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Unit 4: Leadership And Management University Assignment Sample

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Unit 4: Leadership And Management University Assignment Sample

Introduction: Unit 4: Leadership And Management University

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Task 1

Section 1


Hersey & Blanchard’s Situation leadership Theory

DigiFreight CEO stated the goal as “set a target to double the net profit of the DigiFreight in the next two years”. This goal is relatedto this theoryover Hersey-Blanchard Model, that no single leadership style is superior to another. Instead of focusing on workplace variables, the model suggests that executivescustomize their management techniques to the individuals they supervise and their capabilities (Raza, and Sikandar, 2018).

Leadership Styles

Telling (S1)-Leaders tell their followers what to do and how to do it.

Selling (S2)-Leaders will continue to provide direction and information, but followers will talk less. Leaders must “convey” their message to the rest of the group for it to be accepted.

Participating (S3)-While participating, managers focus on the relationship rather than the goal. The group collaborates with management and makes decisions together.

Delegating(S4)-The majority of authority is delegated by leaders to their followers or DigiFreights. Leaders keep track of progress but have less say in decision-making (Hakim, Faizah, and Mas’ adah, 2021).

Maturity or Development Levels

M1 or D1 - This is the lowest level of maturity on the scale.

M2 or D2- While followers at this level may be eager to work solely on missions, they lack the necessary skills to do so effectively.

M3 or D3 - Everyone is eager to help with the goal.

M4 or D4- The following may work independently (Hakim, Faizah, and Mas’ adah, 2021).

Burns’ Transformational Leadership theory

According to Burns, Transforming leadership is a process in which members of a group help one another achieve higher levels of motivation. Burns addressed the issue of distinguishing between management and management by emphasising that the distinctions were based on attitudes and qualities. (Reza, 2019).

Power and motivation:Power and motivation, according to this theory, are critical components of development.

Leading as a joint intent: It is the use of power for a specified goal that encompasses both the followers’ and the leader’s interests, values, and objectives. In addition, he distinguished between transformational and power-ruling monarchs.

Leadership as an ethical endeavor: Burns was the first to bring it up that leadership is about helping and developing others rather than abusing and acting impulsively (Fritch, 2020).

Moreover, according to Burns transformational leaders not only create a long-term vision, and also motivate their subordinates, teach and develop superiors, and affect cultural change. Concerning the business of Digifreight, a transformational leader does the walk and earns their teammates’ trust and respect. These leaders quickly identify the needs of the team and help them achieve their goals with satisfaction, which increases the firm’s overall growth.


Taylor’s Scientific Management theory

Its main purpose is to boost economic efficiency, specifically worker productivity towards the stage’s goal of the set targetCEO to double the net profit for DigiFreight in the next two years.

The laws are based on Frederick Taylor’s ideas and are as follows"-

  • Science, not rational thought
  • Not Individualistic harmony, not Discord
  • Cooperation Individual progress
  • To maximize efficiency and profit, no production limitation (Dalcher, 2018).
  1. Science rather than practical wisdom: Taylor’s key concepts of scientific management theory advocate for just a purely scientific approach to decision making.
  2. Discord over Harmony: A DigiFreight is separated into two groups: staff and “management.” They must form a ‘Give and Take’ cooperation on the pitch.
  3. Collaboration over Individualism: It emphasizes the necessity of working together (management and workers).
  4. EmployeeTraining and Development for Maximum Productivity and Wealth: Employees must be properly trained and employed. It is also critical for all businesses (Dalcher, 2018).
  5. Maximum, not Limited production: The basic goal of any business is to maximize production. Taylor’s views in this situation are centered on maximizing output.

Handy’s Four Organisational Cultures Model

Organizational culture is influenced by structure, although it is difficult to define or describe because it is intangible.


In some DigiFreights, power is concentrated in the hands of a few individuals, and only they are authorized to make decisions.

Task Culture

The task culture is followed by DigiFreights which organizes groups to achieve goals or solve significant problems. People with comparable interests and specializations create groups in these DigiFreights.

Person Culture

Employees are sometimes more important than DigiFreight. This firm adheres to a culture known as person culture. Individuals that work within a strong culture are more concerned with themselves than with DigiFreight (Šehi?–Kršlak, 2020).

Culture of role-playing

To maximize one’s potential, a role culture assigns each person responsibilities and obligations based on his or her specialization, education level, and hobbies.

Section 2

2 (a)

Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Continuum of Leadership Styles

This leadership style the application for CEO stated goals establishes that has been executive behavior As executives shift away from the authoritarian extreme, the level of follower or judgement engagement increases. They found three factors that regularly challenged the leader’s decision: contextual variables, following forces, and leader forces (Hunt, and Fitzgerald, 2018). This recognises that a leader’s approach is so adaptable that even remote elements like a family conflict may have an impactin a more aggressive and responsive way.

McGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y application would follow the DigiFreight CEO over stated goal would satisfy McGregor’s theories and provide managers with unique models of workforce incentive to use in human resources management, organizational behavior, and communication skills, and organization effectiveness. Further, its application has been applied to motivate Digifreight workers throughmotivational theories including that Theories X and Y would use these diametrically opposing viewpoints to motivate their followers (Galani, and Galanakis, 2022). Theory X is concerned with supervision, whereas Theory Y is concerned with recognition and reward for the net profit to gain in the long term (2 years).

2 (b)

Impact on decision-making at DigiFreight.

Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Continuum of Leadership Styles

McGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y

The impact on decision-making at DigiFreight would be solely responsiblebased on the team.

Its impact on DigiFreight would motivate the people of this firm and would affect their managementstyle.

Its impact would be that the decisions can be made quickly, keeping the team agile and prepared to react to problems.

There is no dispute about who is responsible for terrible decisions if the net profit would not change (Mahrinasari et al., 2021).

Its impact on the theory Y would produce much better performance and outcome and allow the people to grow and develop for the Digifreight (Mahrinasari et al., 2021).

If theory X has been givenimportance for DigiFreights its impact on the CEO’s stated goal would be detrimental as the factor is negatively creating complications (“heightened supervision, external reward, and penalties”).

2 (c)


  • The first and most important component influencing culture is the individual who works for the organization. Every person uniquely contributes to the workplace culture.
  • Gender has an impact on culture. When men outnumber women in an organization, late seating becomes the norm.
  • The nature of the organization influences its strategy. Supply and demand, market capitalization, and earnings per share, among other things, all affect trade, financial services, or organizations.
  • Its goals and objectives also have an impact on its ethical success. The tactics used to achieve the DigiFreights objectives also contribute to its identity (Paais, and Pattiruhu, 2020).
  • The workplace culture has been influenced by management and management style. Some organizations encourage workers to make their own decisions and participate in strategy formulation. Workers in this culture establish bonds with their superiors and anticipate a long association with this organization.

The important Digifreight culture may help people attain their full potential by providing stability and direction, fuelling the Digifreight with decisions and actions, and creating a healthy culture. Even though organizational culture is an important part of any business, long-term workers rarely encounter it.The business climate of a corporation has the biggest single effect on its culture, according to Deal and Kennedy’s two-dimensional model. This was referred to as ‘corporate culture,’ and it asserted that it comprised everything required for success in this context.Deal and Kennedy created a descriptive cultural paradigm. It contends that no cultural type is preferable to another because cultural types evolve in response to environmental variables (Maamari and Saheb, 2018). Its value is in learning how to control the different variables that influence quality and content. Concerning DigiFreight with thisreference based on the Deal and Kennedy’s organization cultural model would have the basis of corporateculture is interlocked with six elements which are “history, values and belief, ritual and ceremonies, stories, heroic figures, and cultural network”. Further, to elevate productivity automatically the net profit will also get elevated as per the CEO’s stated goals.

Section 3

3 (a)

Motivational Strategy that supports DigiFreight CEO’s Stated goalinvolves

The Porter and Lawler theory of motivation is founded on the assumption that advantages induce joy and that achievement can result in reward on occasion. They contend that another factor, rewards, is linked to the satisfaction-achievement relationship. They feel that successful performance will result in a reward, which will have consequences in contentment. It is a hybrid model that describes the intricate relationship between attitudes, productivity, and pleasure. They contend that choice does not always equate to achievement. The contrary is true because once something is judged acceptable, individuals might become complacent. On the other side, if the incentive systems are effective, achievement can lead to happiness.

The Porter and Lawler model is a process model that describes the conditions and processes that contribute to job motivation (external factors). the system variables, their linkages, and the dynamic operating conditions (Bushi, 2021).

Applying suitable motivational theories, such as “Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Theory”, supportsDigiFreight motivating strategy. The “Porter and Lawler Model” of motivation, sometimes known as the Porter Lawler Model, differs from previous motivational models in that it does not assume a straightforward cause-and-effect link between motivation and behavior. The model is instead used to explain desire as a complex issue with various sources. The concept is extremely beneficial in today’s society, particularly in the business world, because it encourages managers to focus on the following areas to keep personnel motivated:

  • To place the right individual in the right job, match skills, and personality qualities.
  • Inform their co-workers about the present incentive program.
  • Set specific performance objectives for subordinates.
  • Choose appealing incentives to keep junior personnel motivated and engaged(Bushi, 2021).

A definite and quantitative aim is more attainable than a fuzzy one, according to the successful application of motivation theories in business. The worker will be more efficient in reaching the goal if it is brief and straightforward.

According to the notion, a variety of characteristics, including personality, abilities, experience, information, and capacity, are employed to determine an item. This concept’s expectation component is the notion that more effort leads to better results.

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational approaches involve

Intrinsic Motivation:

  • People are motivated to take action because it is personally rewarding. The firm does it because it’s fun, pleasurable, and rewarding.
  • The goal is internal, and the results fulfill the employer’s psychological autonomy, competence, and closeness.
  • Humans were driven by curiosity to investigate and discover learn and master.
  • Being pushed helps the user maintain high levels of efficiency while achieving the intended outcomes (Fischer, Malycha and Schafmann, 2019).
  • People have an intrinsic desire to be liked, thus having their items delivered and recognized by other people is a pleasure in and of itself.
  • Working with others fulfills a need to belong. It also provides a sense of achievement because collaboration enables users to work toward a common goal (Fischer, Malycha and Schafmann, 2019).

Extrinsic Motivation:

  • Users are motivated to complete the activity to obtain a monetary reward.
  • The employer’s goal is to achieve a result, not to meet the employer’s basic psychological requirements. It is more about getting external benefits such as riches, personality, and power while avoiding punishments.
  • Extrinsic motivation is the use of prizes or other incentives, such as praise, fame, or money, to motivate people to accomplish certain activities.
  • Unlike internal motivation, this type of motivation is influenced by outside factors. Being paid to execute a task demonstrates extrinsic motivation (Fischer, Malycha and Schafmann, 2019).

Suggested incentives to meet diverse characters

Paid time off is one of the most effective worker incentives, and it may help the organization too though. This reward does not just give a significant break to hardworking staff, but it also its performance.

Rewards and recognition

When questioned about how organizations may better support their employees in our new era, recognition is more vital than ever.

Programs to assist others

Workforces will appreciate this advantage since it financially rewards them for bringing outstanding individuals who they believe would fit into their culture (Kim, 2018).

Professional development

The workforces of DigiFreight need incentives in the form of professional development by creating their learning and development program and taking a third-party learning management system.

Health and wellness

Workers who are seriously ill are unable to perform at their best, therefore wellness benefits are crucial for companies attempting to reduce burnout and encourage general health (Kim, 2018).

3 (b)


  • A task-oriented strategy is one in which a person focuses on the tasks that must be accomplished to satisfy specific goals or criteria.
  • Relationship-oriented behavior occurs when a person focuses on the inspiration and overall well-being of group members.
  • According to contemporary leadership philosophy, managers must tailor their approach to each specific scenario. If certain team members have difficulty managing their time, task-oriented leadership may be an option (Henkel, Marion and Bourdeau, 2019). Furthermore, task-oriented management may be beneficial in a workplace with strict deadlines.
  • To reach more goals
  • To meet limits.


  • Worker morale may suffer if: There is little possibility for pleasure at work when employees are constantly focused on getting things done.
  • Workers are subjected to high levels of stress. For some people, constantly obsessing about deadlines, efficiency, and efficiency might be stressful.
  • Lack of team connection

Advantages of different leadership approach,


  • It is easy to grasp
  • It would put the focus right on the worker.
  • It is a significantly more adaptable leadership approach. A contextual leader values relationships.
  • It motivates team members to work together (Henkel, Marion and Bourdeau, 2019).
  • It is recommended that workers adjust to worker’s current, past, and future conditions.


  • This approach can spot the gaps
  • It promotes motivation.
  • It tends to encourage improving communications.
  • Strong bonds are being forged...
  • It has a favorable impact.
  • It promotes excitement and motivation.
  • It fosters learning and creativity.
  • The labor turnover rate has dropped (Henkel, Marion and Bourdeau, 2019).

Disadvantages of different leadership approaches


  • It would ask a lot from an individual as a leader
  • Further, grading the followers is not very easy.


  • It tends to disrupt the routines.
  • Misuse of power

Performance management is a purposeful strategy for increasing and maintaining staff productivity, which leads to more DigiFreight engagement. Managers can establish a work climate in which both individuals and DigiFreight can thrive by emphasizing staff training and development opportunities and combining DigiFreight objectives with the team and individual aspirations. A system is designed to track and enhance the achievements of its workers, according to the concept of performance evaluation. In practice, people management means doing what is best for their staff, setting clear goals, and providing frequent feedback throughout the year (Pulakos, Mueller-Hanson and Arad, 2019).

Keeping staff interested

The primary priority of any management team is workplace participation. Goals would have been set at the start of the calendar year and revisited 12 months later to see if they had been met in an annual evaluation method. This extended time with no input or verification will almost surely choke enthusiasm. Workers who contact the management of Digifreight regularly to make recommendations, address problems, and receive training are much more likely to stay with the organization. Workforces are far more inclined to stay with DigiFreight and work harder if they believe their leadership team is working hard to develop them individually, aid them to achieve their goals, and recognize excellence frequently (Pulakos, Mueller-Hanson and Arad, 2019).

Development of internal leaders

This ongoing collaboration and collaboration between the workforce and management enables the organization to build leaders from within. Recruiting costs can be excessive, such as onboarding and training for new staff. Simply being able to successfully nurture leaders within a firm demonstrates that this individual has already shown improvements over time and that the schooling costs and efforts expended in turning this person into an asset were not in vain (Workersng and Keup, 2018). Workers are motivated by this leadership path because they know their efforts will be rewarded with promotions and other benefits.

Technology Insights

Make advantage of technology, particularly for aims with a cascading effect. It should be simple to determine who is responsible for what. This does not call for the use of a Spreadsheet. Use a user-friendly performance tool that provides comprehensive information and easy access to all customers, allowing workers to complete and adjust a target in seconds. It is also ideally started with a division where one or more midyear objective adjustments are probable, allowing the employee the opportunity to evaluate the technology in a fluid, real-world setting. The year-end reviews apply to all employees who learned about continuous performance management. Whether employees intend to employ ongoing performance monitoring or not, make sure employees do it when it counts at the end-of-year review(Workersng and Keup, 2018).

Using technology to gather insights and detect problems as they arise. Distracting and irrelevant materials written or spoken during the performance management process are ineffective and may expose the firm to legal action. By including a legal scan tool, the performance review process would be capable of spotting certain phrases input in management, notably problematic terminology that could lead to incomplete reports or legal challenges in the future. Consider the big picture of the ecology. It should not be thought about which divisions or functions can benefit from an improved quality management approach next. Consider how the workers of Digifreight will improve the entire user experience by augmenting the performance management system with additional cloud-based services such as training and skilling solutions.

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