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Diabetes mellitus case study in UK Assignment Sample

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Diabetes mellitus case study in UK Assignment Sample


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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic health disease identified among people when pancreases fail to produce insulin. According to the World Health Organization, DM may be identified among people when the body fails to effectively utilize insulin produced by pancreas (Who.int, 2021). It has been identified that 415 million people across the globe face diabetes mellitus issues (Hanif and Susarla, 2018). It has to be mentioned here that around 5.5 million people may diagnosed with diabetes in 2030. In this regard, this study will focus on the diabetes management process and promote awareness among people regarding diabetes mellitus. This study will focus on the UK to promote awareness regarding diabetes management.

Question 1: Role of physical activity in managing diabetes

Physical activity can be defined as a physical movement by skeletal muscle, which is directly based on energy expenditure. This literature also stated that exercise is a planned and structural physical activity, which improves the health and wellbeing of people (Sigal et al. 2018). According to Curran et al. (2020), people with diabetes failed to produce insulin or failed to utilize insulin significantly. This literature also stated that diabetes affects beta cells by increasing the level of blood glucose; consequently, it reduces the function of beta cells. It has to be mentioned here that people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have a minimum number of beta cells compared to non-diabetic people. The loss of beta cells is one of crucial issues associated with diabetes. In this regard, physical activity allows an individual to improve functional and viability of beta cells and reduces the burden of diabetes. Further, body weight, BMI, and being overweight may affect an individual from the issue of diabetes (Gilbert et al. 2019, Chiu et al. 2018). In this regard, physical activity is one of the common methods for controlling diabetes. It has been identified that physical activity is one of core therapy to manage diabetes for both type 1 and 2, which create significant positive effects on pancreatic beta cells (Curran et al. 2020). Here, it can be stated that impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is reduced by implementing regular physical exercise. Here, it can be stated that regular physical activity is not only reduce issue of diabetes rather it improve mental health of people.

According to Sigal et al. (2018), regular exercise allows an individual to improve glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides with the issue of type 2 diabetes. Further, this literature interprets that regular physical activity or resistant exercise allows an individual to improve their health and wellbeing by controlling glycaemic, improving muscle strength and reducing insulin resistance (Singh et al. 2019). Therefore, regular physical activity is one of crucial methods to improve the function of the pancreas followed by the level of insulin and reduce the burden of diabetes mellitus.                                                 

Question 2: Advice for physical activity

Now this section is going to focus on the UK to identify the current situation of diabetes mellitus and their behaviour towards physical activity.

Above figure indicates that approximately 3 million people in the UK diagnosed with diabetes disorder (Statista.com, 2019). In addition, from 2016 to 2017 approximately 3.12 million people in the UK diagnosed with diabetes (Statista.com, 2019). Finally, 3.2 million UK people go through with diabetes disorder (Statista.com, 2019). Therefore, it can be summarised that the trend of diabetes gradually increased in the UK.

The above figure indicates that in 2019 around 14.38 million males and 14.17 million females perform more than 150 minutes of physical activity (Statista.com, 2020). However, in 2020 around 133.91 million people including males and females will perform physical activity in the UK (Statista.com, 2020). Therefore, keeping an eye on the above data, it can be summarised that the rate of physical activity in the UK decreased in 2020 compared to 2018. 

It has been identified that the trend of physical activity is minimal in the UK, in this regard; health care professionals may promote an awareness program to address the issue of diabetes and improve the health and wellbeing of people in the UK.

  • Behavioural intervention

In context of behavioural intervention, regular physical activity is a common behavioural change that helps people from the issue of diabetes. In Addition, healthy eating behaviour may also be implemented to address the issue of diabetes. Mijatovic-Vukas et al. (2018) stated that healthy eating habits and physical activity helps to maintain function of pancreas and improve health and wellbeing of people from diabetes. Therefore, people in the UK may follow these behavioural interventions to address the issue of diabetes.

  • Educational intervention

Lack of proper health education among people regarding diabetes may also increase its mortality rate (Garg et al. 2020). In this regard, promoting proper health education among UK people due to diabetes and promoting the advantages of physical activity is essential to improve health education and reduce diabetes burden.


This study can be concluded that regular physical activity has a significant effect in managing the burden of diabetes and it improves the health and wellbeing of people. This study has discussed the impact of physical activity in managing the issue of diabetes. Further, this study has been identified that regular physical activity, healthy eating will address the issue of diabetes and improve the health and wellbeing of people.

Reference list


Chiu, T.H., Pan, W.H., Lin, M.N. and Lin, C.L., 2018. Vegetarian diet, change in dietary patterns, and diabetes risk: a prospective study. Nutrition & diabetes8(1), pp.1-9.

Curran, M., Drayson, M.T., Andrews, R.C., Zoppi, C., Barlow, J.P., Solomon, T.P. and Narendran, P., 2020. The benefits of physical exercise for the health of the pancreatic β?cell: a review of the evidence. Experimental physiology105(4), pp.579-589.

Garg, S.K., Rodbard, D., Hirsch, I.B. and Forlenza, G.P., 2020. Managing new-onset type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic: challenges and opportunities. Diabetes technology & therapeutics22(6), pp.431-439.

Gilbert, L., Gross, J., Lanzi, S., Quansah, D.Y., Puder, J. and Horsch, A., 2019. How diet, physical activity and psychosocial well-being interact in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an integrative review. BMC pregnancy and childbirth19(1), pp.1-16.

Hanif, R.W. and Susarla, R., 2018. Diabetes and cardiovascular risk in UK South Asians: an overview. Br. J. Cardiol25, pp.S8-S13.

Mijatovic-Vukas, J., Capling, L., Cheng, S., Stamatakis, E., Louie, J., Cheung, N.W., Markovic, T., Ross, G., Senior, A., Brand-Miller, J.C. and Flood, V.M., 2018. Associations of diet and physical activity with risk for gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients10(6), p.698.

Sigal, R.J., Armstrong, M.J., Bacon, S.L., Boule, N.G., Dasgupta, K., Kenny, G.P. and Riddell, M.C., 2018. Physical activity and diabetes. Canadian journal of diabetes42, pp.S54-S63.

Singh, M.M., Mangla, V., Pangtey, R. and Garg, S., 2019. Risk assessment of diabetes using the Indian diabetes risk score: A study on young medical students from Northern India. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism23(1), p.86.


Statista.com, 2019. diabetes-prevalence-in-england-uk. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/386885/diabetes-prevalence-in-england-uk/ [Accessed at 18 January 2022]

Statista.com, 2020. Number of people who are physically active for more than 150 minutes a week in England from 2016 to 2020, by gender. Available at: 

Who.int, 2021. diabetes. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes [Accessed at 18 January 2022]

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