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Shteynberg, G., Hirsh, J.B., Bentley, R.A. and Garthoff, J., (2020). Shared worlds and shared minds: A theory of collective learning and a psychology of common knowledge. Psychological Review, 127(5), p.918.
The type of source which is used here is the secondary one and the main aim of this source is to illustrate the aspects of observational learning or vicarious learning. This type of learning is considered the cornerstone of behavioral sciences as it is associated with continuity, diversity along with innovation to ensure psychological changes within humans. Moreover, it is also possible to demonstrate a clear overview regarding the fact that if learning happens through social interaction or observation from society and in the same vein, how it helps to incorporate psychological changes in the classroom.
This research has conceptualized different cognitive mechanisms related to vicarious learning. It is mainly inspired by the work related to "shared mental states", shared emotions, attitudes, and beliefs based on which it is possible to reflect distinctly human ability. A theory of collective learning has been offered by this study as well that helps to gather the collective attention of the fellow group members within the classroom learning. It has been also argued in this study that collective attention is effective enough to make sure that the existing information within the classroom must be common knowledge for all (Shteynberg et al. 2020, p.127). However, at the end of this study, it has been identified that both teaching, as well as collective attention to learning, are essential to develop positive impacts on human psychology bly within the classroom.
This research is quite convincing as it is based on the development of classroom learning for the students especially by incorporating collective and vicarious learning along with the help of common knowledge. It is also possible to get a better understanding from this work that a distinct level of knowledge matters most for the "horizon of human communication" and understanding (Shteynberg et al. 2020, p.127). No such target population has been considered here whereas the researcher wanted to make the study more descriptive by analyzing different concepts such as collective identity, cognitive collaboration, and others. This research is able to deliver a clear understanding to the intended audience (research peers) about the importance of collective learning with the help of a theoretical perspective and psychology regarding common knowledge. It is also the usefulness of this source and in contrast, it is also possible to understand that presence of weaker and less certain “collective attention” occurs in specific situations whereas these can affect the learning potential severely.
The journal is credible as it was published by the “American Psychological Association” which is the largest scientific organisation of psychologists in the US. In case of comparison, the research of Verdun et al. (2020, p.750), shows that vicarious intervention in the classroom environment is able to raise learning opportunities for students. This research is more effective to identify the benefits of vicarious learning as statistical information is presented here regarding the target population to identify their mindset for incorporating "equivalence-based instructions" into the classroom settings. The researcher mainly used a secondary data collection method to gather realistic information and proper in-text citations were used to avoid practical, theoretical, or ethical issues.
I am able to learn the fact that vicarious or observational learning is well suited to the changing potentials of learning in the present era. As per my understanding, collective attention is much more effective to improve the consequences of recall memory, increase goal pursuit, amplify emotions as well as strengthen behavioral learning among the learners. This source is helpful for me and also shapes my argument as it has changed my thinking regarding the effectiveness of vicarious learning rather than the traditional approaches in the classroom.
Del Mar Haro-Soler, M., (2019). Vicarious learning in the translation classroom: how can it influence students' self-efficacy beliefs?. English Studies at NBU, 5(1), pp.92-113.
The type of source which is annotated here is the secondary source and the main aim of this source is to analyze the core ways related to vicarious learning that can materialize within translation classrooms. In addition to this, the social cognitive theory has been taken under consideration here in order to incorporate the beliefs that are associated with it within the research topic.
This study has been developed on the core aspect that self-efficacy beliefs within human psychology can be facilitated with the help of vicarious learning. The researcher has used the “mixed methodological approach” to gather reliable information about the effectiveness of self-efficacy beliefs in translator education where the psychological mindset directly contributes to the satisfactory performance of individuals (Del Mar Haro-Soler, 2019, p.100). Based on the findings, it has been identified that vicarious learning is able to positively influence the students in translation classrooms and also satisfy their needs to ensure a more developed area of performance. On the contrary Campbell and Ronfeldt (2018, p.1250), argued that vicarious learning is not well effective for low-skilled learners as they are not able to catch the appropriate things on a frequent aspect. It can raise stress situations that can affect their performance areas as well.
This research is convincing enough as through this, it is possible to develop an understanding of the certain fact that vicarious learning is much more appropriate in the present era to influence human psychology and the performance area of the students. In contrast with the social cognitive theory, this research is effective enough to highlight the fact that self-efficacy beliefs develop the self-perception of individuals that promote performance areas of students in classrooms as well (Del Mar Haro-Soler, 2019, p.100). The target population of this research was the third-year students of "The University of Granada (Spain) and the value that it has generated for them is to develop their self-efficacy beliefs through vicarious learning. This research has developed such positive values for the intended audiences as it helped to analyze the impacts of certain practices to support vicarious learning in the area of translation studies. The aforementioned aspect has been also added in the knowledge area through which it can be possible to promote the core understanding of the development of learning areas severely within the classroom.
The journal is credible as it was published by the department of "Translation and Interpreting" of "The University of Granada, Spain" which indicates its reliability effectively. In the case of conducting a comparison, from the research of Pleines (2020, p.460), it has been observed that vicarious participation is well observed in the educational contexts of the UK. The researcher used "semi-structured interviews" here through which it is possible to gain a clear overview of the motivational benefits that vicarious participation provided them to facilitate their performance areas most suitably. This research is better presented whereas the research topic is quite different and from this aspect, the selected article for making the entire bibliography is more accepted. No such practical, theoretical, or ethical issues have been observed within the study as the researcher collected data in a particular way.
This source is well fir for this research and the source is helpful enough for me as through this, I am able to understand the positive impacts of vicarious learning to enhance the self-efficacy among the students. The source is also beneficial to shape the argument to the question posed as I am able to change my thinking regarding the fact that vicarious learning not only incorporates changes in human psychology whereas it also helps to develop the performance areas of learners.
“Park, S. and Puranam, P., 2020. Learning what they think vs. learning what they do: The micro-foundations of vicarious learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.15264, pp. 30-53”
The type of system that is being annotated in the particular article is a secondary source. The main aim of the study is to focus on the different fundamental processes of vicarious learning that are used in the classroom. The respective study has shed light on the ways of teaching vicarious learning that is theoretically present and the ways they are taught in classrooms.
The learning that is performed in the classroom consists of important elements. As per the study, the identification of two types of methods in vicarious learning in classrooms is being done. As stated by Park and Puranam (2020, p. 49), the first type of learning is the observation of actions which declare the things that are done in learning, and the other one is belief sharing which statuses the thoughts related to learning. The models of vicarious learning consist of three different insights which are based on different perspectives. The benefit of vicarious learning is gained by students through a particular process which is by the students themselves (Asakura and Bogo, 2021, p. 111).
The respective scenario occurs only when the beginning of any agents in the systems comprising vicarious learners does not have any kind of knowledge advantage. Therefore, it can be stated that the vicarious learners themselves try to improve their scale of knowledge without taking any kind of help from teachers. According to Robbins et al. (2019, p. 173), the vicarious learning that is being done through belief sharing is not counted to be universal rather it is considered to be better than outcomes as well as actions of mutual observations. Moreover, the authorization of mutual observations of outcomes and actions is better in comparison to belief shadings. It is applicable under certain conditions such as when the characteristics of the task environment include multiple alternatives consisting of a huge amount of differences in values (Asakura and Bogo, 2021, p. 111). On the other hand, the final insights depict that in vicarious learning there is symmetry affecting sharing of beliefs in an adverse manner; it is known to be improvising observational learning.
The research work is highly convincing as the formulas used in the research for the calculation related to the choice rule, lessons learned from students' own experiences, believed exchange, and observations are appropriate. The target population of the respective study is the students who are known to be taking their lessons by attending the classes in classrooms. As the appropriate population is targeted, therefore, it is counted to be one of the reasons behind increasing the value of the work. Apart from that, the significance of the study is high as well as it has efficiency in supporting research peers who are the intended audiences. The research task is informative enough to assist future researchers in their research purpose. In comparison with the other journals, the concerned journal is different as it shows the logical ways of obtaining results on the respective topic of research.
The source fits into my research primarily, as it has relevance to my research. Additionally, the source was helpful for me as well, as though the study I was able to clear my donut of the formulas that are being used in obtaining the results. I have been able to increase my knowledge along with shaping my arguments for my study as well. The information that I have gone through and is present in the sources allowed me to gain more knowledge in the respective area.
“Xie, Z., Lin, R., Wang, J., Hu, W. and Miao, L., 2020. Vicarious learning: How entrepreneurs enhance a firm’s international competitiveness through learning from interlocking director network partners. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, p.689.”
The fourth annotated bibliography is a secondary source whose main center point of attraction is to identify the ways through which it is possible to increase the knowledge through vicarious learning of students by attending classrooms. Vicarious learning is considered to be a notable approach in the concerned study.
Through the application of the lens of students' psychology in the paper, the inspection of vicarious learning is being done by considering it to be a method used for overcoming the uncertainties faced by students in their learning courses. As mentioned by Xie et al. (2020, p.689), the learning habits of the students vary, and their dependence on their psychology as well. The memorizing capability of all students present in the classroom is not the same and thus, through the approach of vicarious learning, the level of competition among students can be identified as well. The data that is collected for the following study has been analyzed. It states the fact that the psychological improvement of students can be improved through vicarious learning.
The respected learning approach is not only limited to a certain nation or a certain group of students, yet rather it applies to all aged learners. As argued by Liu and Liu (2020, p. 4720), through vicarious learning, the opportunities being provided to learners by the teachers are enhanced in knowledge absorption along with offering a positive moderate effect. The research study is in charge of not only practical contributions, yet rather theoretical contributions as well for increasing the competitiveness among students through exploring vicarious learning. The identification of different learning processes has been done in the study which is classified as knowledge applications, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge absorption. The various learning makes it possible to gain experiences of certain situations without being present in that particular place (Aksoy-Pekacar et al. 2020, p. 473). In the classroom, vicarious learning is being learned by showing the video to the students such that they can feel the reality through the video without brewing present in the particular place.
The validity, as well as accuracy of the source, is high as it has been collected from the relevant resource. According to Bloemen-Bekx et al. (2019, p. 661), the convincing capability of the work is up to the mark, as it has been selected from multiple other resources, based on the context of the research. As it is a well-known fact that the valuation of any research work is done based on certain important factors, the scenario is the same in the following case as well. The target samples that have been studied in the work are the university students and research peers the valuation of work is also high. The credibility of the author of the work is high due to the high usefulness of the source as it can be used in the future for research purposes.
The source has been chosen from the authentic resource and is selected due to its high enriching contest of the source. The high efficiency of the source is counted to be one of the causes behind the selection of the particular study among all other sources. I have gained a huge amount of benefit from the study as it allowed me to understand the different ways of vicarious learning which, I was not well accustomed to in the past. The viewpoint I had regarding the topic not only changed, rather in certain cases rectified as well the sooner I came across the article.
“Myers, C.G., 2021. Performance benefits of reciprocal vicarious learning in teams. Academy of Management Journal, 64(3), pp.926-947.”
The final source that is annotated is a secondary source that is collected from one of the secondary resources. In the paper, one of the main aims is to broaden the understanding related to vicarious learning through the process of experimentation with the consequences of vicarious learning.
The critical section of vicarious learning that is identified in the study is the experiences and the knowledge gained by all the members of the student group. According to the view of Myers (2021, p. 944), vicarious learning is depicted to be a type of interdependency teamwork yet there is the presence of limitations as well. One of the limitations of vicarious learning includes oversimplification of learning, which makes the findings to be in context as well as incomplete. As stated by Sheu et al. (2018, p. 120), there is mention an important fact which is the distribution of vicarious learning among students team. In this case, if the distribution is not done evenly, it results in a knowledge gap among individuals in the team. On the other hand, if the distribution is done properly, there is a high probability of all the members of the team gaining an equal amount of knowledge through vicarious learning.
The work is thoroughly convincing as it is responsible for highlighting the critical section of performances as well as the learning of students through vicarious learning. In the classroom, for the sake of group tasks, groups are performed which helps in comparing the performances of students and the effectiveness of vicarious learning accordingly (Schou et al. 2022, p. 2089). The group of students is the main target audience which is selected from the target population which is all the students of all schools.
The intended audiences are able to understand the effectiveness of vicarious learning in a work team in order to facilitate team performance. This source is useful enough as through this, it is possible to gain a clear overview of the performance benefits that are associated with reciprocal vicarious learning in the teams (Sheu et al. 2018, p. 120). Moreover, it is also possible to enhance the knowledge area about the fact that learning efforts within a team show only when the team members are able to conduct appropriate interpersonal interactions and it is facilitated through vicarious learning only. The journal is credible as it was conducted by the university professors such as “John Hopkins University”. In order to conduct the comparison, from the research of Modha (2021, p.50), it has been identified that vicarious learning promotes the context of experimental learning through which it is possible to promote the scope of greater learning. However, no such ethical, experimental, or theoretical issues are observed regarding the different methodologies as the researcher gathered data through the novel method by maintaining proper guidelines.
This source is well fitted with the research as through this, I am able to learn about the consequences of reciprocal vicarious learning. This source is also helpful for me to develop my knowledge areas regarding both the benefits and limitations of vicarious learning. It has changed my thinking about the fact that vicarious learning within teams delivers the same benefits as using it in the classrooms.
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