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Many different firms and people from various backgrounds work together to make the hospitality sector a very varied one. While this may offer some difficulties, it also opens up huge possibilities for creating a more efficient, inventive, and creative workplace that serves the needs of all consumers. To gain the benefits of a diverse workforce, companies need to put cultural diversity at the top of their priority list. Educate oneself about the concept of cultural diversity and the best practises for assembling and leading a diverse team (Velten and Lashley, 2018). Fundamentally, diversity in the hospitality sector involves not just acknowledging variations, but also respecting them and appreciating how these distinctions may affect the individual experience. A company's staff and consumers both come from a variety of different backgrounds. Recognizing this will aid in improving collaboration and the ability of workers to communicate and interact successfully.
Improved job satisfaction minimises employee churn and fosters the development of long-term, high-performing employees. Customer satisfaction will also be enhanced as a result of more personalised service options. Because of its inherent diversity and broad customer, the hotel business stands out. Diversity in this industry implies respecting and appreciating the differences among employees and consumers, as well as the ways in which these differences may influence the customers' experience. Numerous concerns, challenges, and trends might be encountered in the hospitality business by a hotel or restaurant. In the hotel sector, cultural diversity has been a serious issue in recent years (Manoharan, Sardeshmukh and Gross, 2019). As a result, the focus of this paper is on discussing the current state of diversity in the hospitality industry's workplace, examining some of cultural diversity's benefits and drawbacks, and offering concrete suggestions for how hospitality organisations can deal with diversity-related issues effectively.
1.2.1 Research Aims
The major aim of this research study is to effectively evaluate and demonstrate the knowledge and information about the cultural diversity in the workforce of the hospitality industry. Moreover, this particular study will provide the understanding of the implication of cultural diversity in the hospitality industry.
1.2.2 Research Objectives
During the conduction of the entire study of the research, the researcher has decided to create a question for this study. This question will help the researcher in order to significantly get appropriate direction for meeting all the objectives and the hypothesis that will be tested in the future dissertation.
Overall, when doing and carrying out the research study, the researcher discovered that a variety of various types of research have been carried out that are related to the issue under consideration. However, the particular topic of this research has not been demonstrated and evaluated appropriately. Therefore, the researcher has taken this research into consideration. Thus, the researcher will be able to supply substantial and some unique knowledge and information to the learners and future researchers of this specific study subject in a meaningful and useful manner (Urbancová, Hudáková and Faj?íková, 2020). Moreover, it is hard to find any sector that offers as much diversity as the hospitality industry, which is comprised of a broad network of interconnected firms and a wide range of customers.
In spite of the fact that this presents some difficulties, it also gives tremendous scope for creating a workplace that is more efficient, original, and creative for all customers to use. For this reason, understanding the effectiveness of cultural diversity within the hospitality business is critical to achieving success in this profession (Kalargyrou, Kalargiros and Kutz, 2020). As a result, it is critical to comprehend both the difficulties and the advantages of cultural fusion in the workplace. As a result, this specific investigation is required in order to comprehend. The learners and future researchers of this specific study issue will benefit from this study since it will grow more sensible and important as a result of this.
According to the statement of Gui et al. (2020), as a service industry, the hospitality sector falls under the umbrella of the hospitality industry. People from a variety of backgrounds, such as those working as cleaners and waiters, may be found in the hospitality sector. The industry relies heavily on their services. The hospitality business is more reliant on a multicultural workforce than any other sector. As a result of globalisation, corporate strategy planning has become more prevalent in the sector. Multicultural management and employment issues have arisen due to the industry's focus on globalisation. As per statement of Rhou and Singal (2020), the team is faced with the difficulty of maximising the contributions of each member, despite the fact that they come from different cultural backgrounds. The hotel industry's worldwide expansion has been facilitated by the quick increase in economic development, resulting in dynamic growth in diverse countries.
There is a growing need for international employees who can work well with individuals from a variety of cultural backgrounds while also bridging the gap between them and their employers back home. Based on the statement of Sunny, Patrick and Rob (2019), managing cultural diversity for the benefit of employees' self-identity in the workplace may be possible. In order to achieve this goal, managers and workers must establish open lines of communication. Employees' self-esteem and socio-behavioural components are boosted by the creation of a free-flowing communication environment. As a result, meetings go more smoothly, leading to increased output. As a result of managing such variety, it may be able to re-evaluate workers' extrinsic incentives based on their degree of knowledge. Employees get such internal benefits in the form of wage increases and advancement opportunities in their careers. As stated by Yao et al. (2019), a review of cultural diversity would allow workers to be given equal opportunities without discriminating against the culturally minorities.
Performance should take precedence above everything else, allowing for a more productive work atmosphere. In the hotel sector, promotion and career advancement prospects should not be based on gender, race, or ethnicity. Employees are inspired by these kinds of initiatives because they provide them with a sense of accomplishment. Iyer and Jarvis (2019) stated that training and development should be used by a variety of businesses in the sector to provide different personnel from various backgrounds with the tools they need. Employees benefit from the procedures by which they are better able to adapt to the ever-increasing market competitiveness and other company issues, some of which may be environmental. This allows people to perform at the same level regardless of where they are stationed. According to this viewpoint of Law, Leung and Chan (2019), through the study, key positions/points are pinpointed where the greatest training is needed, and the individuals who are in need of it are placed properly.
The staff are then given the training they need to do their duties competently, therefore enhancing their overall performance. As per the viewpoint of Murphy et al. (2018), with the use of the induction process, the company is provided with knowledgeable employees who have been given significant responsibility for managing the organisation. The methods enable management to assess and monitor the diverse talents of workers, regardless of their cultural origins, making it possible to match a person with a job that best fits their specialty areas.
Based on the viewpoint of Yang, Cheung and Li (2022), it is possible that leadership styles may change in the 21st century. In order to better manage a diverse workforce, managers must be culturally sensitive. Otherwise, these cultural hurdles may cause stress and discomfort for the people being judged. Culturally diverse workforces may be challenging to manage, even if they have a positive impact on company performance and profitability. In order to successfully manage a multicultural workforce, managers must first recognise that mainstream and minority cultures do not always share common experiences. Using the following methods may also help managers overcome cultural barriers and gain the benefits of a diverse workforce. As viewed by Park and Min (2020), the tactics include implementing programmes that raise awareness of cultural diversity, promoting positive attitudes about distinctions among varied groups, understanding the same view points and relationships across various ethnic communities, becoming adaptable in interaction, and addressing personal worries and conundrums when confronted with cultural difficulties.
Goh and Lee (2018) as viewed by training programmes are another way to ensure that cultural diversity is effectively managed. In order to deal with the issues posed by cultural diversity, hospitality businesses must be sensitive to their customers' needs. In order for businesses in the sector to be competitive and profitable, diversity training and education are needed. International enterprises in the hotel sector must be able to function efficiently in other countries because of the increasing globalisation of the industry. According to the opinion of King, Brooks and Tabari (2018), training in cross-cultural awareness and management of cultural differences may considerably lower the risk of expensive failure caused by cultural differences. Cross-cultural training for existing and prospective expatriate managers of multinational hospitality organisations is critical. Managers of multinational hospitality organisations must be conscious of their own ethnocentric attitudes and prepared to move beyond them to learn about a new cultural environment if they want to reduce cultural barriers in other nations.
As per the opinion of Darvishmotevali, Altinay and Köseoglu (2020), nonverbal behavioural manifestations of cultural expectations should be included in any cross-cultural training programme to better assist the students in comprehending their surroundings. Fairness and equitable employment opportunities in the hotel business also play an essential role. The current labour market may need managers being more of a talent scout than a resume screener. "Employers must take notice of the skills of minority employees and provide these individuals the chance to further their careers via management positions". Based on the opinion of Esfehani and Walters (2018), they need to combat negative preconceptions, such as the belief that minorities are solely capable of food service labour like dishwashing. To encourage more minority talent to join the hotel business, it's important to share success stories from those who have already done so.
As opined by Almathami, Khoo-Lattimore and Yang (2022), making the company more appealing to ambitious, internationally oriented people, recruiting from a more diversified talent pool helps to retain them. Gender, religious, and cultural diversity have all been linked to lower employee turnover and higher retention rates. Employees who feel appreciated and respected for their unique contributions in a diverse workplace are more likely to stay with the company for the long haul. Co-workers learn to appreciate one another's unique backgrounds, viewpoints, and life experiences as a result of this mutual respect. Jhaiyanuntana and Nomnian (2020) opined that cross-cultural collaboration is a great approach to unite colleagues and teams from around the company. Companies with a diverse range of competencies and an equally diverse variety of products and services will have a competitive advantage in terms of flexibility. The most successful companies in today's chaotic and uncertain global economic climate are those who are flexible and adaptive.
Planning, developing, and implementing projects more quickly and effectively is made possible through adaptability. According to the argument of Agyeiwaah (2019), in order to uncover market opportunities, teams that are varied in terms of culture as well as cognition are more effective. The company's worldwide perspective and ability in adjusting to changing client behaviours will benefit a new or modified product as a consequence. Despite the fact that working in homogenous teams may seem to be more convenient, it might lead to a company's stagnation. The flip side of the coin is that a varied team may be a source of healthy competition that drives people to reach their full potential. As per the argument of Alrawadieh and Alrawadieh (2018), healthy rivalry in the workplace may contribute to better efficiency in business operations. However, it is not enough to just have a varied group of brains. Furthermore, it is essential that all team members feel empowered to participate in an open and inclusive working atmosphere.
Those co-workers who come from cultures where courtesy and civility are highly prized may find this particularly difficult to accept. Based on the argument of Alrawadieh, Karayilan and Cetin (2019), it is possible that specialists from Asian countries such as Vietnam or Japan may be more hesitant to speak out or give their opinions, particularly if they are new to the team or in a lower position of authority. Forceful coworkers from the “United States” or "Western Europe," as well as those from "Scandinavian" countries that emphasise flat organisational structure, may be more inclined to speak out in meetings or negotiations if others do not.
In order to prevent colleagues from various nations working in isolation and restricting information transmission, it is vital to develop team cohesion. As argued by Goh and Jie (2019), collaborating across cultures may be particularly challenging if there are underlying preconceptions that inhibit individuals from cooperating with one another Negative cultural stereotypes that foster negativity have the potential to negatively impact a company's output and morale. Cross-cultural engagement entails more than just the sharing of spoken information. As a result of cultural differences, nonverbal communication may lead to misunderstanding or even conflict amongst team members from various nations. When it comes to physical space, establishing eye contact, and gesturing, cultural differences may make a world of difference.
Kumar, Raj and Jelciana (2018) argued that managers need to build trusting relationships with their diverse workforce in order to successfully integrate people into the workplace. Programs like language learning, commemorating various religious or traditional holidays observed by workers, and incorporating employees' families in workplace events may all aid in the strengthening of these bonds. Creating a family-like culture can really aid in employee retention. Managers must first get to know their employees' personalities and backgrounds in order to properly implement initiatives that foster a positive work environment. According to the statement of Zhao et al. (2020), to get a better sense of their staff, managers might talk to them during down time or social gatherings. Being listened to and appreciated is a frequent desire among workers. Another component that contributes to the successful management of cultural diversity is a well-designed training programme.
According to the viewpoint of Levine et al. (2020), programs like cross-cultural training for diversity management may assist international managers learn about other cultures and acquire management skills for dealing with cultural diversity concerns as the sector becomes more globalised. By doing this, the risk of expensive failure due to cultural differences may be considerably reduced. According to the opinion of Almaiah, Al-Khasawneh and Althunibat (2020), every level of the hotel sector should be trained in diversity management. What it is, why it matters, and how to grasp culture at all levels from individual to organisational are all part of the cultural diversity training. Cultural impacts on the workplace must be explained and preconceptions, assumptions, and bias defined. In order to have a better awareness of the world around environment, people need diversity training. Employees and managers and supervisors alike should be trained on diversity. According to the argument of O’Brien (2018), the hotels may include variety into their current training to make it more convenient.
Including it in existing supervisory training, for example. Training also necessitates the use of metrics and a system of reporting responsibility. To get the attention of workers, evaluations might be used. In order to achieve learning objectives including increasing knowledge, changing behaviour, and developing a new attitude, assessments are essential. As per the statement of Kozlowski and Chao (2018), trainers must have the right abilities and traits for the job. They need to be adaptable, capable of resolving differences of opinion, and able to work well in teams. Diverse instructional modalities, such as role play, video, theatre, quiz, and small group work, may all be used in diversity training. It's critical to choose a teaching strategy that gets the best results.
While doing his or her complete investigation, the researcher has often stated that there are four key research philosophical approaches to be considered. These research theories are effective in assisting researchers in the successful completion of the research projects. These research philosophies include positivism, realism, pragmatism, and interpretivism, to name a few examples (Mason, Augustyn and Seakhoa-King, 2022). In this regard, the interpretivism philosophical approach will be used by the researcher in order to effectively perform and complete this study. Due to the accomplishments described above, the researcher will be able to develop and deliver considerable knowledge and information to learners and future researchers.
An inductive technique is utilised when developing an argument, in which a collection of facts is used to establish a general proposition. In contrast to deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning is a way of thinking. When there is a lack of publicly available information on a particular topic, inductive enquiry is a frequent approach. This is owing to the fact that the idea cannot be evaluated against any already accepted theory (Bett et al., 2022). Observation, Detection of a Pattern, and Development of a Hypothesis are the three steps of inductive training that must be completed in tandem with qualitative research. As a result, this study will use an inductive method.
When it comes to conducting research, there are a variety of options to choose from. In general, these research approaches are classified as explanatory, exploratory, descriptive, case study, grounded theory, and so on and on. Among the many research design approaches, this study will make use of and execute the exploratory research design. In addition, the researcher will be able to successfully and resolutely discover some critical and genuine evidence and facts for this study through leveraging and instituting the exploratory research design (Mello, 2022). Consequently, the study's researcher will be in a position to construct the complete study effectively by accumulating an extensive amount of knowledge and information.
To develop a sample that is representative of the whole population, researchers choose persons from the intended audience via sampling. It is necessary for researchers to use sample groups in order to establish broad generalisations about a sample group that can be applied to the whole target market. Researchers might choose from a variety of options for conducting a study's sampling. In this respect, the researcher will make use of the convenience sampling approach in order to perform and complete the whole study effectively and efficiently (Cash et al., 2022). Access to secondary databases will be possible thanks to this. This will aid the researcher in compiling accurate data on the subject of the investigation.
The researchers may choose from a variety of data gathering techniques, all of which are designed to assist them in collecting the most dependable and accurate data and information for their study. Due to these considerations, the researcher has opted to use, execute, and evaluate both primary quantitative and secondary qualitative data gathering techniques in this study (Lungeanu et al., 2022). The researcher will explore various evidence and ethical databases to obtain information from peer-reviewed journals, current research papers, academic articles, PDFs and other sources relevant to this specific study as part of the secondary qualitative technique.
In this manner, the researcher must collect and acquire the most apparent and dependable and legitimate information and data from many sources in order to produce and display the most prospective and effective knowledge to the reader. Different types of data analysis methodologies, such as theme analysis, content analysis, discourse analyses, statistical analyses and case study analyses are all accessible in this regard. etc. (Sabariego et al., 2022). In this respect, the researcher will use the thematic analysis approach in order to effectively and efficiently analyse all the data and material pertaining to this study.
The most appropriate research strategy is selected in order to carry out the inquiry. When it comes to ethical considerations, selecting the most appropriate research technique is critical. Human participants are used in the great majority of research projects. Obtaining informed consent from all participants and ensuring that they have been properly informed about the study's protocols are essential before commencing any research project. When participants offer informed consent, they will be aware of the nature of the activity they are agreeing to participate in (Farrell and Michie, 2022). If people are made aware of the study's purpose, they will be able to make an educated decision about whether or not to participate. If a participant has any worries or questions at any point throughout the research, he or she may seek explanation or comfort from the study's supervisor or another participant.
This research aims to explore the impact of cultural diversity in the workforce of the hospitality industry. The hospitality sector, with its diverse workforce and customer base, presents both challenges and opportunities related to cultural diversity. The literature review delves into the implications of cultural diversity, how the industry copes with it, and the challenges and benefits associated with it. Additionally, strategies to mitigate challenging issues are explored.
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