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Organizational Behaviour And Leadership Assignment Sample

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Organizational Behaviour And Leadership Assignment Sample


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The given scenario is based on the Penn Central Transportation Company where it has been discussed that in the early phases of the 20th century the railroads within the US were out of any sort of rivalry. The vehicle industry was hugely dominated by the railroads at that time. But due to the shortage of proper calculation of long-term vision, it was unimaginable to railroad executives that any other transportation network might relocate the railroad. Therefore, they neglected to foster correlative types of transportation, for example, shipping, airship cargo, as well as delivery, even though they were in the best situation to do as such. Thus it can be identified from the scenario that there is a huge lack from management’s end due to which they are facing these issues. Now this situation can be better explained with the help of using Henri Fayol’s function of management that how the work of the Penn Central has failed. The first task will also discuss in what manner a shipping company from an administration as well as corporal behavioural viewpoint might help in preventing this kind of failed situation. 

  • Henri Fayol’s Functions of Management

The five functions of administration which is illustrated by Henri Fayol mainly include:

  • Preparation
  • Forming
  • Knowledge
  • Organization 
  • Controller

Henri Fayol is broadly viewed as the father of the current administration. Henri Fayol's administration hypothesis for the most part evolved as well as distributed in the mid-1900s was a significant impact on the advancement of modern administration practice all through the 20th century. Fayol's way of thinking had a more grounded accentuation on the job of the executives in an association when contrasted and its peers within the area of authoritative psychology comprising of gear-tooth like replaceable specialists and an unbending progressive system with solid high-level order (Ward, Patrick, 2021).

  • Use Of One Fayol’s Functions Of Management To Describe In What Way Penn Central Failed

Out of the five functions of Fayol’s management, particularly, in this case, it can be seen that there is a lack of anticipation which usually occurs when proper long-term planning is not done properly. Planning, in this case, can be defined as the technique of thoughtful concerning the work needed to attain a set objective. Any sort of planning needs proper foresight so as to see the further consequences (Ufartiene, 2014). Whilst the Penn Central was having its functional battles, the organization's chief suite was similarly as dys-opertaional, beginning with its two top men Stuart Saunders as well as Alfred Perlman. In the case of Penn Central Transportation Company, it has been seen that from the beginning of their formation they followed the old school of management where proper planning is lacking. As the company initially did not face any sort of competition thus the management thought they might not need to create any sort of planning for the long term in addition to at this point, they have failed as they did not consider the fact that additional transport arrangements might dislocate the railroad. This clear case where the company failed to implement proper planning as well as they was confronted with this situation (Seeley, 2018). Proper planning not only helps in identifying the future goals but on the other hand it also helps in identifying the gaps and competition within the market. Also due to lack of proper planning in their work Penn Central Transportation Company they failed to look out the objectives in the proper manner. The company also lack in deciding lucidly as well as solidly what they require to carry out that will help them in identifying the competition from other transport sectors that might have helped in holding back their position (Prof Dalcher, 2016). So, from the overall discussion it can be said that in order to stay ahead of the competition in addition to also to create long term objectives companies like Penn Central Transportation Company need to consider proper functions of management out of which planning comes first. Planning will not only help in coping with the current situation but it will also help in creating other tasks that might help them the management to create new systems within their functioning.  Overall planning will work as a base for the Penn Central Transportation Company. Thus planning plays a very pivotal role in shaping the future of any business or any company as well as it also helps in identifying the future objectives that will help in creating long term sight for Penn Central Transportation Company.

  • How could a shipping organization, from a management and organizational behaviour point of view, prevent/avoid such a corporate outcome?

When a company fails to perform within the market, not only the employees but the higher management is also responsible for such failures. Shipping organizations are an important segment of the transport industry as well as the entre delivery chain. Shipping corporations not only helps in movement of products as well as services from one place to another but on the other hand it also helps in driving the financial sector of that particular nation in the direction of liberal way (Caschili, 2012). These days a lot of shipping organizations is same kind of issues related to proper planning of work which is providing an adverse effect over the goodwill of the firms. These sort of issues can be handled with proper crisis management as well as interacting their significance within the shipping industry. Below mentioned are few of the points through which shipping organizations from a management in addition to organizational behaviour point of view will be able to deal with the same kind of situations in the mere future.

  1. Firstly, the companies those who are operating under shipping industry need to have a proper experienced as well as reactive planning team those who will be completely responsible to create as well as foresee the upcoming crisis and based on that can create proper plans to deal with those unforeseen situations.
  2. Secondly, it will be important for the shipping organizations to facilitate b risk evaluation ability. Assessment of risk in this case just not mean to identify the risk rather it will need ample amount of time to scrutiny the risk in addition to need to search out for the main reason behind that risk. Identification of the issues needs to be done from the initial point of time so that the root cause can be identified in time and in future repetition can be stopped also.
  3. Thirdly, apart from proper planning and risk identification proper interaction tools for accounting the rise of the problems to the management needs to be implemented also. Proper flow of interaction plays a very major role in dealing with many big issues. Thus, in order to create long term vision proper flow of communication is also needed in shipping companies.
  4. Last but not the least the team who will be responsible for identifying the mentioned failure need to have proper decision creation ability. Proper decision making ability is a sort of special skills which only trained person can have and they usually apply those skills to identify the current as well as forthcoming failures in the shipping companies (SAFETY4SEA, 2018).

Task 2

The second task is related to few of the concept that will discuss about groupthink, team psychological safety and diffusion of responsibility. In addition to this this particular task will also focus on the impact of the three mentioned concepts which are groupthink, team psychological safety and diffusion of responsibility over the functioning of the maximum threat sectors particularly in the maritime industries. Overall the second task will help in understanding few terms which are in day to day life used in various high risks industries like shipping industries and will also help in identifying its effects in both positive and negative manner.

  • Which two may lead to diffusion of responsibility?

Diffusion of responsibility can be defined as a socio-psychological notion within which an individual is less likely to accept the accountability for act or in act at the time other onlookers or observers are active. Also diffusion of responsibility can also be eluded to the lessened accountability of act every individual of a set fees when they are a segment of a team. Diffusion of responsibility is usually seen in group thinking where people are not free to take any sort of decisions in addition to also avoid situations where they can take responsibility properly (Whyte, 2019).  In case of group thinking it can be seen that the members of the group have to abide by few rules as well as regulation and in this type of situation those people becomes less effective to take any verdict.  Also in case of diffusion of responsibility it can be seen that it mainly happens when an individual from a group thinking who require creating a verdict has to wait for somebody else to take action upon it. The more individuals included, the almost certain it is that every individual will sit idle; accepting another person from the gathering will likely react in addition to this type of situation usually creates diffusion of responsibility. Also when the size of the group thinking is big the supposition of the accountability inclined to lessen. Consequences of practices connected with dissemination of obligation might be undermining as there have been expansions in moral separation as well as aiding conduct (Tosunta?, 2020).

  • Possible Effects Of All Three (Groupthink, Team Psychological Safety And Diffusion Of Responsibility) On Operations In High-Risk Industries Like The Maritime Industry

Shipping industry or maritime industry is considered to be as one of the oldest industry which usually helps in movement of goods from one place to another with the help of water body. But with the advancement in the technology this industry has also now well equipped with various facilities and also management has also been changing since time.


Task 3

In this given task a proper report will be prepared so as to show to the top administration of CARGOW which is one of the leading shipping companies of UK the acceptance of corporate social responsibility Tactics. Based on the corporate social responsibility initiatives few suggestions will also be provided so as to support the advancement of an effectual CSR tactics within CARGOW. Overall the study will help in understanding the notions related to different corporate social responsibility strategy in addition to how a company accept those strategy to get better the functioning of the company in the long run.

CARGOW is one of the UK’s leading global shipping company and they function as a segment of international transport system that eludes they have right to entry to the international asset of the globe’s most reliable global removal system. Cargow is a Dutch modern transporter that dishes up the Northern European business sector providing liner administration with compartment, dope as well as  undertaking freight abilities that covers the west bank of Norway, the Netherlands, the UK, Faroe Islands and Iceland. By means of Rotterdam CARGOW offer links with ports all across the globe by means of organizations with Remote Ocean lines (DSL) (CARGROW, 2022).

Before going deep into the study firstly it will be important to know what the meaning of corporate social responsibility initiatives is. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the point at which a business considers its general effect communally financially, as well as ecologically, in addition to introduces drives to facilitate its constructive effect. Organizations ought to plan corporate social responsibility exercises that line up with the association's general mission and assist with supporting those objectives (Halbusi, 2017).

  • Analysis Of The CSR Initiatives That Should Be Included In The Strategy

Contemporary shipping firms line CARGROW is anticipated to show concern about creating a better plant. They are anticipated to dish up their society, accepts the demands of their clients. Accept local actions on pivotal matters give importance to the workers as well as react to the ongoing events. In the time of CSR, every company looks for to create a sustainable business for long term benefits. This is due to the reason that a winning corporate social responsibility initiates are complex as well as needs illustrative effect (Akkan, 2019). CSR within shipping industry is almost a new concept and companies like CARGROW is taking extra initiatives to include those CSR work in their strategy. Some of the important CSR initiatives that will be included in the strategy of CARGROW are listed below.

  1. Reduction in the carbon footprint- Shipping industry hugely run in coal and petrol as a result it will be important for companies like CARGROW to take necessary initiatives within their functioning and strategy to make less use of petrol and search for an alternative that will help in keeping the environment carbon free.
  2. Improvement in the employee policy: Getting better the employee policy is another major initiative that ought to be included in the shipping company strategy. improvement in the employee policy not only means just giving better perks and monetary benefits to the sailors or who are working with the company but also giving them a life that will help in balancing both work and personal life. It has been seen that employees who are mostly engage with the shipping companies like Cargo half of the year they spend time for the company only due to which their personal life got badly affected. As a result better making better the life of employees will also contributes towards better CSR within their strategy.
  3. Providing a healthy along with comprehensive place of work culture- Communal obligation begins with work environment culture and your inward local area. Associations, who remember this, establish conditions in which their own workers can flourish and dominate.
  4. Planning objectives with measurable effect- CSR pioneers within the shipping corporations like CARGROW plan objectives considering various needs. These needs incorporate local area sway, inner strategic approaches, showcasing reach, and public and regime connections ( Ledecky,Michael, 2022).

So, it can be found out from the discussion that CSR initiatives does not only work for employees but they takes into account overall nations and companies benefit to mark a good name in the industry.

  • Recommendations and Evidence to Support the Development of an Effective CSR Strategy

In the current day business ecology, CSR plans requires to work ahead of doing the best within the within industry. Below mentioned are few of the important suggestions to assist the expansion of an effectual corporate social responsibility strategy within the shipping company like CARGROW.

  1. Building the policy about the firm’s key abilities: These days it has been seen that companies are more focused towards development of the strategy considering the overall result of the employees. But in order to achieve a successful CSR initiative it will be important for a company to build the policy concerning the organizations key competencies.
  2. Recognizing the issues which matters the client most- For any company keeping the customers’ needs in priority is very pivotal for any company. As a result recognizing the main issues that matters client will be helpful in creating better CSR policy.
  3. Developing the CSR initiatives which will in creating the workers proud- Organizations are additionally utilizing CSR projects to secure and develop their greatest resource their workers. 76% of twenty to thirty year olds think about an organization's social and ecological responsibilities while choosing where to work and 64% would not take some work in the event that a potential manager didn't have solid corporate social obligation rehearses set up (Morrissey,Nicole , 2020).

So, it can be concluded that in order to create a better CSR strategy it will be important for the shipping companies to consider the above mentioned points to get better result.



Cherry ,Kendra . (2020, November 12). What Is Groupthink? Retrieved February 12, 2022, from www.verywellmind.com: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-groupthink-2795213

Ledecky,Michael. (2022). 5 Strategies Socially Responsible Companies Are Using in Their CSR Initiatives. Retrieved February 13, 2022, from everfi.com: https://everfi.com/blog/community-engagement/socially-responsible-companies/

Ward ,Patrick. (2021, August 29). Management Theory of Henri Fayol: Summary, Examples. Retrieved February 11, 2022, from nanoglobals.com: https://nanoglobals.com/glossary/henri-fayol-management-theory/#:~:text=The%20five%20functions%20of%20management,Command%2C%20Coordination%2C%20and%20Control.

Akkan, E. (2019). CSR Activities in Maritime and Shipping Industries. Turkey: Mersin University,.

CARGROW. (2022). ABOUT CARGOW. Retrieved February 13, 2022, from cargow.com: https://cargow.com/?gclid=Cj0KCQiA0p2QBhDvARIsAACSOOPjJGjzAgD-1aRBhe5WHQ6C0Wu4TnDbY8QH1JEahIGbeiptqGHGR68aAlQzEALw_wcB

Caschili, S. (2012). A Review of the Maritime Container Shipping Industry as a Complex Adaptive System. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 10(1), 1-15.

CCL. (2022). What Is Psychological Safety at Work? Retrieved February 12, 2022, from ccl.org: https://www.ccl.org/articles/leading-effectively-articles/what-is-psychological-safety-at-work/

Halbusi, H. A. (2017). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Literature Review. Malaysia: Sunway University Business School.

Morrissey,Nicole . (2020). 6 Steps To Building A Sustainable CSR Program. Retrieved February 13, 2022, from globalgiving.org: https://www.globalgiving.org/learn/steps-to-sustainable-csr/

Prof Dalcher, D. (2016). Why planning is more important than plans. PM World Journal Vol. V, Issue IV.

SAFETY4SEA. (2018, December 27). Crisis management explained: The shipping industry case. Retrieved February 11, 2022, from safety4sea.com: https://safety4sea.com/cm-crisis-management-explained-the-shipping-industry-case/

Seeley, J. R. (2018). What Is Planning? Definition and Strategy. Journal of the American Institute of Planners Volume 28, Issue 2.

Tosunta?, ?. B. (2020). Diffusion of responsibility in group work: Social loafing. Journal of Pedagogical Research 4(3).

Ufartiene, L. J. (2014). Importance of Planning in Management Developing Organization. Journal of Advanced Management Science , 176-180.

Whyte, G. (2019). Diffusion of Responsibility: Effects on the Escalation Tendency. Journal of Applied Psychology 76(3), 408-415.

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