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Health promotion can be defined as the process where every individual is influenced to take control over their health for its better improvement (Dow, 2021)Individual focus is not prioritised but wider range of environmental and social interventions are generally focussed. Supporting the core function of public health, the health promotion campaign supports individuals, communities and government to address several health implications to the public and creates awareness. Several importances can be stated of health promotion programmes. It not only takes part in alleviating the relevant information regarding diseases but also stabilises the groundwork for societal growth. It has been estimated that intervention through promotion has lead to the prevention of many communicable and non-communicable diseases. Health education system also promotes conceiving healthy behaviour. Through health promotion programmes measures of performance and goals are set through relevant sources and programming. The Health promotion programme will also promote economic growth in leading to help society in a better place.
Nowadays the rate of occurrence of alcohol abuse is reaching a peak and for this, the configuration of the families and society is disintegrating at a faster pace(Morri, 2018). In the UK there are 9.1 million adults who drink alcohol above the recommended rate of consumption (Patrick et al. 2018). That causes huge costs for the society in terms of the health sectors, social sectors and most importantly, it is giving massive impact on the criminal implication (Muhlack, 2018). The present rate of alcohol consumption rate in the UK is £21 billion per annum and in the year 2010 the death rate gets increased by 3.5% and based on the survey record, 1.1% of deaths are partially attributable (Smith, 2021).People belonging from age 24-35 are addicted to alcohol most compare than the other age groups.According to the statistics proposed by the world health organisation (WHO), almost 55% of domestic abuse occurs due to the alcohol consumption of the perpetrators (Smith, 2021). Even if the individual starts with a minimal quantity of drinking, later that is turned into Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) (Patrick et al. 2018). Unhealthy alcohol use puts the human health at major safety related risks that creates heavier changes due to alcohol related health issues. Mainly the male individuals in the society are habituated with alcohol than women (Morri, 2018).
People can be affected by the habit of binge drinking and for that reason; the Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level is more than 0.08% (medlineplus.gov, 2021). In this category of binge drinkers, the people mainly have 5 or more drinks in a few hours(Muhlack, 2018). Even though not all binge drinkers are affected by the symptoms of Alcohol Use Disorder in the short-term, however, people can have a risk of getting the negative effects of AUD from the continuous habit of binge drinking. In the graph mentioned below it has been demonstrated the age group that get addicted to drink. The graph shows that people aged 18 - 24 and 25 -34 are more addicted to alcoholic drinks (Dow, 2018). A considerable percentage of high school students and the age group of 35 - 64 are also addicted to alcohol. People of age group above 65 showed the lowest percentage of alcohol addiction.
Figure 1: Alcohol binge drinker according to the age groups
(Source: cdc.gov, 2020)
The planning approach could be based on 5 goals or agendas (niaaa.nih.gov, 2017). The 5 goals on which the planning approach can be held are basic science, diagnosis and epidemiology of the foundations for doing the intervention. The campaign has been set in accordance with the government's alcohol strategy. The objectives of the strategy highlights the fact of changing behaviour of people towards drink, reduction in the rate of alcohol derived crime, reduction in binge drinking and also in the alcohol based death. This campaign is also being organised for achieving the goal set by the government's alcohol strategy(Vargas-Martínez, 2019). This will help in building a better society and better health of a person. A simpler logic model is also used in health promotion, however the precede-proceed model gives an indepth context when carrying out the intervention.
Phase 1: at the first stage, encouraging affected people is necessary to increases their quality of life. Next to that, the pathology could be assessed based on the alcohol and the research study can be done on the recovery (niaaa.nih.gov, 2017). The structure and peace of the society are disintegrating for the alcohol misuse. The patients suffer from various health issues in the case of alcohol overuse and they cannot control their urge of drinking alcohol repeatedly. They undergo different kinds of and psychological problems and for that, death can occur in the worst condition scenario.The main health issues that an alcoholic faces, in general, are fatty liver, liver cirrhosis, cancer, malignant tumour, and in minimalist cases, nausea and vomiting occur (Rumgayet al. 2021). This would effect quality of life because physical changes will impact daily routines and the ability to enjoy activities. While carrying out this campaign, health related awareness should proceed. Once it gets achieved the psychological and physiological problems will be reduced consequently resulting in improving the quality of life.
Phase2: involves an epidemiological assessment. Almost 3.76% males are suffering from anxiety disorders due to their pressure of their daily life(O'Connor, 2020). The amount of the people who are suffering due to depression is also getting high near about 3.44%(O'Connor, 2020). From 2007 to 2017, there is evidence of 5963 suicides in England (O'Connor, 2020). For these instances, the normal living process of the people is disrupted and disintegrated; alcohol is attributed to such detrimental long-term changes. These diseases are linked with the alcohol abuse in our cohort.
Figure 3: Crimes regarding overconsumption of alcohol in 2017
(Source: Morris, 2018)
In the graph given above it shows the effects of alcohol and the percentage of people's sufferings. It has been clear from the graph that binge drinking can lead to anxiety disorders and depression. Other disorders a person suffers from are eating disorders, bipolar disorder schizophrenia and drug use disorders.
Phase3: involve an ecological assessment. The opportunity to work with males in the community could be challenging because the intervention would need to happen in an accessible setting. A community center may be the most appropriate, a regular time for the event would need to be set up and effectively communicated.
Predisposing - Several beliefs, attitude, values are there that are being believed by the people. Due to the constituent it gives temporary relaxation to every stress and that becomes addictive. Knowing the fact of health issues people develop the attitude that they don't care about anything.
Enabling - in the campaign a brief statistics has been given to the people of the amount of money that is being expensed by the people it can be used in other contexts in life too(Premkumar, 2021). The money can be saved for future purpose or can be donated and will be more helpful
Reinforcing - It has been seen in most of the cases that a person gets influence from family members or from friends.
Phase 4: involves a policy assessment, to identify how the intervention links to national goals and guidelines. The policy analysis helps in identifying the potential policy options that are addressed to mitigate the problem. Those options are later known in order to choose the most feasible one.
In this assessment, the target group is the male adult individuals that are within the age group of 30-50 years. Day by day, they get dependent upon alcohol to ease their anxiety and stress. People are hugely affected by the attraction and affection of the alcohol-consuming habit. The family members of the alcohol consumer are also greatly affected. The normal livelihoods of the people aredisrupted and they can face the trauma from the incidents of alcohol abuse. The campaign has been carried out in colleges and universities. It has been seen that most teenagers are associated with binge drinking and face several health and social problems. The university and colleges are related with several NGOs that help students to get rid of the habits.
Health assessment approaches are needed for the study because it helps in understanding the population needs with regards to a particular health deficiency. Commissioning processes are also apart of health needs assessment as it is successful in providing effective needs and support with respect to any medical issues. It also provides an opportunity for improving outcomes where a society that includes schools or geographical community has health needs. Health Need assessment can be also considered as the holistic approach which takes in consideration several factors such as economy, social, culture and behavioural factors. These factors have been noted in contributing to several health problems (gov.uk, 2022). Through this assessment individual background can be assessed which will signify its personal needs.
Social ecological models can be used as an approach in the study. It helps in providing broader concepts in health and several factors that are associated with affecting health. Along with the need assessment health visitors will prioritise the area of needs, area of service development and also determines any professional development. With the help of this process teams and commissioners will work together more efficiently ensuring appropriate and speedy delivery of the health needs. It should be a continuous process such that health needs can be fulfilled or solved that arises from time to time. Alcohol abuse is very much common these days and this occurs in society every day beyond our knowledge. The main factors that are affecting this alcoholism and alcohol use disorder are the deterioration of public health and the social configuration of society (Parke et al. 2018).
Step 1: The campaign appropriately meets up to the objective set by the government's alcohol strategy. It has been focusing on achieving the goals set. The main factors that are being concentrated on the campaign is highlighting health impacts of consuming alcohol.
Step 2: The campaign is generally focusing on the area of alcohol awareness and will also provide knowledge about health impact (Mattila-Holappa, 2018). The health impact of alcohol is not known to many people. Several people knowing the health impact consumes alcohol recklessly. The campaign is focusing on giving knowledge to the people and helping them in understanding human physiology. It will also consider the fact how our body reacts while consuming alcohol. Its medical terms red wine is favoured for getting better health and can contradict the campaign. It should be further mentioned that excess consumption will have adverse effects.
The people that are connected with the alcoholic peopleactively and passively and the intervention program can be denoted as the stakeholders (Heywood et al. 2019). The individuals that are directly affected by the scenario of abuse and the intervention program are the internal stakeholders such as team members, executive and program managers.
The people or the organisation that are indirectly linked with the treatment and other procedures can be called the external stakeholders. The close family members are the most affected people in this scenario, therefore they are called internal stakeholders in this matter (Rojeet al. 2021). The people that are in the position of legal authority can also be called external stakeholders.
The related information from the stakeholders collected through a creating questionnaire needed to complete the survey. The survey has been done in offline methods. The questionnaires are distributed and are collected back after getting back responses (Mattila-Holappa, 2018). The question will be related to awareness of alcohol and health related issues associated with alcohol
The aims of this intervention include: the males in the group to gain social support from one another to find alternatives for alcohol and identify motivational goals that give reason to reduce alcohol consumption. The health belief model is an individual personal belief specifically in a threat of individuality or disease that also together keeps the individual belief. It Is highly effective regarding the Health that is properly Recommended. The health behaviour or the action that is present gulps in predicting the likelihood of a person in order to adopt an appropriate environment overall. There are about 5 different beliefs of the health belief model. The beliefs are perceived severity, secondly the perceived susceptibility, the benefits regarding the perceived nature is also noticed. The barriers are also perceived. In this campaign educational approach has to be followed to create awareness regarding adverse effects of alcohol consumption on health there are different actions and Different clues that were also kept in mind. These can also be termed as the different stages of the health belief model.The barriers of the intervention can be mitigated by explaining the adverse effect of alcohol consumption. In many cases it has been noted that people don't care about the health impacts as any health issues have not been experienced by them. They should be informed of the fact that it can lead to heart diseases or in extreme cases liver cirrhosis.
The health belief model can be used in nursing for asserting different beliefs that can be susceptible in nature. This also helps in maintaining health problems. The consequences are also severe. The person is way more likely to face all the severe consequences that would be benefiting the barriers that are present in an association (verywellmind.com, 2022). There are about three different models or theories that are highly related to the health Behaviour change. They help the planners in providing different effective promotions in health. The different programs of health are sociological, transtheoretical and lastly the health belief model.
For reducing the amount of these issues, the national government has implemented two major intervention plans as survey planning and social welfare programs in the locality. As based on the Pender’s model as a health promotion, theory people are multidimensional by their nature (Van and Chelwa, 2019). They interact and connect with others as they pursue their health according to the external environment. Every individual have different types of characteristics and they have their own specific experiences that affect their behavioural outcomes.
To measure the benefit of the intervention and understand the participants needs, the survey is one of the primary methods to reduce alcohol abuse cases in the UK by supporting the male with alcohol difficulties. These processes work effectively by focusing on the intervention plans to reduce the amount of alcohol abuse cases rate. As based on the evidence survey programmes effectively reduce the rate of alcohol abuse but due to lack of unity in groups and locality causing issues for this intervention plan. The survey can work as the most effective intervention plan for this type of case; every individual has a different issue and different ways of outburst (Van and Chelwa, 2019). For that, reasoning taking a survey individually can work well to get results about every different characteristic and measure pre and post intervention improvements in alcohol consumption.
There are various types of alcohol abuse cases, are happening in various places due to several reasons. Relationship issue is one of the major cause of this issue apart from this parenting disagreement, personal stress, financial loss or crisis, marital oppression all are linked with alcohol abuse (Wamsleyet al. 2018).
In the past decades the public health community has provided proper attention to the Increasing number of social determinants in health. Different social Policies are present for shopping for health in an appropriate way. Various studies have been properly attempted in order to assess the various impacts that are present as social factors relating to health. The health impacts are related to the social factors that are supported by various string and properly observed associations that are present as health indicators. This further does not imply the differences that are present for maintaining the racial and the ethnic groups. Anexplanationrelated to this is the racism discrimination that would have been impacted the health of different individuals in an area (gov.uk, 2022). While living in such a soviet where the legacy is quite strong the racial discrimination becomes of the crucial part among the individuals. There are various increases in the dramatic criteria during life expectancy including the proper sanitation, nutrition and most important clean water. Another example that is related to medical care is the widening of the mortality rate between the different social classes in the parts of the United Kingdom.
The intervention will promote activities that support such areas of distress including a focus on family, employment and finance. In between the sessions at the community centers, all respondents who have consent over the survey get a phone call and state their present situation. This will support reducing the rate of alcohol abuse and answer questions that are asked during the program. There are many great health professionals are present during the program who have given good and effective advice to them. That works well to reduce the rate of alcohol abuse by changing the mentality of the abusers by changing their thought and mind in between them.
Various interventions are present regarding the development of the scenario regarding alcohol abuse among the middle aged individuals. Various negative outcomes are present regarding the study of alcohol abuse. The negative impacts are high blood pressure, then diseases of the heart. Disease related to stroke, liver and digestive problems are also present. All these will be causing problems in the breast, mouth, throat and many more. It also increases the likelihood of the incidents flat are present in fractures and falls. Individuals might even feel depressed and anxiety that becomes hard to deal with.
Intervention processes are mainly used for process evaluation to get better measures from a test. Quantitative process evaluation is used here for the data collection method that is mainly developed through specific scales. This study is focused on reducing the amount of alcohol abuse rate in the UK and quantitative data evaluation process used in this study to quantitatively assess the major aspects of the alcohol intervention with the participation of the abusers, victims, their family members and normal people from the society (Kane et al. 2017). Quantitative data collection is used in this study for getting a better result based on the statistics with the help of computational tools that derive effective results from the surveys. The survey method is used for the intervention to subjective overview from the survey. That identified from the research and process. The general population of the UK is the primary participant of this survey and based on their survey, survey team members have identified the prior issue (Cabéet al. 2021). That faced by the UK’s people due to excessive amounts of alcohol consumption. This survey method creates a projectable result that builds on the activity of local people. The survey method gives specific results about the given issue, where dependant and dependent factors are present. The major advantages of the quantitative data collection process are, it involves a survey method that gives real-time results based on the experiments and interaction with the affected people.
In the first stage, the survey is used as the major data collection method that includes a collection of the material that is examined through the entire survey process. The survey is one of the easiest processes that is analysed within a very short period. This method gives more information about the alcohol abuse cases in the UK. Due to get better results from the survey team member should work, more effectively to identify the major variables, not as a prevalent option. A qualitative method such as interview and focus groups may also be necessary to understand the barriers and facilitators to the males engaging in the activities the intervention encourages.
The four major ethical principles are Beneficence, non mal-ficence, autonomy, Justice and equity. These are widely accepted in the field of ethical views of any literature. The first principle respect for autonomy generally reveals the respect for individual rights along with their right to determine their lives. Beneficence generally used for commitment prospects with doable actions and which generally benefits one (Premkumar, 2021). The next principle is non mal-ficence that is used to obligate the issues that do not harm all patients’ or clients. This also includes several precautions and this generally prevails the doubt if there is any problem found in ethical issues. Justice and equity is another major principle which is generally used to obligate a fair act to deal with the case which is under competition and it encourages one to to claim the rights for required resources.
The intervention program on this matter should be aware of the state and federal regulations of the United Kingdom. Anyresearcher work is not harmed during this project, and person’s work is not taken for making project. The sets of the principles and guides that are used for this research, maintains itsconfidentiality. With the consent of the researchers, this study proceeds and this research protects every rights of participants of this project along with maintaining the scientific integrity.
It can be concluded from the above discussion that people are suffering a lot from alcohol abuse in society and for that reason, the social structure and ethics are disintegrating. The greater negative effect of alcohol consumption is alcohol abuse. The abusers also suffer from several physical as well as mental problems that can be treated under clinical backgrounds. Alcohol consumers are prone to have liver dysfunction, and heart problems. There is a probability of having cancer in the oesophageal spaces and buccopharyngeal regions of excessive alcohol consumers. A planning approach can be done for the intervention program in order to discard the occurrence of abuse in society. The close group sessions can also be beneficial for the patient's mental status. Their psychological disorders can be improved by a thorough check-upand they can be back in mainstream life. The ethical approach should be followed throughout the health intervention.
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