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As per the data from the World Health Organization, HIV AIDS is a major cause of death in adolescents in the region of sub-Saharan Africa. It has been found from the studies conducted by Roche et al., (2022) that in the year 2016, 6,10,000 people aged between 15 to 19 years were infected with HIV/AIDS. In recent times, there is limited access to prevention and intervention for HIV in adolescents. According to Kiwanuka et al., (2022) there are only 10% of the girls and 15% of the boys have been tested for HIV in the sub-Saharan region. Furthermore, according to the reports from Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Data only 10% of the student at high schools have been tested for HIV. Due to multiple co-recurring transitions, adolescents are more prone to the risk of HIV. According to Logie et al. (2022) Most of the burden of infection of HIV falls under small populations such as transgender youths, young women and girls, and youths who inject drugs. The main factor causing HIV among these populations are poverty, lack of education, lack of access to healthcare, sexual violence, and gender power imbalance.
HIV or human immunodeficiency virus is defined as a virus that attacks the human body depleting the immune system and if not diagnosed and treated on time can lead to development of AIDs (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) (Gamarel et al., 2021). According to World Health Organization, the term adolescence is defined as the period between the ages of 10 to 19 which usually occurs in the post-childhood phase and before the adulthood phase. Adolescence is also determined by social activities such as finishing school, pregnancy, and marriage. In other words, adolescence refers to the period when the child is legally known as an adult (Logie et al., 2022).
To combat the infection of HIV/AIDS, there must be intervention to control the transmission of the disease through various medical strategies which combine the biomedical technologies for prevention of the disease with structural and behavioural interventions (Logie et al., 2022). This is mainly because the behavioural and structural interventions separately did not prove to be enough to prevent HIV/AIDS among adolescents and the young population (Mbengo et al., 2021). Hence a combination of both structural behavioural and biomedical intervention is required for prevention. The centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) explains the intervention of HIV/AIDS as health, medical, and public health approaches that stabilizes the physiological and biological factors which help in preventing the infection of HIV (Logie et al., 2022). In the last five years, there has been tremendous technological advancement in biomedical intervention. Some of the interventions include HIV testing, PrEP, long-acting injectable PrEP, Male circumcision, and anti-retroviral drugs (Mbengo et al., 2021). This paper will analyse critically two qualitative and two quantitative studies by discussing their strength, weaknesses, and ethical consideration and will also determine HIV prevention intervention for adolescents.
For this review, relevant research work through various literature has been taken into consideration including search engines like Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier, and all other journal and peer-reviewed journal which were published after the year 2010. To get the relevant information, appropriate keywords have been used for this review. What were those keywords ? Keywords used are HIV prevention intervention, HIV among adolescence, HIV AIDs.The studies involved children below 10 years of age and adults over 20 years of age. why studies involved 10 and above 20 ? You stated intervention for adolescents. Your age range should be 10- 19 as per your definition of adolescence in the introduction? It’s a typo error which actually meant above between 10 years to 19 yearsTo get the relevant studies, a search through the referencing part of the articles has also been done. Furthermore, due to the validity and reliability of the sources, the primary sources have been taken from the year 2010 as they are still considered to be appropriate and suitable (Stoner et al., 2021). Checklists from CASP (2018) were further used to evaluate the reliability and validity of chosen articles.
Out of four qualitative and quantitative studies conducted to analyze the HIV intervention prevention studies, two of the qualitative studies indicated that young women and students in high school are more prone to the transmission of the disease. Firstly due to limited education among young women and secondly, the lack of prevention by the young children in high school. The study conducted by Gamarel et al., (2021) revealed that young women, especially from the sub-Saharan region, have been encouraged to take schooling by providing benefits to their parents such as cash transfers with a condition that the girl must have an 80% attendance rate. However, there is no agreement on what? On the study conducted by Gamarel et al., (2021) asin both the study as it had ignored other populations such as the Transgender community (Stoner et al., 2021). As per the outcome of the qualitative studies, only studying a limited area or population will not hold a true picture of the qualitative study. The transgender and the population of male to the male sexual relationship are more prone to the transmission of HIV AIDS and require immediate attention for any intervention related to the prevention of the disease.
The variance in the outcome of the study where have you discussed the outcome of qualitative studies? The outcome of the qualitative studies have been discussed in the previous paragraph highlighted in bold Greencan be easily explained with the help of different prevention intervention such as intervention to decrease violence based on gender as the rate of HIV AIDS are very high and there is a high rate of Intimate Partner Violence. According to the study conducted by Shanaube et al., (2021) 24 to 40 percent of young women infected with HIV AIDS have reported having violence with their partners. In contrast to this study, one of the studies conducted by Hosek and Pettifor (2019) taking outlined that to prevent violence to reduce the transmission of HIV AIDS, a community mobilization has been initiated as a tool to combat the transmission of AIDS (Zanoni et al., 2022). However, there was a limitation in both the studies carried out to identify the HIV prevention intervention as it takes into consideration very few factors that cause the disease and focused on only one region which would not give a clear picture of the possible transmission of the disease worldwide and hence, it would affect in the identification of the suitable HIV prevention intervention to combat the disease in adolescence (Chimbindi et al., 2022). Also, one of the major drawbacks of both the qualitative study is that they depend on the data which has been self-reported from only the participant's age between 10 years to 19 years where it can be possible that the data retrieved will be inaccurate (Zanoni et al., 2022). Also, in a few cases and studies in the articles, there has been an issue related to ethical considerations where there is no clarity if the information provided by the young population has been kept confidential or not.
In the same way, the other two quantitative studies have strengths on their own as according to the study conducted by Chimbindiet al., (2022) the participant was interviewed in their natural setting and the wider area of the population have been discovered along with various clinical trials which were conducted in various countries across the globe. Since the quantitative study is carried out by analyzing and collecting the numerical data, certain predication and casual relationships carried out in the study have been proved to be correct and the results that have been obtained by taking into consideration a wider population to be able to reflect a true picture of the study (Shanaube et al., 2021). However, both the quantitative studies have their limitations as there are chances of errors while calculating the data and can result in incorrect data about the prevention and intervention of HIV AIDs among the adolescent population (Nelson et al., 2022). Furthermore, In this study as well, there is no clarity provided in both the studies about the confidentiality of the data that has been taken which gives a scope of non-adherence to the ethical consideration of both the quantitative study.
All the qualitative and quantitative study that has been considered for this review present adequate information, high-quality methodologies, and the style of presentation while reflecting the factors that contribute to HIV AIDS and also determining the prevention intervention has been effective enough to control the transmission of the disease, especially in young women (Chimbindi et al., 2022). Moreover, in this study factors determining the transmission of the disease have been discussed extensively along with the various intervention that has been prevalent to combat HIV such as PrEP, long-acting injectable PrEP, and male circumcision (Hosek and Pettifor, 2019). Hence for a successful intervention, the prevention methods must reach a wider population to reduce the occurrence of HIV/AIDS among adolescence (Hosek and Pettifor, 2019).
To have an effective study, the methods of the qualitative and quantitative research should be free from personal biases of the research (Chimbindi et al., 2022). Also, a proper understanding of the appropriate audience would help the researcher to carry out research. The right method will also help in getting the exact and error-free result of the study. Finally, the ethical consideration should be focused on to avoid any ethical issues (Gamarel, Stephenson, and Hightow-Weidman, 2021).
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