Sixth condition of Roger depicts acceptance rate and positive thoughts of a client. This condition can be helpful in defining working procedure and results of a counselor as by this condition, it can be seen that a client becomes more perceived towards acceptance and positive aspects. This condition also defines an empathetic understanding between a client and a counselor.
Roger has been seen to further depict that other than these conditions, no other conditions are required. He has also depicted that these six conditions can be sufficient if these conditions exist for a period of time. With the help of these conditions, constructive changes in personality of an individual can be observed.
These conditions can be seen to revolve around the first condition as it can define relationship between a client and a counselor. Based on all conditions, it can also be seen that last or sixth condition is essential as a counseling process can be ineffective in case of a client being unable to experience empathy from a counselor.
The 19 Propositions of Roger’s
Roger has been seen to provide a total of 19 propositions in order to describe theoretical view of human personality and how it can change. These Propositions can be helpful in identifying personality changes based on different circumstances and can also identify reasons for a change of personality (Zech et al.2018). Proposition of Roger defines that each and every individual can exist in a world where changes have been occurring continually and every individual is in the center of this world. Roger also defined a Proposition that depicts that depending on reality, perception of different individual’s controls change of the organism where these individuals are at center. These worlds of different individuals have also been seen to react to individual perception and experience.
According to Roger, these worlds can also have one basic characteristic to maintain, enhance and make experiences of individuals to be real. Based on individual perception, these worlds can be goal-directed based on individual performance and attempts to do so can be defined by behaviors of individuals (Koole et al. 2019). These individual behaviors can also be seen to be facilitated by personal emotion. Intensity of personal emotion can be seen to be related to perception of individual behaviors and this can also help in maintaining and enhancing individual worlds. Roger has also stated that best vantage point to understand individual behavior can be properly done by the individual. He also depicted that portion of individual perception can be different from a previous point.
Structure of self can be formed as a result of interactions within environment and evaluation of these interactions. Based on individual experience, value can differ from instance to instance. Thus these changes can be experienced individually (Merry, 2002). Individual experience can be organized, symbolized and perceived in different relationships. These experiences can also be ignored based on availability of perception and can also be denied as corresponding experiences can be inconsistent in nature. Individual experiences can be categorized only by their representation of self-structure. Individual behaviors which have been adapted can most be seen to be consistent. Different organic experiences and needs can also cause behavioral changes in an individual.
Denial of awareness of visceral experiences can be seen to cause psychological maladjustment. This situation can represent existence of any kind of psychological tension. All visceral experiences of an individual if absorbed on a symbolic level can define psychological adjustments. Any kind of individual experience which can be inconsistent in accordance with self-structure can thus be perceived as a threat. Under specific conditions, different threats can be prescribed based on individual experiences (Nuckcheddy, 2018). Roger in his propositions has also depicted that when an individual accepts any one particular consistent experience, that particular individual can be more understanding of experiences of other individuals. Roger has also depicted that when an individual implements more organic experiences into self-structure, that individual can replace existing value system with a more organic value system.
Based on six conditions and 19 propositions of Roger, it can be seen that feeling is an emotion that can be represented by combining it with meaning. Based on my past experiences, I felt anger and got hurt. Conditions regarding my self-worth and external locus of evaluation have resulted in building up an inferiority complex. Anger toward other individuals around me has been seen to be internalized based on my false concept that I developed. Based on my past experience with my parents, teachers and peers, I became incongruent.
This incongruence has been seen to be present because of the false concept of myself which has created a huge difference between my false self and my true self. I have come to realize anger and pain regarding my teachers after several years. After this, I also realized that I need help to become more organic and thus have turned to Roger’s theory.
Roger's theory have been concluded in this essay as two concepts that have been selected to assess me. Theoretical understanding of these theories has been concluded in order to provide a basic idea of what these theories are. These theories have been seen to have different stages and application of these theories based on these stages in my personal life experience has been discussed in detail. A brief discussion of the effectiveness of these theories toward my personal development has been given here.
Joseph, S. (2020). Why we need a more humanistic positive organizational scholarship: Carl Rogers’ person-centered approach as a challenge to neoliberalism. The Humanistic Psychologist, 48(3), 271. Retrieved from: https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/index.php/preview/2158507/main%20document%20revision%20for%20eprints%20SJ2.pdf
Koole, S. L., Schlinkert, C., Maldei, T., & Baumann, N. (2019). Becoming who you are: An integrative review of self?determination theory and personality systems interactions theory. Journal of personality, 87(1), 15-36. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/jopy.12380
Willmott, D., Ryan, S., Sherretts, N., Woodfield, R., & McDermott, D. (2018). Motivation: A critical consideration of Freud and Rogers’ seminal conceptualisations. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 49(2), 229-234. Retrieved from: https://e-space.mmu.ac.uk/625318/1/Final%20Accepted%20manuscript.pdf
Zech, E., Brison, C., Elliott, R., Rodgers, B., & Cornelius-White, J. H. (2018). Measuring Rogers’ conception of personality development: Validation of the Strathclyde Inventory-French version. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 17(2), 160-184. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/download/55398186/Zech_et_al_Strathclye_Inventory_French_version_in_press.pdf
Barrett – Lennard, G.T. (1998) Carl Rogers’ Helping System: Journey and Substance. London: Sage.
Bray, P. (2021). Considering beginning counsellors’ development of “self” in a person-centred and dramaturgical space. New Zealand Journal of Counselling Volume, 41(1), 59. Retrieved from: https://www.nzac.org.nz/assets/Journals/Vol-41-No-1/4-Considering-beginning-counsellors-development-of-self-in-a-person-centred-and-dramaturgical-space.pdf
Kim, J. (2018). Consideration of the applicability of person-centered therapy to culturally varying clients, focusing on the actualizing tendency and self-actualization–from East Asian perspective. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 17(3), 201-223. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/download/64483757/PCEP_Kim(2018).pdf
Maurer, M. M., & Daukantait?, D. (2020). Revisiting the organismic valuing process theory of personal growth: A theoretical review of rogers and its connection to positive psychology. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1706. Retrieved from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01706/full
Mearns, D. & Thorne, B. (1988) Person-Centred Counselling in Action. London: Sage. (see also latest edition: 2007)
Merry, T. (2002) Learning & Being in PC Counselling. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS books. (see chapter 3, particularly pages 58-63) – see also the diagram in page 29!
Nuckcheddy, A. (2018). The effect of personality on motivation and organisational behaviour. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal, 9(2), 1-5. Retrieved from:https://5y1.org/download/066b2d96180bf4d1a85e7310044dcdc3.pdf
Renger, S. (2021). Therapists’ views on the use of questions in person-centred therapy. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 1-13. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03069885.2021.1900536
Rogers, C.R. (1961) On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
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