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With Brexit Imposing Economic Sanction On Itself Assignment Sample

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With Brexit Imposing Economic Sanction On Itself Assignment Sample

Introduction: With Brexit Imposing Economic Sanction On Itself

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The United Kingdom united with the European Economic Community (a regional enterprise aiming at bringing an economic union community between many participating nations) in 1973, and it afterwards transformed into a member of the European Union in 1993 when the European Union emerged (Kellard et al., 2022). Furthermore, the United Kingdom has consistently kept itself apart from the European Union. The United Kingdom has its currency and has refused to support the European accord, which aims to eliminate an effective system of internal restrictions inside the European Union. Citizens throughout the British political establishment have long been resistant to the notion of being united with the European Union, and maybe due to this hostility has become stronger specifically since the 2008 recession in the economy (Milner et al., 2021). In 2012, David Cameron who was the elected Prime Minister at that time, pledged a democratic vote on the concern if the United Kingdom should remain united with the European Union or should exit. From there, the idea of Brexit emerged which is composed of two words, Britain and exit (Pandzic et al., 2021). 


Motive behind Brexit

Countless people seemed to have very little understanding of the reason for voting or what the repercussions for their voters would be, and after voting for Brexit countless voters now appear to be truly repentant. However, the findings acknowledged the presence of a dispersed rage among the citizens of the United Kingdom. During the first impression, it was quite difficult to understand the prime reason behind Brexit, particularly when compared to several other European nations. The United Kingdom economy was performing fine already before the vote for Brexit. Based on the economic reports of 2015, the economic growth in the United Kingdom was recorded highest of any notable European country and seemed to be even comparable to that of the United States (Hill et al., 2022).

The level of unemployment was also recorded to be the lowest behind Germany, as well as the part of the population of the United Kingdom in employment achieved the highest degree ever, nearly equivalent since the beginning of the records from the first quarter of the year 1970. Therefore, even after such a performance why people were inclined to vote for Brexit (Branston et al., 2021). Based on the economic records, it has been found that even after such performance countless people were angry due to the rise in major economic complications including inequality, stagnant earnings, and in-work poverty (Cucinelli et al., 2021). A United Kingdom economic report suggested that the top ten per cent of the general population were getting ten times larger salaries than the population from the lower tier of the economic hierarchy, which angered the citizens of the United Kingdom since the same ratio rose only to seven per cent in France and Germany. This inequality report showed that even after sustaining such a high degree of benefit, the benefit was not evenly impacting the population of the United Kingdom (Murphy et al., 2022).

As per Office for national statistics, which estimates the weekly average salaries of workers, showed that the real wages decreased till mid-2014. Salaries also performed better than inflationary pressures ever since, but many have failed to return to the initial state before the economic crisis (Kellard et al., 2022). Hence, average wages in the United Kingdom have not increased in more than a decade. As per the reports and assessments gathered from the Institute of Fiscal Studies, the number of individuals living in poverty has remained relatively constant for the last decade (Pandzic et al., 2021). Therefore, even after the economic crisis, this circumstance can be regarded as Thus, it can be reasonably positive news, but this instance also "masks major and contrasting trends or patterns," notably the fact that "rates of poverty within and between middle-class families have increased, mostly due to declining real incomes."

With low pay inflation and stagnant higher disposable salaries, it might also be a surprise that several individuals, particularly those belonging to low-income households, opted for an alternative portrayed by People who voted to leave Britain as an inevitable resolution to a variety of issues, especially poor salaries and poor public facilities. Meanwhile, the anticipated economic consequences of Brexit leave many voters with little optimism (Kohnert et al., 2021).

Not only the mentioned economic factors were responsible for Brexit but some political aspects were also inclined towards the separation of the United Kingdom from the European Union. 

Consequently, Britain's political system during the ongoing Brexit happening in the United Kingdom suffered a significant setback (Branston et al., 2021). The major Conservative political group and the parties belonging to the labour union were rebuffed by "Brexit'' activists. Both political parties had supported the notion of the United Kingdom being united with the European Union, even when many party members left the corresponding parties due to this reason. It came down to a three-way fight in the end (Bressanelli et al., 2021). Two mainstream parties preferred to be united with the European Union, but third party participants were selected from both parties who left the parties. This third category perceived both mainstream political parties as opposed to their interests (Pollitt et al., 2022).

Impact of Brexit on Britain's Economy

The economic report published in 2018 following the effects imposed by the occurrence of Brexit, suggested that Britain lost 2-3 per cent of the gross annual GDP. The published report showed that the loss was greater considering the reports published in 2017 which were statistically reported to be around a 0.6 - 1.3 per cent reduction in the GDP (Kohnert et al., 2021). Several studies have suggested potential Brexit-induced ambiguity regarding the future of Britain's trade policies which decreased British overseas commerce beginning around the mid of 2016 (Douch et al., 2021). According to a 2019 study, British corporations significantly boosted offshore to the European Union following the Brexit election, meanwhile European organisations curtailed additional economic inflows in Britain (Hill et al., 2022). 

The Bank of England's and financial institutions ' short-term budgetary structure estimates of the outcomes that potentially could happen soon following the Brexit election are just too severe (Murphy et al., 2022). The evaluations predicted that perhaps the election outcomes would increase financial distress and reduce consumer faith farther than they did. Short-term economic predictions have traditionally been likened to being unreliable. A formal contract regarding the trade was concluded between the European Union and the United Kingdom at the expiration of the contract (Kellard et al., 2022). It resolved several concerns to saving the trading business between the United Kingdom and the European Union, even though European Union has been an important trading partner for the United Kingdom but this trade business has not been categorised as being more beneficial than European Union membership in terms of eliminating all bureaucracy (Branston et al., 2021). 

The government of Britain conducted their Brexit research and published the research in January 2018, revealing that the economy of Britain's growth will be slowed by 2–8 per cent for at least 15 years after the occurrence of the Brexit election, relying upon the leave outcome (Pandzic et al., 2021).

Benefits Achieved through Brexit

Due to Brexit it became possible to achieve unrestricted immigration and reclaimed sovereignty of UK borders (Elsayed et al., 2021). After Brexit, the UK implemented points-based immigration policies targeting skilled employees and the biggest potential expertise, with qualification and income limits and an English-language demand. Ranging from physicians and scientists to chefs and engineers, Britain also welcomed large numbers of workers with the competencies needed to sustain Britain's domestic labour force as we recover from the Covid epidemic (Kohnert et al., 2021).

Britain returned to the Parliament as well as the reduced the ability of Parliaments to draught and investigate regulations that apply directly to the general population of Britain, hence, this way the laws can now be mandates modified in Belfast, Cardiff, Edinburgh, and London rather than Brussels (Copeland et al., 2021). The Supreme Court of Britain has been reinstated as the final judge of Britain's law. This further shows the compliance and understanding of UK law as after Brexit the judgements are issued in the English language which was earlier issued in the French language (Dayan et al., 2021). 

After Brexit, it became more difficult for European Union convicts to enter the territory of Britain (Hudson et al., 2021). European citizens condemned for a duration of one or more than one year in prison will also be denied entry into the United Kingdom. Before Brexit, Britain had to permit certain convicted criminals inside the nation under European Union free movement regulation, who would have been turned away under UK jurisdiction (Pollitt et al., 2022). The UK has now reconciled the regulations for European Union offenders who aren't being safeguarded by the Withdrawal Agreement. The Withdrawal Agreement is not limited to European Union criminals but all foreign criminals (Murphy et al., 2022). 

Britain abolished special privileges of European Union migrants over immigrants from other countries thus restoring the proper utilisation of the welfare system in Britain. After Brexit, it was only possible for individuals even immigrating from the European Union who want to choose Britain as their residence must pay into the system for a substantial amount of time before opting to reap the benefit of Britain's economic and political legislation (Hill et al., 2022). 

Using the United Kingdom International Tariff, the UK can create their tariff system after separating from European Union. Studies suggest that the present UK International Tariff is better suited to the demands of the United Kingdom economy and is priced in pounds rather than euros (Kellard et al., 2022).

The consequence of Brexit 

Brexit's repercussions can affect businesses from inside the United Kingdom, as well as Gibraltar. The most serious drawback of Brexit has been the harm this does to the United Kingdom's income progress (Pandzic et al., 2021). 

The majority of the economic complication arose due to the uncertainty around the eventual conclusion. The British pound declined from $1.48 to $1.36 just after the election for Brexit. This advantages exporters while increasing import duties. And the British pound seems to be unable to recoup from damage caused by Brexit (Kohnert et al., 2021). According to studies, Europe is anticipated to have a labour gap of 3 million skilled staff by 2030. Companies are having an even more difficult time recruiting qualified candidates. One explanation is that employees whose origin is from European Union fled the United Kingdom in massive numbers, with their numbers have dropped by 95 per cent in 2017 (Dayan et al., 2021).

Brexit has been referred to as a referendum on globalisation (Kellard et al., 2022). As a consequence Brexit has undermined pro-integration movements inside the European Union. In instances where any one country either France or Germany leaves the European Union, the EU would end up losing the most powerful economy and the economy will disintegrate (Pollitt et al., 2022). Brexit has also expressed concern about London's role as an international centre of commerce. The United Kingdom was supposed to establish a commercial agreement with the United States in early 2021, however, those efforts have been halted since Brexit (Murphy et al., 2022). 

Effect on Multinational and Bilateral Trade

Increased obstacles to trade, financial integration, and free movement of labour will harm the economy and livelihoods not only within the UK, as well as in the other 27 member states of the European Union, but these instances also happened preemptively after Brexit (Hill et al., 2022). The European Union and the United Kingdom have extensive ties: where the UK has been among the main commercial partners, contributing with over 13% of its trade in services and goods. After Britain departed from the European Union on January 31, 2020 (Portes et al., 2021). The United Kingdom continued to follow the regulations of the Trade Union and operate with the customs union of the European Union even while the transitory period for Brexit was active. This provided time for concluding the bilateral trade deal with the European Union (Pandzic et al., 2021).

Impact on Industries and Foreign Exchange Exposure

The impact of Brexit on Foreign Exchange happened before the occurrence of Brexit (Kohnert et al., 2021). Further evaluation suggests when the United Kingdom left the European Union and the transition for separation ended on December 31, 2020, exchange rate changes were rather minimal. A depreciation in the exchange rate, on the other hand, might benefit exports by decreasing the price of local resources to citizens of other nations (Murphy et al., 2022).

After Brexit it became complicated to aid and manage international payments and international trade, further complicating the business's financial authorities to check up on global financial risks and build new financial assessments for a post-Brexit future (Kellard et al., 2022). 

Exchange rate shifts for a variety of causes, but trade conflicts occurring between the United Kingdom and the European Union have been a major driver in exchange rate fluctuations during the previous five years (Pollitt et al., 2022).

The consequence of Diplomatic Relations 

The concluding decision of the Brexit election on leaving the European Union will have widely applicable ramifications regarding British foreign policy including diplomatic relations (Griffith et al., 2021). While much consideration is certainly being directed to the intricacies of the ways the United Kingdom could negotiate its departure from the European Union, which raises further concern about how 'Brexit' would influence the United Kingdoms' international significance of its role and association with Europe and with other countries around the globe (Kellard et al., 2022). 

Three recurring characteristics have impacted diplomatic relations since the transition of Brexit started. First, there is a broad general agreement among the possible aspects that perhaps Brexit has implied global impact altered dramatically ever since Brexit vote, and this impact was concluding towards UK's advantage (Murphy et al., 2022). Second, a substantial percentage of the complete sources examined objected concerns to what analysts see as a guard rail's tendency in the diplomatic relations after the transition of Brexit, which they think is wrong given Britain's relatively constrained potential for creating influence at the global level. Third, relatively a hopeful conceptualisation that appears in a variety of the sources underlines the opportunities currently available to the United Kingdom should it use its liberty (Hill et al., 2022).

Following Brexit through which the United Kingdom separated itself from the European Union has triggered an international policy 'existential crisis,' further argument concentrated on what function the United Kingdom will serve throughout the globe after Brexit (Edward et al., 2021). Although indications and information are suggesting that politicians of the United Kingdom are attempting to build a diplomatic relationship predicated on the notion of 'Global Britain,' one of the most probable explanations detailed in scholarly research is the one where the United Kingdom becomes more secluded from the world after Brexit (Dayan et al., 2021). 

  • How does Brexit affect Multinational companies?

The political and financial ramifications of the referendum are unavoidable for the government and the multinational companies, whose operations are intimately connected to those of other countries (Pandzic et al., 2021). 

While the UK’s exit from the EU offers numerous growth opportunities, the conclusion of the changing phase will have an impact on every multinational company delicately or crudely. Every multinational business that was doing business with European Union before Brexit will now have to adjust every practice and operation if the mentioned now reside in the UK jurisdiction (Dayan et al., 2021). Brexit imposed severe complications on the operations and workforce of the multinational companies and the most prominent complication was related to the workforce that residentially belong to the European Union after Brexit. Other significant complications that contribute as an element of the complications are the trademarks, patents which will now be affected severely due to Brexit and further need to revise (Dayan et al., 2021). 

  • Please use a table to analyse the vote and how they vote


Votes for Remain

Votes for Leave

East Midlands 



East of Englands 



Greater London



North East England



North West England 






South East England 



South West England 






West Midlands 



Northern Ireland 



Yorkshire and the Humber



On June 24, 2016, the United Kingdom voted to exit the EU by 51.89 per cent in favour of the Brexit to 48.11 per cent opposed to the Brexit, with a narrow difference of 3.78 per cent (Pandzic et al., 2021).

  • Use a chart for their Money or GDP trend

GDP in the United Kingdom increased by 0.7% in the last three months after the referendum, above the prior projection of 0.6%. The outstanding result demonstrates that the United Kingdom did not fall towards the despair forecasts made by campaigners who allegedly voted for remaining under the European Union before the June vote. Consequently, the overall economy grew by 1.8 per cent in 2016, which fall short compared to a prior projection of 2% due to a lower-than-expected achievement during the first quarter after Brexit. United Kingdom's economic expansion in the months following the Brexit has encouraged the major banking system to raise its 2017 growth prediction (Dayan et al., 2021).

  • U can also use a graph to analyse the vote, to show the region that voted more or less

Based on the reports it can be suggested that the referendum was very close with a marginal difference. Therefore, it cannot be suggested that Brexit was widely accepted by the United Kingdom (Pandzic et al., 2021). 


Therefore, it can be concluded that the United Kingdom got severely damaged economically after putting Brexit in motion. The above study supports the reports that suggest that for the last 31 years, due to Brexit, the UK suffered the most extensive economic distress (Pandzic et al., 2021). Based on the above discussion, it can also be concluded that the following decade is not going to ease the distress caused due to diverging from European Union. As economic scholars both from UK and EU published papers on the economic opportunities that both UK and EU would have inclined towards each other. It is critical to maintain an informative argument regarding the potential consequences of a Brexit Deal on the UK in comparison to other approaches. The new political rise against globalisation threatens to cause one of the most severe hardships to those who are the most adamantly opposed to it (Hill et al., 2022).

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